This paper describes and analyses the process of implementing participatory community-based management (CBM) towards sustainable management of goat genetic resources in two rural communities in Southern Benin from November 2005 to February 2007. The process started with the selection of the communities. This was followed by a participatory situation analysis, identification of problems and of possible solutions, and the provisionof relevant information and training to interested farmers. It was facilitated by a multidisciplinary research team composed of a specialist in livestock production systems, a socio-economist and an agronomist. The interaction between the research team and the farmers aimed to develop and implement community led strategies towards better management and conservation of the local resources of goat. The approach adopted to facilitate the creation of representative, accountable and legal local institutions and the efforts made in ensuring their empowerment are described. It has been shown that once local people recognise the benefits of such community-based activities and are offered the relevant information and technical support, they can organize themselves effectively and take appropriate actions to better manage and conserve their local resources. The interactive nature of thisapproach allows its rapid adjustment to different local conditions and thus its replication elsewhere.