Separated and vortical flows are dominant over various unmanned air vehicles (UAVs). In this article, issues and challenges of vortical flows for future UAVs are reviewed. These include shear layer instabilities, vortex breakdown and wing stall, vortex interactions, nonslender vortices, multiple vortices, and manoeuvring wing vortices. There are also issues relating to vortical flows in certain flow/structure interactions, as well as in aerodynamics/propulsion interactions. Separated and vortical flows are even more dominant at low Reynolds number flows. The main features of vortical flows, unsteady aerodynamics, and propulsion related vortical flow isssues relevant to mini- and micro air vehicles, are discussed.