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Unknown aspects of the initiation, evolution, and associated phenomena of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), together with their capability of perturbing the fragile technological equilibrium on which nowadays society depends, turn them a compelling subject of study. While space weather forecasts are thus far not able to predict when and where in the Sun will the next CME take place, various CME triggering mechanisms have been proposed, without reaching consensus on which is the predominant one. To improve our knowledge in these respects, we investigate a long-duration active region throughout its life, from birth until decay along five solar rotations, in connection with its production of ejective events. We benefit from the wealth of solar remote-sensing data with improved temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution provided by the ground-breaking space missions STEREO, SDO, and SOHO. During the investigated time interval, which covers the months July – November 2010, the STEREO spacecraft were nearly 180 degrees apart, allowing for the uninterrupted tracking of the active region and its ensuing CMEs. The ejective aspect is examined from multi-viewpoint coronagraphic images, while the dynamics of the active region photospheric magnetic field are inspected by means of SDO/HMI data for specific subintervals of interest. The ultimate goal of this work in progress is to identify common patterns in the ejective aspect that can be connected with the active region characteristics.
I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6–7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable.
Relationships between fatty acids (FAs) in plant oils included in goat diets and milk fat C18 isomers were determined by Principal Factor Analysis (PFA). The three first principal factors (PF1, PF2 and PF3) accounted for 64·5% of the total variation in milk FAs contents. Fatty acids with a double bond at carbons 13, 14, 15 or 16 had high (>0·6) and positive loadings for PF1, trans-4 to trans-8 C18:1 for PF2, whereas trans-10 C18:1, trans-11 C18:1 and cis-9 trans-11 C18:2 showed high and positive loadings for PF3. Pearson's correlations supported that PF1, PF2 and PF3 were related to α-linolenic, oleic and linoleic acid intakes, respectively. Our results show that the quantitatively main FAs in plant lipids supplemented to dairy ruminants are often the main cause of the observed changes in milk C18 isomer contents. However, sometimes the observed changes are caused, or at least are influenced, by other FAs present in lower quantities in the plant lipids. Thus, using mixtures of plant oils with differently unsaturated main FAs could be a way of tailoring milk fat composition to a pre-designed pattern.
The present research provides detailed information on the geographic and bathymetric distributional patterns of fishes and describes the main species assemblages of the continental shelf and upper slope off El Salvador. The sampling was based on 673 bottom-trawl tows taken during research surveys from April to November 2003. The data analysis was based on presence-absence matrixes and was conducted with PRIMER 6 software. A total of 148 fish species were recorded during the study period: the families with the highest number of species were Sciaenidae (13) and Carangidae (10), and the highest percentages of occurrence were registered for Porichthys margaritatus (40.6%), Pontinus sp. (34.8%) and Monolene dubiosa (33.1%). The cluster analysis by depth showed three faunistic associations: (1) on the inner and part of the mid continental shelf (20–60 m), (2) one bathymetric stratum on the mid continental shelf (80–100 m), and (3) on the outer continental shelf and upper slope (120–240 m). The cluster analysis by geographic zones showed separation between three zones: Western, Central and Eastern Zones off El Salvador. The Central zone is characterized by a different fish community of mixed habitat, while the main factor that determined the fish assemblages on the continental shelf and upper slope was depth.
Amoebae were isolated from contact lenses of a symptomatic lens wearer in Spain. Protozoa were characterized by studying their morphology, biology, protease activity and the 18S rRNA gene sequence. Morphology of the organism was observed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Its structure corresponded to an amphizoic amoeba. The protozoa grew well at 37 °C and poorly at lower temperatures. In addition, it was capable of lysing mammalian cells in vitro. A major 56 kDa proteolytic enzyme was observed in amoeba crude extracts by gelatin–sodium dodecyl sulphate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Most proteolytic enzymes in protozoa extracts showed significant activity over a wide range of pH (3–9) and temperature (8–45 °C) values. The assays on inhibition of protease activity indicated strongly that enzymes detected in amoeba extracts corresponded to serine proteases and, to a lesser extent, cysteine proteases. The use of proteinase inhibitors on a tissue culture model proved that the proteinase activity is critical for developing focal lesions in HeLa cell monolayers. Finally, partial sequencing of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the isolate is closely related to Acanthamoeba griffini H37 from the UK (T3 genotype).
Two clusters of confirmed cryptosporidiosis infections were detected in Navarra, Spain, in the summer of 2012, in the context of an increased incidence in the region. Molecular subtyping of Cryptosporidium hominis determined that one cluster, occurring in an urban area, was due to the predominant circulating subtype IbA10G2R2 and the other cluster, with cases occurring in a rural area, was due to a rare subtype IaA18R3. No single exposure was associated with infection, although exposure to certain children's pools was reported by a majority of patients interviewed in each cluster. Genotyping tools were useful in the investigation and could aid investigation of cryptosporidiosis outbreaks in Spain in the future.
Serrana de Teruel is an endangered cattle breed raised traditionally in the mountainous areas of Southern Aragon (Spain). With the aim of recovering the breed, a characterization was carried out to determine the morphology, husbandry and genetic values of the Serrana de Teruel breed. Individuals showed a medium to high degree of homogeneity and harmony, most of the animals being of straight profile, and eumetrical and sublongilineal individuals, although smaller in size than other phylogenetically proximate breeds. Biodiversity studies showed good diversity values despite the breed's low effective population size (240 individuals in 2010). These studies provided the basis for a sustainable programme of genetic conservation. In order to guarantee long-term maintenance, germplasm banks contain 6400 doses of semen and 74 embryos. Concurrently, the commercial viability of the breed was studied by means of an analysis of carcass and meat quality from three commercial categories – yearling, bull and steer (castrated at 9 months old) – with ages at slaughter of 12, 22 and 22 months and live weights of 470, 720 and 660 kg,, respectively. Good performances and high-quality products with no commercial constraints in the beef market were obtained. Finally, a prospective study for a new beef quality product labelled ‘Serrana de Teruel’ was performed, according to the opinions of experts. These studies provide the standard requirements for the alternative production of a labelled beef product that might create an incentive for the production of the Serrana de Teruel breed among other breeds, and thus favour the conservation of the breed in the medium term.
We present a kinematical study of the marginally edge-on galaxy ESO 379-006. With Fabry-Perot spectroscopy at Hα we obtain velocity maps, the radial velocity field, and position-velocity diagrams parallel to the major and to the minor axis of the galaxy. We build the rotation curve of the galaxy and discuss the role of projection effects. The twisting of isovelocities in the radial velocity field of the disk of ESO 379-006 as well as a kinematical asymmetry found in the position-velocity diagrams parallel to the minor axis suggest the existence of non-circular motions that can be modeled by including a radial inflow besides the rotation motion. Extraplanar Diffuse Ionized gas was detected in this galaxy both from the images and from its kinematics. It is possible that the diffuse gas is lagging in rotation.
Background: There are already several existing studies that show the effectiveness of mindfulness-based approaches in varying types of disorders. Only a few studies, however, have analyzed the effectiveness of this intervention in psychosis, and without finding, up to now, significant differences from the control group. Aims: The aim of this study is two-fold: to replicate previous studies, and to focus on analyzing the feasibility and effectiveness of applying mindfulness in a group of people with psychosis. Method: Eighteen patients with psychosis were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received eight 1-hour sessions of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT), while the control group was relegated to a waiting list to receive MBCT therapy. Results: The experimental group scored significantly higher than the control group in their ability to respond mindfully to stressful internal events. Conclusions: Both the usefulness and effectiveness of implementing a mindfulness-based program have been replicated in a controlled manner in patients with psychosis.
Macaca fascicularis is an excellent species to examine adaptation to a particularly wide array of habitats and environmental variables, especially where human impact is a core component of the landscape. Within the long-tailed macaque species (Macaca fascicularis) there are at least ten subspecies, dramatic variation in facial hair patterns, and body size varies from 2.5–7.0 kg for females and 4.7–14 kg for males (Gumert, Chapter 1; Fooden, 1995; Napier and Napier, 1967; Rowe, 1996). Despite their well-documented occurrence and utilization of primary tropical rainforest (up to 2,000m elevation), the long-tailed macaques appear to prefer riverine habitats, coastal forests, swamp or mixed forests and secondary forest habitats (Crockett and Wilson, 1980). The ability to thrive in a variety of environmental types probably played a role in this group's evolutionary success throughout Southeast Asia especially during the last 5–8,000 years of human-induced (agricultural) environmental change.
The island of Bali is approximately 5632 km2 and has a rich history of volcanic activity and thus some of the most fertile soils in the world. There are approximately 247 rivers all cascading down slopes from the central volcanic range. During both the wet and dry seasons moisture accumulates above the volcanoes in the center of the islands providing a nearly year-round supply for the rivers that course rapidly down towards the sea, creating deep ravines and ready access to water for the south central portion of the island.
A process for volume production of ultra-low distortion (<200 ppm), thin polyimide membranes on silicon wafers was developed using the RotoEtch™ dynamic fluid confinement tool. A critical advantage of the process is that it exposes the sample to the etching solution over a selected area on one side only, without contacting, wetting, or otherwise contaminating the front surface. This unique feature allows the etching away of a circular portion (over 40 mm diameter) of the backside of a patterned silicon wafer to form a freestanding thin polyimide membrane (<1 μim thick). The polyimide film is patterned prior to wet etching with a sub-micron period grating (200 nm period). The resulting distortion of the grating on the freestanding membrane is less than 200 ppm over the entire membrane area. This process seems ideally suited for instances—like the one above—when immersion, contacting, or contamination of one side of the sample would be impossible or impractical. It also allows backetching finished micro-structures that would otherwise be disturbed or destroyed by immersion in the fluid. Finally, it speeds up the fabrication of freestanding films since it does not require masking or any other form of front-side protection or backside lithographic steps. In this paper we report on a silicon through-etch process based on an HF:HNO3 acid mixture which typically forms membranes in only 10–20 minutes. Since polyimide easily distorts due to excessive heat or mechanical strain, the etching process needs to be carefully controlled. This process is also ideal for forming large membranes of other HF:HNO3-inert materials such as silicon carbide or diamond.
We present the photometric analysis of 4 transits of the exoplanet WASP-4b, obtained with the Baade 6.5m telescope, one of the two Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas. The light curves have a photometric precision of 0.5 mmag and a time sampling of 30s. This high precision has allowed us to detect several “spot anomalies”: temporary brightenings due to the occultation of a starspot on the transit chord. By analyzing these anomalies we find the sky-projected stellar obliquity to be λ = 1°+12°−14°. The small value suggests that the planet migration mechanism preserved the initially low obliquity, or that tidal evolution has realigned the system.
In this study we present scanning Fabry-Perot Hα observations of the isolated interacting galaxy pair NGC 5278/79. We derived velocity fields, various kinematic parameters and rotation curves for both galaxies. These kinematical results together with the fact that dust lanes have been detected in both galaxies, as well as the analysis of surface brightness profiles along the minor axis, allowed us to determine univocally that both components of the interacting pair are trailing spirals. We have also estimated the mass of NGC 5278 fitting its rotation curve with a disk-halo component. We have tested three different types of halo (pseudo-isothermal, Hernquist and Navarro Frenk White) and we have obtained that the rotation curve can be fitted either with a pseudo-isothermal, an Hernquist halo or a Navarro Frenk White halo component, although in the first case the amount of dark matter required is about ten times smaller than for the other two halo distributions.
The research was carried out to evaluate the effect of different α-tocopherol concentrations in lamb meat on oxidative stability during storage in high-oxygen atmosphere. Thirty-six lambs were randomly distributed to four groups and given diets containing four levels of vitamin E (20, 270, 520 and 1020 mg vitamin E/kg feed) from an initial weight of 13.2 ± 0.5 kg to a slaughter weight of 26.2 ± 0.3 kg. Supplementation of the diet with vitamin E increased (P < 0.001) the concentration of α-tocopherol in the meat and concentrations were obtained in the 0.46 to 4.14 mg/kg meat range. Broken-line analysis of data indicated a target dietary vitamin E supplementation of 287 mg/kg feed, which corresponded with a concentration of 2.26 mg α-tocopherol/kg meat. α-Tocopherol in meat was highly correlated with the oxidation of lipids and pigments. Broken-line analysis of data indicated the target α-tocopherol concentration in lamb for improved protection against lipid and pigment oxidation during 14, 21 and 28 days of storage in high-oxygen atmosphere was in the range 1.87 to 2.37 mg/kg meat. These concentrations of α-tocopherol in the meat made it possible to maintain the indicator values of lipid and pigment oxidation below the values considered in the bibliography as unacceptable to the consumer.