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We carried out the multicolor surface photometry in BVR and griz filters parallel with stellar kinematic measurements from the long slit spectra for the low surface brightness galaxy Malin 2. The use of the multicolor surface photometry as well as the available HI rotation curve allowed us to construct the mass distribution model of the galaxy. Photometrical and dynamical mass estimates agree with the dark halo mass fraction of about 70% within four disc radial scalelengths (~ 70 kpc). We used our dynamical model to obtain radial profiles of the equilibrium disc volume density and gas pressure in the galaxy midplane based on the available HI and CO data. The observed molecular gas fraction appears to be much higher than in the high surface brightness galaxies for a similar gas pressure.
This chapter covers issues most likely to be raised by young women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer or those at high risk of the disease contemplating assisted fertility procedures. The type of adjuvant regimen selected for an individual woman is determined by menopause status, biological characteristics of the tumor and risk of relapse. Large meta-analyses of multiple trials with longterm follow-up have been used to assess the effects of systemic therapy on breast cancer outcomes. Achievement of amenorrhea appears to be associated with a reduction in relapse and improvement in survival in premenopausal women with estrogen receptor positive (ER+) tumors. There are three main barriers to implementing fertility preservation in women with breast cancer: cost; concern about treatment delays; and concern that increasing sex hormones as a result of controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) protocols will stimulate proliferation in ER+ tumors.