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Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtypes H5 and H7 can infect poultry causing low pathogenicity (LP) AI, but these LPAIVs may mutate to highly pathogenic AIV in chickens or turkeys causing high mortality, hence H5/H7 subtypes demand statutory intervention. Serological surveillance in the European Union provides evidence of H5/H7 AIV exposure in apparently healthy poultry. To identify the most sensitive screening method as the first step in an algorithm to provide evidence of H5/H7 AIV infection, the standard approach of H5/H7 antibody testing by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) was compared with an ELISA, which detects antibodies to all subtypes. Sera (n = 1055) from 74 commercial chicken flocks were tested by both methods. A Bayesian approach served to estimate diagnostic test sensitivities and specificities, without assuming any ‘gold standard’. Sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA was 97% and 99.8%, and for H5/H7 HI 43% and 99.8%, respectively, although H5/H7 HI sensitivity varied considerably between infected flocks. ELISA therefore provides superior sensitivity for the screening of chicken flocks as part of an algorithm, which subsequently utilises H5/H7 HI to identify infection by these two subtypes. With the calculated sensitivity and specificity, testing nine sera per flock is sufficient to detect a flock seroprevalence of 30% with 95% probability.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
One of the ways to obtain a detailed 3D ISM map is by gathering interstellar (IS) absorption data toward widely distributed background target stars at known distances (line-of-sight/LOS data). The radial and angular evolution of the LOS measurements allow the inference of the ISM spatial distribution. For a better spatial resolution, one needs a large number of the LOS data. It requires building fast tools to measure IS absorption. One of the tools is a global analysis that fit two different diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) simultaneously. We derived the equivalent width (EW) ratio of the two DIBs recorded in each spectrum of target stars. The ratio variability can be used to study IS environmental conditions or to detect DIB family.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
We are analyzing the emission lines and continuum spectra of a sample of ~61 radio-loud quasars to investigate dependences amongst various spectral, radio, and X-ray parameters, in particular to look for dependences of spectral properties on inclination of the the radio-jet axis (Wills et al. 1997).
We have carried out conventional correlation analyses, as well as spectral principal-component analyses (SPCA) as described in the previous paper (Wills et al. 1997). We found that the single largest contribution to the spectrum-tospectrum variations was from a component — the ‘first principal component’ (PC1) — that has a more UV (or less red) continuum than the mean spectrum, and a weaker narrow-line (NLR) spectrum. The ‘second principal component’ (PC2) accounts for only 8–12% of the spectrum-to-spectrum variation, contributing a weaker UV, and stronger red continuum, and showing stronger narrow emission lines. There is also a tendency for the broad (BLR) lines in the second principal component spectrum to be narrower (note the sharper He II λ1640 and [O III] λ1663 features redward of the stronger C IV λ1549 emission line, and perhaps a narrow component of the N V λ1240 line redward of Lyα).
In November 2013, national public health agencies in England and Scotland identified an increase in laboratory-confirmed Salmonella Mikawasima. The role of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) as a risk factor for salmonellosis is unclear; we therefore captured information on PPI usage as part of our outbreak investigation. We conducted a case-control study, comparing each case with two controls. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression. Thirty-nine of 61 eligible cases were included in the study. The median age of cases was 45 years; 56% were female. Of these, 33% were admitted to hospital and 31% reported taking PPIs. We identified an association between PPIs and non-typhoidal salmonellosis (aOR 8·8, 95% CI 2·0–38·3). There is increasing evidence supporting the existence of an association between salmonellosis and PPIs; however, biological studies are needed to understand the effect of PPIs in the pathogenesis of Salmonella. We recommend future outbreak studies investigate PPI usage to strengthen evidence on the relevance of PPIs in Salmonella infection. These findings should be used to support the development of guidelines for patients and prescribers on the risk of gastrointestinal infection and PPI usage.
In traditional transit timing variations (TTVs) analysis of multi-planetary systems, the individual TTVs are first derived from transit fitting and later modelled using n-body dynamic simulations to constrain planetary masses. We show that fitting simultaneously the transit light curves with the system dynamics (photo-dynamical model) increases the precision of the TTV measurements and helps constrain the system architecture. We exemplify the advantages of applying this photo-dynamical model to a multi-planetary system found in K2 data very close to 3:2 mean motion resonance, K2-19. In this case the period of the larger TTV variations (libration period) is much longer (>1.5 years) than the duration of the K2 observations (80 days). However, our method allows to detect the short period TTVs produced by the orbital conjunctions between the planets that in turn permits to uniquely characterise the system. Therefore, our method can be used to constrain the masses of near-resonant systems even when the full libration curve is not observed.
We present a revised effective wavelength and photometric calibration for the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer W4 band, including tests of empirically motivated modifications to its pre-launch laboratory-measured relative system response curve. We derived these by comparing measured W4 photometry with photometry synthesised from spectra of galaxies and planetary nebulae. The difference between measured and synthesised photometry using the pre-launch laboratory-measured W4 relative system response can be as large as 0.3 mag for galaxies and 1 mag for planetary nebulae. We find the W4 effective wavelength should be revised upward by 3.3%, from 22.1 to 22.8 μm, and the W4 AB magnitude of Vega should be revised from mW4 = 6.59 to mW4 = 6.66. In an attempt to reproduce the observed W4 photometry, we tested three modifications to the pre-launch laboratory-measured W4 relative system response curve, all of which have an effective wavelength of 22.8 μm. Of the three relative system response curve models tested, a model that matches the laboratory-measured relative system response curve, but has the wavelengths increased by 3.3% (or ≃ 0.73 μm) achieves reasonable agreement between the measured and synthesised photometry.
To determine whether controlling the prescription of targeted antibiotics would translate to a measurable reduction in hospital-onset Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) rates.
A multicenter before-and-after intervention comparative study.
Ten medical centers in the greater New York region. Intervention group comprised of 6 facilities with early antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs). The 4 facilities without ASPs made up the nonintervention group.
Intervention facilities identified target antibiotics using case-control studies and implemented ASP-based strategies to control their use. Pre- and postintervention hospital-onset CDI rates and antibiotic consumption were compared for a 20-month period from June 2010 to January 2012. Antibiotic usage was compared using defined daily dose, days of therapy, and number of courses prescribed. Comparisons used bivariate and regression techniques.
Intervention facilities identified piperacillin/tazobactam, fluoroquinolones, or cefepime (odds ratio, 2.0-9.8 in CDI case patients compared with those without CDI) as intervention targets and selected several interventions (all included a component of audit and feedback). Varying degrees of success were observed in reducing antibiotic consumption over time. Total target antibiotic use significantly decreased (P < .05) when measured by days of therapy and number of courses but not by defined daily dose. Intravenous moxifloxacin and oral ciprofloxacin use showed significant reduction when measured by defined daily dose and days of therapy (P ≤ .01). Number of courses with all forms of these antibiotics was reduced (P ≤ .005). Intervention hospitals reported fewer hospital-onset CDI cases (2.8 rate point difference) compared with nonintervention hospitals; however, we were unable to show statistically significant decreases in aggregate hospital-onset CDI either between intervention and nonintervention groups or within the intervention group over time.
Although decreases in target antibiotic consumption did not translate into reductions of hospital-onset CDI in this study, many valuable lessons (including implementation strategies and antibiotic consumption measures) were learned. The findings can inform potential policy decisions regarding incorporating control of CDI and ASP as healthcare quality measures.
In this paper we have reported the observation of visible photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) of Pr implanted in GaN. The implanted samples were given isochronal thermal annealing treatments at a temperature of 11000 C in NH3, N2, Ar2, and in forming gas N2 +H2, at atmospheric pressure to recover implantation damages and activate the rare earth ions. The sharp characteristic emission lines corresponding to Pr3+ intra-4fn-shell transitions are resolved in the spectral range from 350 nm to 1150 nm, and observed over the temperature range of 12 K-335 K. The PL and CL decay kinetics measurement was performed for 3P1, 3P0 and 1D2 levels.
Excavations at Ewanrigg, Maryport, Cumbria (NY035353) took place in 1983 and 1985–87. The site of a Bronze Age cremation cemetery was discovered whilst fieldwalking a crop-mark enclosure site; this site had been trial excavated in 1956 and shown to be a Romano-British settlement. During the excavations 28 burials were discovered, 26 being cremations and two inhumations. Both inhumations, one a Beaker burial and the other a cist burial with a Food Vessel, had been disturbed. The Bronze Age pottery assemblage was a mixture of Collared Urns and Food Vessel Urns; the Collared Urns are mainly Secondary Series with one showing some Primary Series traits. Fragments of two Beakers were discovered, one an N/MR Beaker and the other more in the long-necked Northern series tradition. All the pottery, except the N/MR Beaker, was made from local clay. Within one of the cremation burials a clay connecting rod for a furnace was discovered and apart from one other site this is the only discovery which shows any link between metal-working and the burials within the Collared Urn tradition. Also within the cremations were a number of toggles and pins made from animal bone. The human cremated bone was sufficiently well preserved to allow analysis to show that there were six female and five male burials. Radiocarbon samples, mainly on charcoal, gave a date range for the Collared Urns of 2460–1520 BC (calibrated to two standard deviations).
EMU is a wide-field radio continuum survey planned for the new Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The primary goal of EMU is to make a deep (rms ∼ 10 μJy/beam) radio continuum survey of the entire Southern sky at 1.3 GHz, extending as far North as +30° declination, with a resolution of 10 arcsec. EMU is expected to detect and catalogue about 70 million galaxies, including typical star-forming galaxies up to z ∼ 1, powerful starbursts to even greater redshifts, and active galactic nuclei to the edge of the visible Universe. It will undoubtedly discover new classes of object. This paper defines the science goals and parameters of the survey, and describes the development of techniques necessary to maximise the science return from EMU.
CuInS2 (CIS) films were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) method in air using CuCl2, InCl3 and SC(NH2)2 as precursor materials. The effect of the absorber growth temperature in the interval of 240-350 °C and precursors’ molar ratio in the spray solution on the CIS film properties and ZnO/In2S3/CIS-type CSP-deposited thin film solar cell output characteristics has been studied. CIS films were characterized by XRD and EDX, solar cells were characterized by IV curves in dark and under illumination, and junction barrier height (Φb). The highest Φb of 1170 meV and open circuit voltage (Voc) of 560 mV were recorded for the cell with CIS absorber grown at 250 °C. Increasing the CIS deposition temperature decreases Φb and Voc, makes a component of solar cell photosensitive and increases current density. The precursors’ molar ratio in spray solution becomes relevant at CIS growth temperatures higher than 300 °C as deposition of thiourea-rich solutions suppresses oxide formation in CIS layer and contributes to higher open circuit voltage.
It has been demonstrated in literature that chemical liquid deposition (CLD) processes such as dip coating, spray coating, roll coating, spin coating, curtain coating, meniscus coating etc. can be successfully used to deposit anti-reflective coatings on glass substrates. In comparison to physical vapor deposition (PVD), a CLD process generally is cost efficient because of lower capital requirements to set up coating manufacturing lines. Within the realm of CLD processes only some application techniques are suitable for high speed continuous manufacturing processes to deposit coatings on large area glass substrates. Significant differences in transfer efficiencies of these high speed application processes are readily apparent when material utilization per unit area of glass are compared. Roll coat process among all the high speed CLD processes stands out for its high material transfer efficiency due to direct contact printing on flat glass substrates. Honeywell Electronic Materials expanded its line of SOLARC® anti-reflective coating materials to include a new coating formulation SOLARC® RPV, which is customized for roll coating application. This paper highlights the advantages of using SOLARC® RPV in roll coat process and the performance attributes of SOLARC® anti-reflective coatings. Durability characteristics of these anti-reflective coatings in accelerated aging tests designed to simulate harsh field conditions will also be discussed.
The purpose of this study was to determine whether pooling avian influenza (AI)-positive swabs with negative swabs has a detrimental effect on the sensitivity of AI real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reactions (rRT–PCRs). Cloacal and buccal swabs were sampled daily from 12 turkeys infected with A/goose/England/07(H2N2). For half the turkeys, each swab was mixed with four swabs from known AI-negative turkeys, and for the other half the swabs were tested individually. Bayesian modelling was used to (i) determine whether pooling the positive swabs compromised the cycle threshold (Ct) value obtained from the rRT–PCRs, and (ii) estimate the likelihood of detection of an H2N2 infected turkey flock via rRT–PCR for pooled and individually tested swabs (cloacal and buccal) vs. the number of days post-infection of the flock. Results indicated that there was no significant effect of compromising AI rRT–PCR sensitivity by pooling a weak positive swab with negative swabs on the Ct values which were obtained. Pooled sampling was able to widen the detection window compared to individual sampling, for the same number of rRT–PCR tests. This indicates that pooled sampling would be an effective method of reducing the number of tests to be performed to determine flock status during an AI outbreak and for surveillance.
While the global market for photovoltaic (PV) modules continues to grow 30% - 40% annually, manufacturers are looking at advanced technologies and cell concepts in order to improve the cost performance and reliability. One of the challenges faced by the silicon (Si) PV manufacturers is the lack of efficient metal screen-printing technologies. While screen-printing is a long-established technology, THE traditional silver-based pastes have technical limits in terms of paste composition, drying and thermal-firing conditions, line-width, aspect ratio, contact resistance, etc. Such limits keep the industrial cell structure from being close to an ideal PV cell architecture. In an effort to develop alternate printable pastes electrically, electrically conductive adhesives are considered in this study to provide fine-line contacts and low thermal budget so that performance-driven solar cell designs can be reliably implemented in manufacturing. Mechanical properties of solar cell printed by conductive adhesives are experimentally investigated in this work and confirmed with the simulation results.