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Clinical interviewing is a flexible method for gathering assessment information and initiating psychotherapy. Clinical interviews can be used to establish therapeutic relationships, provide role inductions for psychotherapy, gather assessment information, develop case formulations/treatment plans, and for implementing therapeutic interventions. When used for assessment or intake purposes, clinical interviews focus on specific content, such as psychodiagnosis, mental status, and suicide risk. Although central to psychodiagnostic assessment, interview reliability and validity can be adversely affected by noncredible client responding (e.g., the over- or underreporting of symptoms). To address noncredible client responding, clinicians need to (1) be aware of the potential for inaccurate reporting, (2) adopt a “scientific mindedness” approach, (3) manage their countertransference, (4) use specific questioning or interpersonal strategies, and (5) triangulate data by using information from multiple sources. Undoubtedly, technology and other forces may change how future clinicians conduct clinical interviews; however, it is likely that clinical interviews will remain foundational to psychological assessment and treatment.
Moral reasoning and decision making help guide behavior and facilitate interpersonal relationships. Accounts of morality that position commonsense psychology as the foundation of moral development, (i.e., rationalist theories) have dominated research in morality in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Given the well-documented differences in commonsense psychology among autistic individuals, researchers have investigated whether the development and execution of moral judgement and reasoning differs in this population compared with neurotypical individuals. In light of the diverse findings of investigations of moral development and reasoning in ASD, a summation and critical evaluation of the literature could help make sense of what is known about this important social-cognitive skill in ASD. To that end, we conducted a systematic review of the literature investigating moral decision making among autistic children and adults. Our search identified 29 studies. In this review, we synthesize the research in the area and provide suggestions for future research. Such research could include the application of an alternative theoretical framework to studying morality in autism spectrum disorder that does not assume a deficits-based perspective.
Disease surveillance in wildlife populations presents a logistical challenge, yet is critical in gaining a deeper understanding of the presence and impact of wildlife pathogens. Erinaceus coronavirus (EriCoV), a clade C Betacoronavirus, was first described in Western European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) in Germany. Here, our objective was to determine whether EriCoV is present, and if it is associated with disease, in Great Britain (GB). An EriCoV-specific BRYT-Green® real-time reverse transcription PCR assay was used to test 351 samples of faeces or distal large intestinal tract contents collected from casualty or dead hedgehogs from a wide area across GB. Viral RNA was detected in 10.8% (38) samples; however, the virus was not detected in any of the 61 samples tested from Scotland. The full genome sequence of the British EriCoV strain was determined using next generation sequencing; it shared 94% identity with a German EriCoV sequence. Multivariate statistical models using hedgehog case history data, faecal specimen descriptions and post-mortem examination findings found no significant associations indicative of disease associated with EriCoV in hedgehogs. These findings indicate that the Western European hedgehog is a reservoir host of EriCoV in the absence of apparent disease.
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a common inner-ear pathology, characterised by episodic vertigo lasting for a few seconds that is associated with sudden change in the head position. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is treated with canalolith repositioning manoeuvres. Intractable vertigo describes a small group of patients who either do not improve with canalolith repositioning manoeuvres (persistent cases) or who relapse after improvement of initial symptoms (recurrent cases). These cases are difficult to treat and may have to be treated surgically.
This paper reports two cases of intractable posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo that were treated with intratympanic dexamethasone injections on an interval basis.
Both patients showed good control of their vertiginous symptoms, with negative Dix–Hallpike test findings following the intervention.
The findings support an underlying inflammatory pathology in intractable benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; intratympanic steroids should be considered as an intermediate option before proceeding to a definitive surgical intervention.
The scientific advances that underpin economic growth and human health would not be possible without research investments. Yet demonstrating the impact of research programs is a challenge, especially in areas that span disciplines, industrial sectors, and encompass both public and private sector activity. All areas of research are under pressure to demonstrate benefits from federal funding of research. This exciting and innovative study demonstrates new methods and tools to trace the impact of federal research funding on the structure of research, and the subsequent economic activities of funded researchers. The case study is food safety research, which is critical to avoiding outbreaks of disease. The authors make use of an extraordinary new data infrastructure and apply new techniques in text analysis. Focusing on the impact of US federal food safety research, this book develops vital data-intensive methodologies that have a real world application to many other scientific fields.
Previous research suggests that the experience of abuse and neglect in childhood has negative implications for physical health in adulthood. Using data from the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (N = 115), the present research examined the predictive significance of childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and physical/cognitive neglect for multilevel assessments of physical health at midlife (age 37–39 years), including biomarkers of cardiometabolic risk, self-reports of quality of health, and a number of health problems. Analyses revealed that childhood physical/cognitive neglect, but not physical or sexual abuse, predicted all three health outcomes in middle adulthood, even when controlling for demographic risk factors and adult health maintenance behaviors. We discuss possible explanations for the unique significance of neglect in this study and suggest future research that could clarify previous findings regarding the differential impact of different types of abuse and neglect on adult health.
Leptin is a signalling factor involved in the regulation of body weight and is synthesised predominantly by adipocytes. In humans, there is a positive correlation between plasma concentration of leptin and body mass index (kg/m_a3) and subcutaneous fat (Considine et al., 1996; Lonnqvist et al., 1995). In vitro adipocytes obtained from women secrete more leptin than those of men (Casabeill et al., 1998). Furthermore, testosterone inhibits the expression of the leptin gene in the rat (Wu-Peng et al., 1999). The aim of this study was to examine whether gender, age and body conformation influenced plasma leptin and thyroid hormone concentrations in the horse. Materials and method Pre-slaughter body weight and height were recorded in a random group of mares (n=5), geldings (castrated males: n=7) and stallions (n=3) destined for human consumption. Their age was estimated by dental examination. Immediately post-mortem, a jugular vein blood sample was collected into a heparinised tube, which was centrifuged at 2500 rpm for 10 minutes. Plasma was stored in liquid nitrogen until analysed for plasma concentrations of leptin and thyroid hormones using human ELISA (DRG Instruments) and RIA kits (ICN Pharmaceuticals Ltd), respectively. Statistical differences between groups were assessed using General Linear Model, Analysis of Variance. Regression analysis was used to determine whether plasma leptin concentration was related to body conformation and age.