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The modern Chinese term “zuo zhe” (author) is derived from the ancient word “zuo,” meaning to compose, to do, or to engage in – all commanding a notion of power and authority. These semantic threads collectively underpin the long-standing contention that Chinese authorship began with Confucius. Mencius (390–305 BCE) was the first person to claim that Confucius was the author of the Spring and Autumn Annals: “When the world declined and the Way fell into obscurity, heresies and violence again arose. […] Confucius was apprehensive and composed [zuo] the Spring and Autumn Annals.”1 The Han historian Sima Qian (c.145–c.86 BCE) inherited this concept of “zuo,” acknowledging that “when Confucius was in straits he wrote (zuo) the Spring and Autumn Annals.”2
Norovirus, a major cause of gastroenteritis in people of all ages worldwide, was first reported in South Korea in 1999. The most common causal agents of pediatric acute gastroenteritis are norovirus and rotavirus. While vaccination has reduced the pediatric rotavirus infection rate, norovirus vaccines have not been developed. Therefore, prediction and prevention of norovirus are very important. Norovirus is divided into genogroups GI–GVII, with GII.4 being the most prevalent. However, in 2012–2013, GII.17 showed a higher incidence than GII.4 and a novel variant, GII.P17-GII.17, appeared. In this study, 204 stool samples collected in 2013–2014 were screened by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction; 11 GI (5.39%) and 45 GII (22.06%) noroviruses were identified. GI.4, GI.5, GII.4, GII.6 and GII.17 were detected. The whole genomes of the three norovirus GII.17 were sequenced. The whole genome of GII.17 consists of three open reading frames of 5109, 1623 and 780 bp. Compared with 20 GII.17 strains isolated in other countries, we observed numerous changes in the protruding P2 domain of VP1 in the Korean GII.17 viruses. Our study provided genome information that might aid in epidemic prevention, epidemiology studies and vaccine development.
We investigated the clinical predictors of methicillin-resistance and their impact on mortality in 371 patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia identified from two prospective multi-centre studies. Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) accounted for 42.2% of community-onset and 74.5% of hospital-onset cases. No significant clinical difference was found between patients infected with MRSA vs. methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), except that the former were more likely to have had hospital-onset bacteraemia and received antibiotics in the preceding 90 days. After stratifying according to the acquisition site, prior antibiotic use was the only independent predictor of having MRSA in both community-onset and hospital-onset cases. The frequency of inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy was higher in patients with MRSA than in those with MSSA bacteraemia. However, methicillin resistance was not a predictor of mortality in patients and the clinical characteristics and outcomes of both MRSA and MSSA bacteraemia were similar. This study indicates that there are no definitive clinical or epidemiological risk factors which could distinguish MRSA from MSSA cases with the exception of the previous use of antibiotics for having MRSA bacteraemia, which emphasises the prudent use of glycopeptide treatment of patients at risk for invasive MRSA infections.
I present an implementation of shape grammars that is aimed at supporting designers. It has two parts: a grammar editor and a stand-alone interpreter. The editor is the modeling application Rhinoceros3d using Python scripts. The interpreter is general, is three-dimensional, and supports subshape detection. A grammar is a Rhinoceros3d model; thus users can manipulate all its parts directly and immediately. That is, they can modify any shape without selecting or invoking an editor, and they can lay out the parts of the grammar in any way they find meaningful. Using this approach, which I call a whole-grammar approach, users are shielded from most subdomain tasks, like typing text files or specifying transformations. Informal observations suggest that users of this implementation can work effectively.
Improving understanding of the pathogen-specific seasonality of enteric infections is critical to informing policy on the timing of preventive measures and to forecast trends in the burden of diarrhoeal disease. Data obtained from active surveillance of cohorts can capture the underlying infection status as transmission occurs in the community. The purpose of this study was to characterise rotavirus seasonality in eight different locations while adjusting for age, calendar time and within-subject clustering of episodes by applying an adapted Serfling model approach to data from a multi-site cohort study. In the Bangladesh and Peru sites, within-subject clustering was high, with more than half of infants who experienced one rotavirus infection going on to experience a second and more than 20% experiencing a third. In the five sites that are in countries that had not introduced the rotavirus vaccine, the model predicted a primary peak in prevalence during the dry season and, in three of these, a secondary peak during the rainy season. The patterns predicted by this approach are broadly congruent with several emerging hypotheses about rotavirus transmission and are consistent for both symptomatic and asymptomatic rotavirus episodes. These findings have practical implications for programme design, but caution should be exercised in deriving inferences about the underlying pathways driving these trends, particularly when extending the approach to other pathogens.
Human bocaviruses (HBoVs) have been detected in human gastrointestinal infections worldwide. In 2005, HBoV was also discovered in infants and children with infections of the lower respiratory tract. Recently, several genotypes of this parvovirus, including HBoV genotype 2 (HBoV2), genotype 3 (HBoV3) and genotype 4 (HBoV4), were discovered and found to be closely related to HBoV. HBoV2 was first detected in stool samples from children in Pakistan, followed by detection in other countries. HBoV3 was detected in Australia and HBoV4 was identified in stool samples from Nigeria, Tunisia and the USA. Recently, HBoV infection has been on the rise throughout the world, particularly in countries neighbouring South Korea; however, there have been very few studies on Korean strains. In this study, we characterised the whole genome and determined the phylogenetic position of CUK-BC20, a new clinical HBoV strain isolated in South Korea. The CUK-BC20 genome of 5184 nucleotides (nt) contains three open-reading frames (ORFs). The genotype of CUK-BC20 is HBoV2, and 98.77% of its nt sequence is identical with those of other HBoVs, namely Rus-Nsc10-N386. Especially, the ORF3 amino acid sequences from positions 212–213 and 454 corresponding to a variable region (VR)1 and VR5, respectively, showed genotype-specific substitutions that distinguished the four HBoV genotypes. As the first whole-genome sequence analysis of HBoV in South Korea, this information will provide a valuable reference for the detection of recombination, tracking of epidemics and development of diagnosis methods for HBoV.
Samples collected from four snow pits at Eclipse Icefield, Yukon, Canada, were analyzed for stable isotopes and major ions to assess seasonal and spatial variability in snow chemistry. Accumulation since the end of the 2001 summer season over the 0.1 km2 area sampled ranges from 0.77 to 1.16mw.e. Snow-pit stratigraphy and chemical records demonstrate that the low accumulation at pit 3 is due to an under-representation of winter snow accumulation at that site. For all major-ion species, chemical concentrations are independent of snow accumulation rate. Seasonal variations are evident in the major-ion records and can be divided between sea-salt species (Na+, Cl−) that peak in late fall to winter, and dust (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+) and other species (NH4+, NO3−, SO42–, C2O22–) that peak in late spring to summer. The signal common to all four snow pits identified by empirical orthogonal function analysis ranges from 49% of the total variance for Na+ and Cl− to as high as 80% of the total variance for SO42–. There is greater spatial variability in species associated with coarse-mode particles (Na+, Cl−, Ca2+, Mg2+) than in species present mainly in accumulation-mode aerosols (SO42–, NH4+) or in the gas phase (NO3−).
We present highly resolved, annually dated, calibrated proxies for atmospheric circulation from several Antarctic ice cores (ITASE (International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition), Siple Dome, Law Dome) that reveal decadal-scale associations with a South Pole ice-core 10Be proxy for solar variability over the last 600 years and annual-scale associations with solar variability since AD 1720. We show that increased (decreased) solar irradiance is associated with increased (decreased) zonal wind strength near the edge of the Antarctic polar vortex. The association is particularly strong in the Indian and Pacific Oceans and as such may contribute to understanding climate forcing that controls drought in Australia and other Southern Hemisphere climate events. We also include evidence suggestive of solar forcing of atmospheric circulation near the edge of the Arctic polar vortex based on ice-core records from Mount Logan, Yukon Territory, Canada, and both central and south Greenland as enticement for future investigations. Our identification of solar forcing of the polar atmosphere and its impact on lower latitudes offers a mechanism for better understanding modern climate variability and potentially the initiation of abrupt climate-change events that operate on decadal and faster scales.
Extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production has been very rare in serotype K1 Klebsiella pneumoniae ST23 strains, which are well-known invasive community strains. Among 92 ESBL-producing strains identified in 218 isolates from nine Asian countries, serotype K1 K. pneumoniae strains were screened. Two ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates from Singapore and Indonesia were determined to be serotype K1 and ST23. Their plasmids, which contain CTX-M-15 genes, are transferable rendering the effective transfer of ESBL resistance plasmids to other organisms.
Hazard identification is the first step in assessing the risk of a genetically modified (GM) crop. It employs the concept of substantial equivalence to evaluate crop safety. The current process relies on subjective opinions to integrate various comparisons among the GM crop, the non-GM counterpart and an assortment of non-GM references over an array of key endpoints measured in field trials. The pre-eminent need to control the consumer's risk in hazard identification has been left unaddressed. The current paper develops statistical strategies to resolve this issue. Hypotheses of individual tests are explicitly defined to reflect the study objectives. They are then grouped into families and connected by logical operators according to decision rules commonly used in crop safety evaluation. This pre-specification of hypotheses arranged in an organized layout leads to a simple, transparent decision-making process where the consumer's risk can be managed directly. A two-stage multiplicity adjustment procedure is created by applying fundamental principles for multiple testing to the newly assembled families of hypotheses. The practical utility of the proposed procedure is shown in a real-world example. Besides being easy to implement and convey, the proposed statistical strategies accommodate the addition of supportive evidence for safety and allow the nature of the genetic modification to be taken into account.
The accelerator mass spectrometry facility at the Seoul National University (SNU-AMS) was completed in December 1998 and a report was presented at the Vienna AMS conference in September 1999. At the conference, we described the basic components of our accelerator system and reported the results of the performance test. Since then, extensive testing of the accuracy and reproducibility of the system has been carried out, and about 200 unknown samples have been measured so far. We obtained a precision of 4‰ for modern samples, and an accuracy of approximately 40 yr was demonstrated by analyzing samples that were previously dated with a conventional technique and by other AMS laboratories. We present these results here, together with detailed descriptions of our data-taking and analysis procedures.
The accelerator mass spectrometry facility at Seoul National University (SNU-AMS) began functioning in December 1998 and was first reported at the Vienna AMS conference in October 1999 and at the 17th International Radiocarbon Conference in Israel in June 2000. At the Vienna conference, we reported our accelerator system (Kim et al. 2000) and details of the basic sample preparation system (Lee et al. 2000), such as the combustion line to produce CO2; the catalytic reduction line for the graphitization of CO2; and the pretreatment procedures for wood, charcoal, and peat samples. The recent progress of the AMS facility (Kim et al. 2001) and the extension of the sample pretreatment system to iron and bone samples were reported at the 17th International Radiocarbon Conference (Cheoun et al. 2001). In the meantime, extensive testing of accuracy and reproducibility has been carried out, and ∼1000 unknown archaeological and geological samples have been measured every year. In this report, the archaeological, geological, and environmental data carried out in 1999 are presented in terms of yr BP.
The accelerator mass spectrometry facility at Seoul National University (SNU-AMS) began functioning in December 1998 and was first reported at the Vienna AMS conference in October 1999 and at the 17th Radiocarbon Conference in Israel in June 2000. At the Vienna conference, we reported our accelerator system (Kim et al. 2000) and the basic sample preparation system (Lee et al. 2000), including the combustion line to produce CO2; the catalytic reduction line for the graphitization of CO2; and also pretreatment procedures for wood, charcoal, and peat samples. Recent progress of the AMS facility (Kim et al. 2001) and extension of the sample pretreatment system to iron and bone samples were reported at the 17th Radiocarbon Conference (Cheoun et al. 2001). In the meantime, extensive testing of accuracy and reproducibility has been carried out, and ∼1000 unknown archaeological and geological samples have been measured every year. A report of data carried out in 1999 is presented by Kim et al. (this issue). In this report, the archaeological, geological, and environmental data carried out in 2000 are presented in terms of yr BP.
We present the current status of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating of iron artifacts at Seoul National University (SNU). In ancient iron production, charcoal was widely used as carbon for the smelting process, whereas coal is used in modern times. If reliable data could be obtained from carbon by using AMS, ancient iron artifacts could be traced to their production age. In normal acid treatment, it is not easy to extract carbon due to its colloidal property. The negative charge property of the carbon colloid, however, makes it possible for it to be precipitated with positive ions by dissolving the iron chemically. An extraction yield of the carbon incorporated in modern cast iron of about 70% is attained. More refined methods to increase the extraction rate are under progress for archaeological applications.
Safety evaluation of a genetically modified crop entails assessing its equivalence to conventional crops under multi-site randomized block field designs. Despite mounting petitions for regulatory approval, there lack a scientifically sound and powerful statistical method for establishing equivalence. The current paper develops and validates two procedures for testing a recently identified class of equivalence uniquely suited to crop safety. One procedure employs the modified large sample (MLS) method; the other is based on generalized pivotal quantities (GPQs). Because both methods were originally created under balanced designs, common issues associated with incomplete and unbalanced field designs were addressed by first identifying unfulfilled theoretical assumptions and then replacing them with user-friendly approximations. Simulation indicated that the MLS procedure could be very conservative in many occasions irrespective of the balance of the design; the GPQ procedure was mildly liberal with its type I error rate near the nominal level when the design is balanced. Additional pros and cons of these two procedures are also discussed. Their utility is demonstrated in a case study using summary statistics derived from a real-world dataset.
Safety evaluation of a genetically modified (GM) crop is accomplished by establishing its substantial equivalence to non-GM reference crops with a history of safe use. Testing hypotheses of equivalence rather than difference is the appropriate statistical approach. A necessary first step in this regard is to specify a reasonable equivalence criterion that includes a measure for discrepancy between the GM and reference crops as well as a regulatory threshold. The present work explored several equivalence criteria and discussed their pros and cons. Each criterion addresses one of three ordered classes of equivalence: super, conditional and marginal equivalence. Their implications were investigated over an array of parameter values estimated from a real-world dataset. Marginal equivalence was identified as adhering most closely to the concept of substantial equivalence. Because conditional equivalence logically implies marginal equivalence and is practically quantifiable from current field designs, the present work recommends conditional equivalence criteria while encouraging producers to improve their design to enable testing marginal equivalence in the future. Contrary to concerns of the ag-biotech industry, empirical evidence from recent publications indicates that a linear mixed model currently implemented by the European Food Safety Authority is adequate for assessing equivalence despite its lack of genotype-by-environment interaction terms.
Depression is common after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) with adverse effects on prognosis. There is little evidence on whether depression treatment improves quality of life (QoL) in ACS patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of co-morbid depression and its treatment on QoL in ACS.
In total, 1152 patients were recruited at baseline, 2–14 weeks after a confirmed ACS episode, and 828 were followed 1 year thereafter. Of 446 baseline participants with co-morbid depressive disorders, 300 were randomized to a 24-week double blind trial of escitalopram or placebo, while the remaining 146 received medical treatment only (MTO). QoL was measured by the World Health Organization Quality of Life –Abbreviated form (WHOQOL-BREF).
At baseline, QoL was significantly lower in patients with co-morbid depressive disorder than those without. QoL improvement was significantly greater in those receiving escitalopram than those receiving placebo over the 24-week treatment period. In the 1-year follow-up, the better outcomes associated with escitalopram remained evident against both placebo and MTO.
Depression was significantly associated with worse QoL even in patients with recently developed ACS. Depression treatment was associated with QoL improvement in ACS patients in the 24-week treatment period, the effects of which extended to 1 year.
We use Raman scattering to study the spatially-resolved strain and stress in a complex zinc blende GaAs/GaP heterostructured nanowire which contains both axial and radial interfaces. The nanowires are grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition in the  direction with Au nano particles as catalysts, High spatial resolution Raman scans along the nanowires show the GaAs/GaP interface is clearly identifiable. We interpret the phonon energy shifts in each material as one approaches the interface.
The Arabidopsis gene AVP1 encodes a vacuolar H+-translocating inorganic pyrophosphatase (enzyme classification (EC) 18.104.22.168) that functions as an electronic proton pump in the vacuolar membrane and affects growth development and the stress response in plants. The current study was conducted to evaluate the molecular properties of the Arabidopsis thaliana vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase (AVP1) gene in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Incorporation and expression of the transgene was confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR. Expression of the AVP1 gene in transgenic rice plants (TRP1 and TRP2) resulted in a significantly enhanced tolerance to 5·8 g/l NaCl under greenhouse conditions when compared with the control wild-type (WT) rice plants. Augmented AVP1 expression in the transgenic rice plants (TRP) also affected total biomass and improved ion homoeostasis through increased accumulation of Na+ ions in whole tissues when compared with control WT rice plants under high salinity conditions. The photochemical yield (Fv/Fm) values of TRP were higher than those of the WT rice plants, even though the values decreased over time in both the WT and transgenic (TRP1 to TRP8) rice plants. Furthermore, rice grain yield and biomass of the TRP were at least 15% higher based on culm and root weights, and panicle and spikelet numbers when compared with those of the WT rice plants during the 2010 and 2010 growing seasons in South Korea. Thus, these results suggest that ectopic AVP1 expression conferred tolerance and stress resistance to genetically modified transgenic crop plants by improving cellular ion homoeostasis in response to saline conditions, which enhanced rice yield and biomass under natural conditions in paddy fields.