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Recent studies suggest that the use of vegetable oils at expense of fish oil in aquaculture feeds might have potential negative effects on fish redox homeostasis and adiposity. Resveratrol (RESV) is a lipid-soluble phytoalexin present in fruits and vegetables with proven in vivo antioxidant function in animals. The present study aims to assess the potential use of RESV in Atlantic salmon feeds. To this end, post-smolt salmons with an initial BW of 148±3 g were fed four experimental diets for 15 weeks. A diet low in fish oil served as a control and was supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 g/kg of RESV, respectively. The effect of the experimental diets on animal performance, tissue fatty acid composition, and the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in antioxidant signalling, lipid peroxidation, and metabolism were studied. Resveratrol significantly reduced feed intake and final BW of the salmon. Feeding RESV did not affect the sum of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids or total lipids in the fillet. While the content of total polyunsaturated fatty acids was not affected, the percentages of some fatty acids in the liver and fillet were changed by RESV. Furthermore, in liver, the relative expression of glutathione peroxidase 4b, nuclear factor-like 2, and arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase remained unchanged across treatment groups. In conclusion, the negative impact of dietary RESV on FI and hence reduction of the BW discourages its inclusion in low fish oil diets for Atlantic salmon.
We present the detection of a neutral helium line in observations of the solar corona obtained during the 1994 eclipse, and show that a coronal excitation process is unlikely to cause such a significant Hel emission that extends out to a distance of 3 solar radii (R⊙) from the center of the sun. Besides the scattered light of a solar prominence, as well as components of geocoronal helium, the observed emission line may come from the neutral helium components in the interplanetary medium. Recombination of ions on interplanetary dust particles may play a role for the formation of the neutral helium.
The mainstay of management of epistaxis refractory to first aid and cautery is intranasal packing. This review aimed to identify evidence surrounding nasal pack use.
A systematic review of the literature was performed using standardised methodology.
Twenty-seven eligible articles were identified relating to non-dissolvable packs and nine to dissolvable packs. Nasal packing appears to be more effective when applied by trained professionals. For non-dissolvable packs, the re-bleed rates for Rapid Rhino and Merocel were similar, but were higher with bismuth iodoform paraffin paste packing. Rapid Rhino packs were the most tolerated non-dissolvable packs. Evidence indicates that 96 per cent of re-bleeding occurs within the first 4 hours after nasal pack removal. Limited evidence suggests that dissolvable packs are effective and well tolerated by patients. There was a lack of evidence relating to: the duration of pack use, the economic effects of pack choice and the appropriate care setting for non-dissolvable packs.
Rapid Rhino packs are the best tolerated, with efficacy equivalent to nasal tampons. FloSeal is easy to use, causes less discomfort and may be superior to Merocel in anterior epistaxis cases. There is no strong evidence to support prophylactic antibiotic use.
The initial assessment of epistaxis patients commonly includes: first aid measures, observations, focused history taking, and clinical examinations and investigations. This systematic review aimed to identify evidence that informs how the initial assessment of these patients should be conducted.
A systematic review of the literature was performed using a standardised methodology and search strategy.
Seventeen articles were included. Factors identified were: co-morbidity, intrinsic patient factors, coagulation screening and ice pack use. Hypertension and anticoagulant use were demonstrated to adversely affect outcomes. Coagulation screening is useful in patients on anticoagulant medication. Four studies could not be accessed. Retrospective methodology and insufficient statistical analysis limit several studies.
Sustained ambulatory hypertension, anticoagulant therapy and posterior bleeding may be associated with recurrent epistaxis, and should be recorded. Oral ice pack use may decrease severity and can be considered as first aid. Coagulation studies are appropriate for patients with a history of anticoagulant use or bleeding diatheses.
There is variation regarding the use of surgery and interventional radiological techniques in the management of epistaxis. This review evaluates the effectiveness of surgical artery ligation compared to direct treatments (nasal packing, cautery), and that of embolisation compared to direct treatments and surgery.
A systematic review of the literature was performed using a standardised published methodology and custom database search strategy.
Thirty-seven studies were identified relating to surgery, and 34 articles relating to interventional radiology. For patients with refractory epistaxis, endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation had the most favourable adverse effect profile and success rate compared to other forms of surgical artery ligation. Endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation and embolisation had similar success rates (73–100 per cent and 75–92 per cent, respectively), although embolisation was associated with more serious adverse effects (risk of stroke, 1.1–1.5 per cent). No articles directly compared the two techniques.
Trials comparing endoscopic sphenopalatine artery ligation to embolisation are required to better evaluate the clinical and economic effects of intervention in epistaxis.
Cardiovascular fitness in late adolescence is associated with future risk of depression. Relationships with other mental disorders need elucidation. This study investigated whether fitness in late adolescence is associated with future risk of serious non-affective mental disorders. Further, we examined how having an affected brother might impact the relationship.
Prospective, population-based cohort study of 1 109 786 Swedish male conscripts with no history of mental illness, who underwent conscription examinations at age 18 between 1968 and 2005. Cardiovascular fitness was objectively measured at conscription using a bicycle ergometer test. During the follow-up (3–42 years), incident cases of serious non-affective mental disorders (schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like disorders, other psychotic disorders and neurotic, stress-related and somatoform disorders) were identified through the Swedish National Hospital Discharge Register. Cox proportional hazards models were used to assess the influence of cardiovascular fitness at conscription and risk of serious non-affective mental disorders later in life.
Low fitness was associated with increased risk for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like disorders [hazard ratio (HR) 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29–1.61], other psychotic disorders (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.27–1.56), and neurotic or stress-related and somatoform disorders (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.37–1.54). Relationships persisted in models that included illness in brothers.
Lower fitness in late adolescent males is associated with increased risk of serious non-affective mental disorders in adulthood.
Anatomical and morphological seed traits are of great ecological importance and are a main subject of, for example, seed bank or endozoochory studies. However, we observed a lack of information about the relationship between seed anatomy and seed morphology and its ecological implications. To fill this gap, we linked the anatomical features of diaspore coverings to morphological characteristics of free seeds and one-seeded fruits. We predicted that: (1) the thickness and anatomical complexity of seed coat and pericarp are related to diaspore size and shape; and (2) the presence or absence of the pericarp may influence seed-coat thickness and anatomy. In our study we investigated diaspores of 39 central-eastern European herbaceous species and recorded the thickness and anatomical complexity of their seed coverings, and we determined diaspore mass and shape. Our results indicate that diaspore mass is positively related to covering thickness, lignification degree and anatomical complexity. This might be the case because bigger diaspores tend to remain on the soil surface and are more exposed to predation risk and environmental threat than smaller diaspores. Furthermore, more round-shaped diaspores had disproportionately thicker and more lignified coverings than long or flat ones, probably because round-shaped diaspores much more frequently form seed banks and therefore persist for a long time in the soil. We also found that free seeds as diaspores have a thicker and more lignified seed coat than seeds enclosed in fruits. In one-seeded fruits, the pericarp ‘takes the protective role’, it is thick, and the seed coat is poorly developed.
To characterize meal patterns across ten European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) calibration study.
Cross-sectional study utilizing dietary data collected through a standardized 24 h diet recall during 1995–2000. Eleven predefined intake occasions across a 24 h period were assessed during the interview. In the present descriptive report, meal patterns were analysed in terms of daily number of intake occasions, the proportion reporting each intake occasion and the energy contributions from each intake occasion.
Twenty-seven centres across ten European countries.
Women (64 %) and men (36 %) aged 35–74 years (n 36 020).
Pronounced differences in meal patterns emerged both across centres within the same country and across different countries, with a trend for fewer intake occasions per day in Mediterranean countries compared with central and northern Europe. Differences were also found for daily energy intake provided by lunch, with 38–43 % for women and 41–45 % for men within Mediterranean countries compared with 16–27 % for women and 20–26 % for men in central and northern European countries. Likewise, a south–north gradient was found for daily energy intake from snacks, with 13–20 % (women) and 10–17 % (men) in Mediterranean countries compared with 24–34 % (women) and 23–35 % (men) in central/northern Europe.
We found distinct differences in meal patterns with marked diversity for intake frequency and lunch and snack consumption between Mediterranean and central/northern European countries. Monitoring of meal patterns across various cultures and populations could provide critical context to the research efforts to characterize relationships between dietary intake and health.
Is the Solar Radius a constant? Ground experiments show evidence of possible variations in the visual solar semi diameter that are correlated with the solar activity. Those measurements are limited by the Earth's atmospheric turbulance. It is importance to accurately determine the solar radius variations because of their implication for stellar structure and possible relation to the terrestrial climate. Here we report on data from a space experiment (MDI-SOHO) used to detect solar diameter fluctuations. We stabilish a superior limit for changes in the solar radius.
Cardiovascular fitness influences many aspects of brain function. However, the relationship between cardiovascular fitness and suicidal behaviour is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether cardiovascular fitness at age 18 years is associated with future risk of suicide attempt/death.
We performed a population-based Swedish longitudinal cohort study of male conscripts with no previous or ongoing mental illness (n = 1 136 527). The conscription examination, which took place during 1968–2005, included the cycle ergonometric test and tests of cognitive performance. Future risk of suicide attempt/death over a 5- to 42-year follow-up period was calculated with Cox proportional hazards models controlling for several confounders including familial factors.
At least one suicide attempt was recorded for 12 563 men. Death by suicide without a prior attempt was recorded in 4814 additional individuals. In fully adjusted models low cardiovascular fitness was associated with increased risk for future attempt/death by suicide [hazard ratio (HR) 1.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.64–1.94]. The HR changed only marginally after exclusion of persons who received in-patient care for depression (HR 1.76, 95% CI 1.61–1.94). Poor performance on both the cardiovascular fitness and cognitive tests was associated with a fivefold increased risk of suicide attempt or suicide death (HR 5.46, 95% CI 4.78–6.24).
Lower cardiovascular fitness at age 18 years was, after adjustment for a number of potential confounders, associated with an increased risk of attempt/death by suicide in adulthood. It remains to be clarified whether interventions designed to improve fitness in teens can influence the risk of suicidal behaviour later in life.
Studies suggest a role for cardiovascular fitness in the prevention of
To determine whether cardiovascular fitness at age 18 is associated with
future risk of serious affective illness.
Population-based Swedish cohort study of male conscripts
(n = 1 117 292) born in 1950–1987 with no history of
mental illness who were followed for 3–40 years. Data on cardiovascular
fitness at conscription were linked with national hospital registers to
calculate future risk of depression (requiring in-patient care) and
In fully adjusted models low cardiovascular fitness was associated with
increased risk for serious depression (hazard ratios (HR)=1.96, 95%, CI
1.71–2.23). No such association could be shown for bipolar disorder
(HR=1.11, 95% CI 0.84–1.47).
Lower cardiovascular fitness at age 18 was associated with increased risk
of serious depression in adulthood. These results strengthen the theory
of a cardiovascular contribution to the aetiology of depression.
Fish consumption is the major dietary source of EPA and DHA, which according to rodent experiments may reduce body fat mass and prevent obesity. Only a few human studies have investigated the association between fish consumption and body-weight gain. We investigated the association between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Women and men (n 344 757) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition were followed for a median of 5·0 years. Linear and logistic regression were used to investigate the associations between fish consumption and subsequent change in body weight. Among women, the annual weight change was 5·70 (95 % CI 4·35, 7·06), 2·23 (95 % CI 0·16, 4·31) and 11·12 (95 % CI 8·17, 14·08) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty fish consumption per d, respectively. The OR of becoming overweight in 5 years among women who were normal weight at enrolment was 1·02 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·02), 1·01 (95 % CI 1·00, 1·02) and 1·02 (95 % CI 1·01, 1·04) g/10 g higher total, lean and fatty consumption per d, respectively. Among men, fish consumption was not statistically significantly associated with weight change. Adjustment for potential over- or underestimation of fish consumption did not systematically change the observed associations, but the 95 % CI became wider. The results in subgroups from analyses stratified by age or BMI at enrolment were not systematically different. In conclusion, the present study suggests that fish consumption has no appreciable association with body-weight gain.
Lithium mobility in LiM2(PO4)3 compounds, with M= Ge, Ti, Sn, Zr and Hf, has been investigated by 7Li Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in the temperature range 100-500 K. From the analysis of 7Li NMR quadrupole interactions (CQ and η parameters), Li sites occupancy and exchange processes between structural sites have been studied. Below 250K, Li ions are preferentially located at M1 sites in rhombohedral phases, but occupy M12 sites in triclinic ones. At increasing temperatures, Li mobility has been deduced from spin-spin () and spin-lattice relaxation () rates. In this analysis, the presence of two relaxation mechanisms in plots has been associated with departures of conductivity from the Arrhenius behavior. At high temperatures, residence times at M12−T11−T11−T1 and M12 sites become similar and conductivity significantly increase. This superionic state can be achieved by enlarged order-disorder transformations in rhombohedral phases, or by sharp first order transitions in triclinic ones. Results described in the LiTi2(PO4)3 sample have been compared with those obtained in rhombohedral Li1+xTi2-xAlx(PO4)3 and LiTi2-xZrx(PO4)3 series showing respectively higher and lower conductivities. In the case of Li1.2Ti1.8Al0.2(PO4)3, displaying the highest reported conductivity, NMR results are discussed in relation with those obtained by Neutron Diffraction (ND) and Impedance Spectroscopy (IS). Diffusion coefficients determined by NMR Pulse Field Gradient (PFG) technique are similar to those deduced from Impedance Spectroscopy and NMR relaxation data.
Bulk amorphous Zr54.5 Ti7.5Al10Cu20Ni8 is investigated by means of smal-angle neutron scattering (SANS), differential-scanning calorimetry (DSC), high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM) and other methods. The formation of ultrafine nanostructures in the glassy phase is observed and explained by a new model. Structura fluctuations of randomly distributed partialy ordered domains grow during annealing just below the glass transition temperature by local re-ordering. During anneaing the DSC gives evidence for a increasing volume fraction of the localy ordered domains. At high volume fractions of impinging domains a percolation threshold on the interconnected domain boundaries occurs and enhanced diffusion becomes possible. At that stage SANS measurements lead to satistically significant scattering data. The SANS signals are anayzed in terms of a model taking into account spherica particles surrounded by diffusion zones and interparticle interference effects. The mean radius of the nanocrystaline particles is determined to 1 nm and the mean thickness of the depletion zone is 2 nm. The upper limit for the volume fraction after annealing at 653 K for 4hours is about 20 %. Electron microscopy confirms the size and shows that the particle are crystaline.
Sinter/HIP consolidation with systematic variation of all relevant process parameters was performed for low additive (Y2O3-A12O3) silicon nitride material. With SEM-investigations as well as bending and creep tests the relevance of process parameters on microstructure development and mechanical properties was studied.
In this work we describe the method and results of precise solar astrometry made with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), on board the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO), during one complete solar cycle. We measured an upper limit to the solar radius variation, the absolute solar radius value and the solar shape. Our results are 22 mas peak-to-peak upper limit for the solar radius variation over the solar cycle, the absolute radius was measured as 959.28 ± 0.15 arcsec at 1 AU and the difference between polar and equatorial solar radii in 1997 was 5 km and about three times larger in 2001.
The faecal Escherichia coli flora was studied in 89 infants. Each infant was followed with a mean of 12 faecal samples (range 5–21) between 0 and 18 months of age. All isolates were assayed for P fimbriae and biochemically phenotyped and the persistence of each strain (phenotype) in the infant's gut was determined. In a subset of strains the occurrence of type 1 fimbriae and adherence to HeLa cells was studied. Thirty-one per cent of isolates belonging to strains colonizing for longer than 6 months expressed P fimbriae compared to 19% of the isolates from strains colonizing 1–6 months or transient strains colonizing less than 1 month. Type 1 fimbriae and adherence to HeLa cells occurred similarly often in all groups of strains. We conclude that P fimbriae, but not type 1 fimbriae or HeLa cell adherence seemed to contribute to the ability of the E. coli strain to colonize the human intestine.
Biochemical reactions, using the PhP-EC system of biochemical fingerprinting, were evaluated in order to group strains into different clusters and to investigate whether a biochemical typing system may be used to distinguish between randomly selected Escherichia coli strains obtained from bacteraemic patients and healthy controls. Fifty epidemiologically unrelated strains isolated from blood of non-diabetic patients and 46 faecal control strains were studied. Separately, 70 E. coli strains from 64 diabetic patients with bacteraemia were investigated. Diversity index was 0·977, 0·969 and 0·941 respectively. The strains were clustered at a similarity level of 0·95. The bacteraemic and control strains were subdivided into 14 different clusters with 2–12 strains each and 40 ‘outliers’. The largest cluster was dominated by bacteraemic strains (9/12, 75%). Two other clusters were dominated by control strains. In the remaining groups blood and faecal isolates were evenly distributed. No biochemical test was able to distinguish between bacteraemic and faecal control strains. Strains from patients with diabetes mellitus were grouped in 11 clusters containing 2–14 strains and 22 ‘outliers’. The low diversity index of bacteraemic strains obtained from diabetic patients as compared to other strains indicated a greater homogenicity. However, no correlation was observed between the examined host factors and the clusters.