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This paper presents computed dependencies of the detected electron energy distribution on the water vapour pressure in an environmental scanning electron microscope obtained using the EOD software with a Monte Carlo plug-in for the electron-gas interactions. The software GEANT was used for the Monte Carlo simulations of the beam-sample interactions and the signal electron emission from the sample into the gaseous environment. The simulations were carried out for selected energies of the signal electrons collected by two electrodes with two different diameters with the voltages of +350 V and 0, respectively, and then 0 and +350 V, respectively, and for the distance of 2 mm between the sample and the detection electrodes of the ionization detector. The simulated results are verified by experimental measurements. Consequences of the simulated and experimental dependencies on the acquisition of the topographical or material contrasts using our ionization detector equipped with segmented detection electrode are described and discussed.
LOFT (Large Observatory For X-ray Timing) is one of the four candidate missions currently
under assessment study for the M3 mission in ESAs Cosmic Vision program to be launched in
2024. LOFT will carry two instruments with prime sensitivity in the 2–30 keV range: a 10
m2 class large area detector (LAD) with a <1° collimated field of view
and a wide field monitor (WFM) instrument. The WFM is based on the coded mask principle,
and 5 camera units will provide coverage of more than 1/3 of the sky. The prime goal of
the WFM is to detect transient sources to be observed by the LAD. With its wide field of
view and good energy resolution of <500 eV, the WFM will be an excellent instrument
for detecting and studying GRBs and X-ray flashes. The WFM will be able to detect
~150 gamma ray bursts per year, and a burst alert system will enable the
distribution of ~100 GRB positions per year with a ~1 arcmin location
accuracy within 30 s of the burst.
The Burst Observer and Optical Transient Exploring System (BOOTES), is a global robotic
observatory network, which started in 1998 with Spanish leadership devoted to study
optical emissions from gamma ray bursts (GRBs) that occur in the Universe. We present shot
history and current status of BOOTES network. The Network philosophy, science and some
details of 117 GRBs followed-up are discussed.
The paper reviews a current state of the art in the
in-line plasma treatment of low-cost materials and opportunities for the use
of the so-called Diffuse Coplanar Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge
(DCSBD). A brief outline of physical mechanism and basic properties of DCSBD
is given. The results presented on the ambient air plasma treatments of
textile, paper, wood, and glass illustrate that DCSBD offers outstanding
performance with extremely low energy consumption for large area, uniform
surface modifications of materials under continuous process conditions.
Prelimary results of an extended program of coordinated X-ray and optical observations of TT Ari are presented. The object was observed on August 21/22 1985 both in X-rays (EXOSAT) and optical range, about 100 days after the return to the active state. The first detailed simultaneous study of TT Ari in active state indicates the presence of strongly absorbing structure in the system.
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