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To assess the prevalence of prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities among overweight or obese clozapine- or olanzapine-treated schizophrenia patients, and to identify characteristics of the schizophrenia group with prediabetes.
A cross-sectional study assessing the presence of prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities in schizophrenia clozapine- or olanzapine-treated patients with a body mass index (BMI) ≥27 kg/m2. Procedures were part of the screening process for a randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluating liraglutide vs placebo for improving glucose tolerance. For comparison, an age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy control group without psychiatric illness and prediabetes was included. Prediabetes was defined as elevated fasting plasma glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance and/or elevated glycated hemoglobin A1c.
Among 145 schizophrenia patients (age = 42.1 years; males = 59.3%) on clozapine or olanzapine (clozapine/olanzapine/both: 73.8%/24.1%/2.1%), prediabetes was present in 69.7% (101 out of 145). While schizophrenia patients with and without prediabetes did not differ regarding demographic, illness, or antipsychotic treatment variables, metabolic abnormalities (waist circumference: 116.7±13.7 vs 110.1±13.6 cm, P = 0.007; triglycerides: 2.3±1.4 vs 1.6±0.9 mmol/L, P = 0.0004) and metabolic syndrome (76.2% vs 40.9%, P<0.0001) were significantly more pronounced in schizophrenia patients with vs without prediabetes. The age-, sex-, and BMI-matched healthy controls had significantly better glucose tolerance compared to both groups of patients with schizophrenia. The healthy controls also had higher levels of high-density lipoprotein compared to patients with schizophrenia and prediabetes.
Prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities were highly prevalent among the clozapine- and olanzapine-treated patients with schizophrenia, putting these patients at great risk for later type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These results stress the importance of identifying and adequately treating prediabetes and metabolic abnormalities among clozapine- and olanzapine-treated patients with schizophrenia.
In current transparent Si based photovoltaic (PV) module fabrication, green or infrared laser is the most common used band frequency to wipe off the silicon and back contact layer in perpendicular direction of cells. However, this method would result in more power loss than calculation value due to the side effects during the process such as constructional damage of module and shunt effect. A new method is presented here which focus on wiping off more silicon layer by employing green pulsed laser(532 nm wavelength) along the parallel direction of Pattern2, and it shows higher efficiency and more attractive appearance.
Thermo-camera is employed here to analyze kinds of quality abnormal and improve production process during manufacture procedure of silicon-based thin-film solar modules. It shows that thermo-camera device can help engineers to solve problem of production line quickly and accurately, and save the manpower and financial resources at the same time.
We examined the cross-sectional relationship between environmental tobacco smoke exposure, continuous performance test (CPT) measures, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or learning disability symptoms in school-aged children.
In total, 989 children (526 boys, mean age 9.1 ± 0.7 years), recruited from five South Korean cities participated in this study. We used urine cotinine as a biomarker for environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and obtained the children's scores on a CPT. Parents completed the Korean versions of the ADHD Rating Scale – IV (ADHD-RS) and Learning Disability Evaluation Scale (LDES). Using generalized linear mixed model (GLMM), we assessed the associations between urine cotinine concentrations, neuropsychological variables, and symptoms of ADHD and learning disabilities. Additionally, we conducted structural equation models to explore the effects' pathways.
After adjusting for a range of relevant covariates, GLMM showed urinary cotinine levels were significantly and positively associated with CPT scores on omission errors, commission errors, response time, and response time variability, and with parent- and teacher-rated ADHD-RS scores. In addition, urine cotinine levels were negatively associated with LDES scores on spelling and mathematical calculations. The structural equation model revealed that CPT variables mediated the association between urine cotinine levels and parental reports of symptoms of ADHD and learning disabilities.
Our data indicate that environmental exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with ADHD and learning disabilities in children, and that impairments in attention and inhibitory control probably mediate the effect.
The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) have increased in Western countries. However, there are limited data regarding the epidemiology of CDI in Eastern countries. This nationwide study was conducted in 17 hospitals to determine temporal trends in CDI incidence (from 2004 to 2008) in South Korea. The total incidence of CDI in Korea was 1·7 cases/1000 adult admissions in 2004, and 2·7/1000 cases in 2008 (P = 0·028). When analysing the clinical features of 1367 CDI patients diagnosed in 2008, oral metronidazole was effective as a first-line treatment for CDI (61·9%). Relapse rate was 8·9% and complicated CDI was only observed in 3·6%. The incidence of CDI increased significantly in Korea from 2004 to 2008. Although the clinical features were milder than in Western countries, the increasing burden of CDI needs ongoing surveillance systems.
The breakdown voltages of 6H- and 4H-SiC rectifiers as function of temperature were modeled analytically in both non-reachthrough diode and reachthrough diode. The breakdown voltage was derived by the ionization integral employing accurate hole impact ionization coefficient. The breakdown voltage of SiC rectifiers was increased with increasing temperature and the positive temperature coefficient of breakdown voltage indicates that SiC rectifiers are suitable for high temperature applications. The breakdown voltages of both 6H- and 4H-SiC diodes were increased by M(T)-1/4 in NRDs and M(T)-1/8 in RDs.
The dominant pathways for hydrogen diffusion in poly-Si TFT’s are identified by analyzing the hydrogenation effect on the various device geometries. It is observed that the gate poly-Si thickness and channel width didn’t affect the hydrogenation. As the channel length was decreased down to 3 µm, threshold voltage was reduced and field effect mobility was increased significantly with hydrogeantion time. In the thick gate oxide (2000 Å, 4000 Å) poly-Si TFT’s, the device characteristics have been improved rapidly with hydrogenation time. The tail state density of thin gate oxide TFT wasn’t change by hydrgenation while that of thick gate oxide TFT was significantly reduced. Our experimental results may support the model that hydrogen atoms diffuse into the bulk of the active channel layer through the gate oxide and passivate the grain boundary and intragranular defects limitedly by gate oxide area.
The asymmetric amorphous silicon thin film transistors are fabricated and exposed to various stress environments. A visible light illumination of 200,000 Ix and gate bias of 30 V are applied to both asymmetric and widely used symmetric a-Si TFT's. It is observed that the leakage current of asymmetric structure, where only one electrode is fully overlapped by gate electrode, is much less than that of symmetric one. The visible light illumination as well as gate bias stress do not degrade the leakage current of the asymmetric a-Si TFT's, while the leakage current in die symmetric TFT's are increased considerably due to the stress. Also, the degree of degradation in the threshold voltage, the field effect mobility and the subthreshold slope of asymmetric TFT's are relatively much less than that of conventional symmetric TFT's.
The accelerated degradation phenomena in amorphous silicon thin film transistors due to both electrical stress and visible light illumination under the elevated temperature have been investigated systematically as a function of gate bias, light intensity, and stress time. It has been found that, in case of electrical stress, the threshold voltage shifts of a-Si TFT's may be attributed to the defect creation process at the early stage, while the charge trapping phenomena may be dominant when the illumination periods exceed about 2 hours. It has been also observed that the degradation in the device characteristics of a-Si TFT's is accelerated due to multiple stress effects, where the defect creation mechanism may be more responsible for the degradation rather than the charge trapping mechanism.
We present a new analytical model of amorphous silicon thin-film transistor (a-Si TFT) suitable for circuit simulators such as SPICE. The effects of localized gap state distributions of a-Si as well as temperatures on the a-Si TFT performances have been fully considered in the presented model. The parameters used in SPICE, such as transconductance, channel-length modulation, and power factor of source-drain current, are evaluated from the measured current-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics by employing the proposed extraction method. It has been found out that the analytical model is in good agreement with experimental data at both room temperature and elevated temperature and successfully implemented in a widely used circuit simulator.
The electrical and optical properties of the heterostructure interface between high resistivity ZnSe and the semi-insulating GaAs substrate have been investigated using Transverse Acoustoelectric Voltage (TAV) spectroscopy. From the TAV spectra and the relative change of the TAV amplitude (ΔTAV/TAV), we have found the carrier type and concentration of ZnSe as well as the energy levels of various trap states at the heterostructure interface. The spectral behavior of the ΔTAV/TAV curves varied for samples of different ZnSe epilayer thickness. From the measurements, the surface recombination velocities (SRV's) were calculated. For the pseudomorphic ZnSe films on GaAs, a reduction in the SRV's was measured. As the thickness of the ZnSe film was increased, the various ΔTAV/TAV indicated presence of a large number of interface states due to the introduction of misfit dislocations.
We presents a new model for the series resistance of an amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin film transistor (TFT) with an inverted-staggered configuration, considering the current spreading under the source and the drain contacts as well as the space charge limited current. The calculated results of our model have been in good agreements with the measured data over a wide range of applied voltage, gate-to-source and gate-to-drain overlap length, channel length, and operating temperature. Our model shows that the relative contribution of the series resistances to the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of the a-Si TFT in the linear regime is more significant at low drain and high gate voltages, for short channel and small overlap length, and at low operating temperature, which has been verified successfully by the experimental measurements.
The experimental and analytical results regarding to the effects of temperature and electrical stress on the characteristics of amorphous silicon thin-film transistors (a-Si TFT's) have been presented. The variations in the device parameters of a-Si TFT, such as threshold voltage and field-effect mobility, have been examined under various operating temperatures and electrical stress conditions. The hysteresis in the transfer characteristics and the trapped charges at the a-Si/silicon nitride interface were measured at the operating temperature ranges. From the experimental results, it has been found out that the increase of the interface charge trapping may be responsible for the degradation in the a-Si TFT characteristics. Also, an analytical formulation, employing the interface charge trapping, is presented to clarify the instability phenomena and verified successfully with the experimental results.