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Non-typhoidal Salmonella are an important but poorly characterized cause of paediatric diarrhoea in developing countries. We conducted a hospital-based case-control study in children aged <5 years in Ho Chi Minh City to define the epidemiology and examine risk factors associated with Salmonella diarrhoeal infections. From 1419 diarrhoea cases and 571 controls enrolled between 2009 and 2010, 77 (5·4%) diarrhoea cases were stool culture-positive for non-typhoidal Salmonella. Salmonella patients were more likely to be younger than controls (median age 10 and 12 months, respectively) [odds ratio (OR) 0·97; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0·94–0·99], to report a recent diarrhoeal contact (8·1% cases, 1·8% controls; OR 5·98, 95% CI 1·8–20·4) and to live in a household with >2 children (cases 20·8%, controls 10·2%; OR 2·32, 95% CI 1·2–4·7). Our findings indicate that Salmonella are an important cause of paediatric gastroenteritis in this setting and we suggest that transmission may occur through direct human contact in the home.
Late Archaean granitic rocks from the southern Yilgarn Craton of Western Australia have a close temporal relationship to the basaltic and komatiitic volcanism which occurs within spatially associated greenstone belts. Greenstone volcanism apparently began ∼2715 Ma ago, whereas voluminous felsic magmatism (both extrusive and intrusive) began about 2690 Ma ago. A brief but voluminous episode of crust-derived magmatism ∼2690-2685 Ma ago resulted in the emplacement of a diverse assemblage of plutons having granodioritic, monzogranitic and tonalitic compositions. This early felsic episode was followed immediately by the emplacement of mafic sills, and, after a further time delay, by a second episode of voluminous crust-derived magmatism dominated by monzogranite but containing plutons covering a wide compositional range, including diorite, granodiorite and tonalite. The products of this 2665–2660 Ma magmatic episode now form a significant fraction of the exposed southern Yilgarn Craton. Later magmatism, which continued to at least 2600 Ma ago, appears largely restricted to rocks having unusually fractionated compositions.
The magmatic sequence basalt-voluminous crust-derived magmatism-later diverse magmatism, is interpreted in terms of a dynamically-based model for the ascent of the head of a new mantle plume. In this model basalts and komatiites are derived by decompression melting of rising plume material, and the crust-derived magmas result after conductive transport of heat from the top of the plume head into overlying continental crust. This type of magmatic evolution, the fundamentally bimodal nature of the magmatism, the presence of high-Mg volcanics (komatiites), and the areal extent of the late Archaean magmatic event, are all suggested to be characteristic of crustal reworking above mantle plumes rather than resulting from other processes, such as those related to subduction.
We investigated the electrical characteristics of the MOSCAP structures with W/WNx/poly Si1−xGex gates stack using C-V and I-V. The low frequency C-V measurements demonstrated that the flat band voltage of the W/WNx /poly Si0.4Ge0.6 stack was lower than that of W/ WNx /poly Si0.2Ge0.8 stack by 0.3V, and showed less gate-poly-depletion-effect than that of W/ WNx /poly- Si0.2Ge0.8 gates due to the increase of dopant activation rate with the increase of Ge content in the poly Si1−xGex films. As Ge content in poly Si1−xGex increased, the leakage current level increased a little due to the increase of direct tunneling and QBD became higher due to the lower boron penetration.
We report results of two-dimensional electrostatic modeling for (top-contact) organic field effect transistors, focusing on the formation of the conductive channel. The effect on channel formation of the choice of the source and drain contact metal is investigated. High work function metal (e.g., gold) source and drain contacts produce a conducting p-type region near these contacts. In contrast, low work function metal source and drain contacts (e.g., magnesium) lead to depleted regions. In the center of the device, between the source and drain contacts, the channel carrier density at a fixed gate bias is determined by the work function of the gate contact material, and is essentially independent of the metal used to form the source and drain contacts. The dependence of the transistor threshold voltage on the gate contact metal work function and the device implications of the spatial variation of the induced charge density are discussed.
Microcrystalline inclusions in hydrogenated and fluorinated amorphous silicongermanium alloys, α-Si, Ge:H, F, were studied. Microcrystals grown during RF or DC glow discharge deposition from SiF4, GeF4 and H2 consist of either pure Si or Ge. Microcrystals produced by thermal annealing of initially amorphous alloys are either microcrystalline Ge or microcrystalline Si-Ge alloys depending on the annealing temperature. Values for the grain size were calculated from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectra. The grain size of the “grown” microcrystal ranges from 8 to 60 nm. These grown grains exhibit preferential orientation of the (220) planes parallel to the substrate surface. Microcrystals produced by high-temperature anneal are randomly oriented. Scanning electron micrographs of as-grown samples show protruding platelets several 100 nm long and several 10 nm wide. Fractured cross sections exhibit columnar structure.
We study the interface between un-alloyed a-Si:H,F and an a-Si0.4,Ge0.6:H,F alloy using superlattice structures. From infrared spectroscopy we estimate a width of 8 A for the excess hydrogen layer, and X-ray diffraction data give us a width of 2Å contributing to the width of the diffraction peak. Vibrational Raman scattering data show that the ratios of the number of Si-Si, Ge-Ge and Si-Ge bonds is not altered by changing the number of interfaces. This fact allows us to establish an upper limit for the interface width of 3 atomic layers, i.e. one layer in each partner plus an intermediate layer.
a-Si and μc-Si were grown from SiF4 with H2 dilution in a DC glow discharge. The crystallinity of films deposited over a range of substrate temperatures and SiF4/H2 flow ratios was studied by Raman spectroscopy and the boundary between microcrystalline and amorphous Si was determined. We find that μc-Si can be grown from SiF4 with less H2 dilution than from SiH4. In the SiF4/H2 system, the etching by of F atoms appears responsible for μc-growth; H atoms play an important role in balancing growth and etching reactions.
The crystalline perfection of epitaxial PtSi thin films and the microstructure of the PtSi/Si interface have been examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), including lattice image techniques. Epitaxial PtSi layers grow with domains which have three different positions on a (111) Si substrate. Inside a domain the crystalline perfection is high, and at the domain boundary no intermediate region has been observed. The undulation of the PtSi/Si interface is larger than that of other epitaxial silicide/Si interfaces. Despite the large undulation, a cross-sectional lattice image shows the epitaxial layer extends to the interface. The interface is abrupt in the epitaxial PtSi/Si system.
The lifetime of optically injected carriers is determined in polySi/SiO2/Si structures grown by LPCVD at 625°C. These samples are as-grown, have undergone H diffusion or have been implanted by phosphorous ions, followed by various annealing schedules. The lifetime measurement is done in an all-optical, contactless fashion, using the tools of picosecond time-resolved spectroscopy. We find that the lifetime due to recombination at the grain boundaries (trapping time) increases after implantation only if subsequent annealing increases the grain size. The trapping time also increases after hydrogen diffusion. After trapping in relatively shallow grain boundary states, thermalization into deeper lying states is slow on a subnanosecond time scale.
The cu-GaAS(ll0) interface formation nas been Studied with soft x-ray Photoemssion spectroscopy (SXPS) for Cu overlayers deposited at room temperature. Tne evolution of the tia 3a and As 3a spectra snow that strong interactions occur between Cu and the substrate during the formation of the Cu-GaAs interface. A cnemically smifted Ga 3d peak at 0.8 eV lower binging energy and strong moaification of the As 3d lineshape has been found. Detailed analysis nas shown that the dissociated As is preterentially segregated on the metal layer, but Ga remains mainly in the interfacial reion for trick Cu coverages (30 - 60 Å). Using a deconvolution tecnniqie we nave found that the final stabilized position of the interface Fermi level lies at about 0.9 eV below the conduction band minimum.
The dislocation substructure of polycrystalline MoSi2 deformed in compression at temperatures ranging from 900°C to 1300°C has been investigated. Slip is found to occur primarily by <100> Burgers vectors. A quantitative characterization of the <100> dislocation substructure is developed for several deformation temperatures, including the slip systems present and the relative occurrence of each. Orientation distributions showing the screw/edge character of the <100> dislocations are generated at each deformation temperature. Variations in these distributions with temperature are noted, and the implications of these variations to the deformation behavior of MoSi2 are discussed. Notable observations include the onset of dislocation climb between 900°C and 1100°C, a strong preference for dislocations of mixed character at 900°C, and the complete absence of pure screw dislocations from 900°C to 1300°C.
The chemical reaction at the Ni/InP (110) and Ni/GaAs (110) interfaces produced by sequential deposition of thin Ni overlayers onto cleaved semiconductor surfaces has been investigated with valence band (VB) and core level photoemission and Auger spectroscopies using synchrotron radiation as the excitation source. By monitoring changes in the VB, P 2p, In 4d, Ga 3d, As 3d, and Ni 3p photoemission spectra and the lineshape of the P LVV Auger transition during the initial stage of Schottky barrier formation, we found that for both interfaces the first few Å of Ni react strongly with the surface resulting in the formation of a nickel phosphide or nickel arsenide. At the same time, segregation of metallic In or Ga is observed.
Microcrystalline Si was grown from SiF4 and H2 by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The films are almost completely crystalline with a crystallite size (determined from Raman spectra) of about 60 Å. The optical absorption and the electrical conductivity of these films were studied. With increasing hydrogen content in the films, the dark conductivity decreases strongly and the activation of the conductivity increases. We explain the conductivity qualitatively in terms of a grain boundary model.
The Σ5 (31O)/ symmetric tilt grain boundary (STGB) in the face centered cubic (FCC) metal aluminum with 1at% copper has been studied. The model grain boundary has been fabricated by ultra-high vacuum diffusion bonding of alloy single crystals. The segregation of the copper has been encouraged by annealing the sample after bonding at 200 °C. TEM samples of this FCCmaterial were prepared with a new low voltage ion mill under very low angles.
The atomic structure of the Σ5(310)/ STGB for this system was modeled with electronic structure calculations. These theoretical calculations of the interface structure indicate that the Cu atoms segregate to distinct sites at the interface. High resolution electron microscopy (HRTEM) and analytical electron microscopy including electron energy spectroscopic imaging and X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry have been used to explore the segregation to the grain boundary. The HRTEM images and the analytical measurements were performed using different kinds of microscopes, including a Philips CM300 FEG equipped with an imaging energy filter. The amount of the segregated species at the interface was quantified in a preliminary way. To determine the atomic positions of the segregated atoms at the interface, HRTEM coupled with image simulation and a first attempt of a holographic reconstruction from a through-focal series have been used.
The dominant factor in determining the atomic structure of grain boundaries is the crystal structure of the material, e.g. FCC vs. BCC. However, for a given crystal structure, the structure of grain boundaries can be influenced by electronic effects unique to the element comprising the crystal. Understanding and modeling the influence of electronic structure on defect structures is a key ingredient for successful atomistic simulations of materials with more complicated crystal structures than FCC. We have found that grain boundary structure is a critical test for interatomic potentials. To that end, we have fabricated the nominally identical Σ5 (310)/ symmetric tilt grain boundary in three different BCC metals (Nb, Mo, and Ta) by diffusion bonding precisely oriented single crystals. The structure of these boundaries have been determined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The boundaries have been found to have different atomic structures. The structures of these boundaries have been modeled with atomistic simulations using inter-atomic potentials incorporating angularly dependent d–state interactions, as obtained from Model Generalized Pseudopotential Theory. We report here new experimental and theoretical results for Ta
We present device simulations for p-channel organic field effect transistors. The current conservation equation and Poisson's equation are solved self-consistently in two dimensions in the drift-diffusion approximation. We focus on modeling transistor structures consisting of a gate electrode, a silicon dioxide gate insulator, and a pentacene or a conjugated polymer layer as the active (channel) material. The source and drain contacts are taken to be deposited directly on the gate insulator (bottom contact structure). We examine the effects associated with differences in charge carrier injection for different source and drain contact materials. It is also shown that, if the organic material immediately adjacent to the contacts has poor conduction properties, ‘parasitic’ source and drain series resistances that depend on the contact/organic injection barrier height as well as the channel material mobility can result.
The UK was one of few European countries to document a substantial wave of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in summer 2009. The First Few Hundred (FF100) project ran from April–June 2009 gathering information on early laboratory-confirmed cases across the UK. In total, 392 confirmed cases were followed up. Children were predominantly affected (median age 15 years, IQR 10–27). Symptoms were mild and similar to seasonal influenza, with the exception of diarrhoea, which was reported by 27%. Eleven per cent of all cases had an underlying medical condition, similar to the general population. The majority (92%) were treated with antiviral drugs with 12% reporting adverse effects, mainly nausea and other gastrointestinal complaints. Duration of illness was significantly shorter when antivirals were given within 48 h of onset (median 5 vs. 9 days, P=0·01). No patients died, although 14 were hospitalized, of whom three required mechanical ventilation. The FF100 identified key clinical and epidemiological characteristics of infection with this novel virus in near real-time.
Attentional difficulties reported in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) may be due to preferential processing of disease-salient stimuli at a pre-attentive or at a conscious level or to a general problem in attention. Attentional difficulties may be associated with duration of illness.
Female participants with AN (restricting subtype; n=24) and healthy comparison women (n=24) were randomly allocated to subliminal or supraliminal exposure to visual stimuli (food, neutral and aversive images) while performing the 1-back and 2-back working-memory tasks.
Participants with AN made fewer errors than the healthy comparison group in the subliminal condition but significantly more errors in the supraliminal condition [condition×group interaction, F(1, 44)=6.82, p<0.01]: this was irrespective of stimulus type (food, neutral and aversive) and task (1-back or 2-back). The total number of errors made correlated positively with the duration of the AN for both the 1-back task (rs=0.46, p<0.05) and for the 2-back task (rs=0.53, p<0.01).
Decreased ability to concentrate in the presence of explicit distracters is a feature of AN and is associated with longer duration of illness. This phenomenon could be addressed in psychological interventions.
Seabee Hook is a low lying gravel spit adjacent to Cape Hallett, northern Victoria Land, in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica and hosts an Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) rookery. Dipwells were inserted to monitor changes in depth to, and volume of, groundwater and tracer tests were conducted to estimate aquifer hydraulic conductivity and groundwater velocity. During summer (November–February), meltwater forms a shallow, unconfined, aquifer perched on impermeable ice cemented soil. Groundwater extent and volume depends on the amount of snowfall as meltwater is primarily sourced from melting snow drifts. Groundwater velocity through the permeable gravel and sand was up to 7.8 m day−1, and hydraulic conductivities of 4.7 × 10−4 m s−1 to 3.7 × 10−5 m s−1 were measured. The presence of the penguin rookery, and the proximity of the sea, affects groundwater chemistry with elevated concentrations of salts (1205 mg L−1 sodium, 332 mg L−1 potassium) and nutrients (193 mg L−1 nitrate, 833 mg L−1 ammonia, 10 mg L−1 total phosphorus) compared with groundwater sourced away from the rookery, and with other terrestrial waters in Antarctica.