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Parasite distribution patterns in lotic catchments are driven by the combined influences of unidirectional water flow and the mobility of the most mobile host. However, the importance of such drivers in catchments dominated by lentic habitats are poorly understood. We examined parasite populations of Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus from a series of linear-connected lakes in northern Norway to assess the generality of lotic-derived catchment-scale parasite assemblage patterns. Our results demonstrated that the abundance of most parasite taxa increased from the upper to lower catchment. Allogenic taxa (piscivorous birds as final host) were present throughout the entire catchment, whereas their autogenic counterparts (charr as final hosts) demonstrated restricted distributions, thus supporting the theory that the mobility of the most mobile host determines taxa-specific parasite distribution patterns. Overall, catchment-wide parasite abundance and distribution patterns in this lentic-dominated system were in accordance with those reported for lotic systems. Additionally, our study highlighted that upper catchment regions may be inadequate reservoirs to facilitate recolonization of parasite communities in the event of downstream environmental perturbations.
To systematically review studies from Irish prisons that estimate the prevalence of major mental illness, alcohol and substance misuse, and homelessness at the time of committal.
Healthcare databases were searched for studies quantifying the point prevalence for each outcome of interest. Searches were augmented by scanning of bibliographies and searches of governmental and non-governmental websites. Proportional meta-analyses were completed for each outcome.
We found eight, six and five studies quantifying the point prevalence of major mental illness, substance misuse, and homelessness respectively. Considerable heterogeneity was found for each subgroup (except psychosis where substantial heterogeneity was observed) and random effects models were used to calculate pooled percentages. The pooled percentage for psychotic disorder was 3.6% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3.0–4.2%], for affective disorder 4.3% (95% CI 2.1–7.1%), for alcohol use disorder 28.3% (95% CI 19.9–37.4%), for substance use disorder 50.9% (95% CI 37.6–64.2%) and for those who were homeless on committal 17.4% (95% CI 8.7–28.4%).
Estimates for the prevalence of psychotic illness and substance abuse amongst Irish prisoners are in keeping with international estimates of morbidity in prisons, whilst those for affective disorders are lower. The prevalence of homelessness in committal to Irish prisons is higher than some international estimates. Rates for psychoses, alcohol and substance misuse as well as homelessness in Irish prisons are significantly higher than the general population prevalence of these vulnerabilities. A need for service development is discussed.
Research suggests that the way in which cognitive therapy is delivered is an important factor in determining outcomes. We test the hypotheses in which the development of a shared problem list, use of case formulation, homework tasks and active intervention strategies will act as process variables.
Presence of these components during therapy is taken from therapist notes. The direct and indirect effect of the intervention is estimated by an instrumental variable analysis.
A significant decrease in the symptom score for case formulation (coefficient =–23, 95% CI –44 to –1.7, P = 0.036) and homework (coefficient =–0.26, 95% CI –0.51 to –0.001, P = 0.049) is found. Improvement with the inclusion of active change strategies is of borderline significance (coefficient =–0.23, 95% CI –0.47 to 0.005, P = 0.056).
There is a greater treatment effect if formulation and homework are involved in therapy. However, high correlation between components means that these may be indicators of overall treatment fidelity.
Newell & Shanks (N&S) argue against the idea that any significant role for unconscious influences on decision making has been established by research to date. Inasmuch as this conclusion applies to the idea of an “intelligent cognitive unconscious,” we would agree. Our concern is that the article could lead the unwary to conclude that there are no unconscious influences on decision making – and never could be. We give reasons why this may not be the case.
Aims: Problem or pathological gambling is associated with significant disruption to the individual, family and community with a range of adverse outcomes, including legal, financial and mental health impairment. It occurs more frequently in younger populations, and comorbid conditions are common. Cognitive–behaviour therapy (CBT) is the most empirically established class of treatments for problematic gambling. This article reports on a systematic review and evaluation of randomised clinical trials (RCTs) concerning two core techniques of CBT: cognitive and behavioural (exposure-based) therapies. Methods: PsycINFO, MEDLINE and the Cochrane library were searched from database inception to December 2012. The CONsolidated Standards Of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) for non-pharmacological treatments was used to evaluate each study. Results: The initial search identified 104 references. After two screening phases, seven RCTs evaluating either cognitive (n = 3), exposure (n = 3) or both (n = 1) interventions remained. The studies were published between 1983 and 2003 and conducted across Australia, Canada, and Spain. On average, approximately 31% of CONSORT items were rated as ‘absent’ for each study and more than 52% rated as ‘present with some limitations’. For all studies, 70.83% of items rated as ‘absent’ were in the methods section. Conclusions: The findings from this review of randomised clinical trials involving cognitive and exposure-based treatments for gambling disorders show that the current evidence base is limited. Trials with low risk of bias are needed to be reported before recommendations are given on their effectiveness and clinicians can appraise their potential utility with confidence.
The hen's egg, in the form of table eggs and egg products, forms a staple part of the world's total protein consumption. In the last century, there has been considerable research effort focusing on ways of improving egg production and enhancing the quality of eggs. More recently, and with the development and application of new molecular technologies, our understanding and knowledge of how an egg is formed, what it actually consists of, in terms of its major versus minor components, and what the functional roles of each of these components might be, have been greatly enhanced. For example, new previously unknown molecules with specific activity or functional properties have been discovered in the egg albumen and yolk, some of which have potential uses in pharmaceutical and other food related applications. This review paper, which is the collaborative effort of members of Working Group 4 - Quality of Eggs and Egg Products - of the European Federation of WPSA, describes the scientific research behind a number of these major advances and provides some insight to the focus of current research in this area.
EMU is a wide-field radio continuum survey planned for the new Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The primary goal of EMU is to make a deep (rms ∼ 10 μJy/beam) radio continuum survey of the entire Southern sky at 1.3 GHz, extending as far North as +30° declination, with a resolution of 10 arcsec. EMU is expected to detect and catalogue about 70 million galaxies, including typical star-forming galaxies up to z ∼ 1, powerful starbursts to even greater redshifts, and active galactic nuclei to the edge of the visible Universe. It will undoubtedly discover new classes of object. This paper defines the science goals and parameters of the survey, and describes the development of techniques necessary to maximise the science return from EMU.
Studies show an inverse relationship between breakfast frequency and weight gain. This may reflect poor eating habits generally and associated low physical activity (PA) or direct impacts of breakfast on mechanisms leading to lethargy and reduced PA. The relationship between breakfast frequency and PA is inconclusive. We aimed to determine whether breakfast frequency is associated with PA levels in British adolescents independent of body composition and socio-economic status (SES). Habitual breakfast frequency (self-report questionnaire) was assessed in 877 adolescents (43 % male, age 14·5 (sd 0·5) years old). PA was measured over 5 d (accelerometry, average counts/min; cpm). Associations between daily PA and breakfast frequency were assessed using linear regression adjusted for body fat percentage and SES. Effect modification by sex and associations with PA during the morning (06.00–12.00 hours) were explored. For boys, there were no significant associations between breakfast frequency and PA. For girls, less frequent breakfast consumption was significantly associated with lower PA (cpm) during the morning (occasional v. frequent β − 6·1 (95 % CI − 11·1, − 1·1), P = 0·017) when adjusted for body fat percentage and SES. There were no associations between PA and breakfast consumption over the whole day; however, for girls, less frequent breakfast consumption may be associated with lower PA levels during the morning, suggesting that breakfast consumption should perhaps be taken into consideration when aiming to promote PA in adolescent girls.
In this paper, we describe the occurrence of a microsporidian parasite in female-biased populations of an intertidal amphipod, Corophium volutator (Pallas), at mudflat sites in the Bay of Fundy, Canada. Sequence data for the parasite's 16S rDNA indicate that it is a novel microsporidian species. This parasite was found principally in female host gonads, indicating that it might be a vertically transmitted, sex-distorting microparasite. At 4 sites each sampled in early and mid-summer, parasite prevalence varied from 0 to 21%. In the lab, infected mothers gave rise to more female-biased broods, than did uninfected mothers. Infection was not associated with size of females or with lowered survivorship of their young. Surprisingly, infected mothers actually had higher fertility controlling for body length than did uninfected mothers. Taken together, our results suggest that this novel microsporidian is likely a feminizing microparasite and is a contributing factor to local and widespread sex ratio distortion in C. volutator.
Alkali-borosilicate glasses are widely used in nuclear industry as a matrix for immobilisation of hazardous radioactive wastes. Durability or corrosion resistance of these glasses is one of key parameters in waste storage and disposal safety. It is influenced by many factors such as composition of glass and surrounding media, temperature, time and so on. As these glasses contain radioactive elements most of their properties including corrosion resistance are also impacted by self-irradiation.
The effect of external gamma-irradiation on the short-term (up to 27 days) dissolution of waste borosilicate glasses at moderate temperatures (30¢X to 60¢XC) was studied. The glasses studied were Magnox Waste glass used for immobilisation of HLW in UK, and K-26 glass used in Russia for ILW immobilisation. Glass samples were irradiated under ×-source (Co-60) up to doses 1 and 11 MGy. Normalised rates of elemental release and activation energy of release were measured for Na, Li, Ca, Mg, B, Si and Mo before and after irradiation. Irradiation up to 1 MGy results in increase of leaching rate of almost all elements from both MW and K-26 with the exception of Na release from MW glass. Further irradiation up to a dose of 11 MGy leads to the decrease of elemental release rates to nearly initial value. Another effect of irradiation is increase of activation energies of elemental release.
Acoustic emission (AE) signals were continuously recorded and their intrinsic frequency characteristics examined in order to evaluate the mechanical performance of cementitious wasteform with encapsulated Al waste. The primary frequency in the power spectrum and its range of intensity for the detected acoustic waves were potentially related with appearance of different micromechanical events caused by Al corrosion within the encapsulating cement system. In addition the process of cement matrix hardening has been shown as a source of AE signals characterised with essentially higher primary frequency (above 2 MHz) compared with those due to Al corrosion development (below 40 kHz) and cement cracking (above 100 kHz).
Fourier time-series models were constructed to study regional and national seasonality of human campylobacteriosis in Scotland between 1997 and 2001. Strong seasonality was demonstrated with an annual peak of reported cases in late June to early July. The prominence of this peak varied between regions, which was exemplified for the two major population centres: Lothian, with mixed urban/rural population, had a more prominent peak than Greater Glasgow, which has a predominantly urban population. No significant trend of annual cases of campylobacteriosis was found nationally and Fourier models successfully predicted the seasonal pattern of national and regional cases in 2002. During the period studied, the Fourier model identified >20 bursts of infection (potential outbreaks). Multi-regional bursts were also identified in the summers of 1998 and 2000 – the latter comprising the vast majority of the regions in Scotland, which could suggest a national outbreak.
Sol-gel encapsulation has recently surfaced as a successful approach to biomolecule immobilization. Proteins, including enzymes, are trapped in the pores of the sol-gel derived glass while retaining their spectroscopic properties and biological activity. Our current work extends the unique capabilities of biomolecule-doped sol-gel materials to the detection of glutamate, the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. We are developing an in vivo fiber optic biosensor for glutamate along with methods to achieve continuous monitoring. In our research to date we have encapsulated GDH in a silica sol-gel film on the tip of an optical fiber. GDH catalyzes the oxidative deamination of glutamate to α-ketoglutarate and the simultaneous reduction of NAD+ to NADH. To quantify the glutamate concentration, we observe the rate of change of NADH fluorescence as a function of time. An important consideration for continuous in vivo monitoring is the incorporation of a selfsustaining NAD+ source. We have adopted a photochemical means of regenerating NAD+ from NADH, by irradiating thionine (3,7-diaminophenothiazin-5-ium) which we incorporate into the sol-gel sensor material. When excited with visible light (λabc∼ 596 nm), thionine undergoes a reaction with NADH resulting in a non-fluorescent form of thionine and NAD+. We have characterized the kinetics of this reaction in the sol-gel matrix, and have shown that the reaction results in regenerated co-factor that is usable by GDH for the oxidation of glutamate.
This paper describes the preparation of hybrid surfactant-templated thin films functionalized with rare-earth (Eu3+ and Tb3+) organic complexes. 2-D hexagonally ordered films are obtained by a one-pot synthesis process based on an acid-catalyzed approach. Ln3+ ions are coordinated to bis-silylated ligands that co-polymerize with TEOS, which enables one to incorporate the fluorescent centers within the silica framework. Luminescent properties of the organic-inorganic mesostructured films are discussed and compared to those of amorphous samples with similar composition.
Background and objective Imbalance between cerebral oxygen supply and demand is thought to play an important role in the development of cerebral injury during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
Methods We studied jugular bulb oxygen saturation, jugular bulb oxygen tension, arterial–jugular bulb oxygen content difference and oxygen extraction ratio in 20 patients undergoing warm coronary artery bypass surgery (34–37°C) with pH-stat blood gas management.
Results Only two patients showed desaturation (jugular bulb oxygen saturation <50%) at 5 min on bypass, and none from 20 min onwards. Multiple regression models were performed after using bypass temperature, mean arterial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, haemoglobin concentration and arterial carbon dioxide tension as independent variables, and arterial–jugular bulb oxygen content difference, jugular bulb oxygen saturation, oxygen extraction ratio and jugular bulb oxygen tension as individual dependent variables.
Conclusions We found that jugular bulb oxygen saturation, jugular bulb oxygen tension and oxygen extraction ratio are mainly dependent on arterial carbon dioxide tension, and arterial–jugular bulb oxygen content difference is dependent on arterial carbon dioxide tension and the bypass temperature. Our results suggest jugular bulb oxygenation is mainly dependent on arterial carbon dioxide tension during warm cardiopulmonary bypass.
Hydroxyapetite (HA) coating on medical implant has been used in commercial application for several decades. The coating, commercially made by thermal spray method, functions as a intermediate layer between human tissues and the metal implant. The coating can speed up early stage healing after operation but the life span is much limited by low interfacial bond strength, which comes from the dissolution of amorphous HA in human body fluid during its service. This amorphous phase is formed in coating process under high temperature. To overcome these problems, we have developed a novel room temperature electrophoretic deposition process to fabricate nanostructured HA coating. This nanostructured HA coating significantly improved coating's bond strength up to 50-60 MPa, 2-3 times better than the thermal sprayed HA coating. The nanostructured HA coating also has corrosion resistance 50-100 times higher than the conventional HA coating. X-ray diffraction shows that all the HA coating is fully crystalline phase. It is expected that the implants with the nanostructured HA coating will have much longer service life. Other benefits derived from this process include room temperature deposition, the ability to control the coating microstructure and phases, and low cost for production.
The amino acid glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter used in the nervous system for interneuronal communication. It is used throughout the brain by various neuronal pathways including those involved in learning and memory, locomotion, and sensory perception. Because glutamate is released from neurons on a millisecond time scale into sub-micrometer spaces, the development of a glutamate biosensor with high temporal and spatial resolution is of great interest for the study of neurological function and disease. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of an optical glutamate sensor based on the sol-gel encapsulation of the enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). GDH catalyses the oxidative deamination of glutamate and the reduction of NAD+ to NADH. NADH fluorescence is the basis of the sensor detection. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies show that GDH remains active in the sol-gel matrix and that the reaction rate is correlated to the glutamate concentration.
Amorphous diamond is a new material for surface-micromachined microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) that offers promise for reducing wear and stiction of MEMS components. The material is an amorphous mixture of 4-fold and 3-fold coordinated carbon with mechanical properties close to that of crystalline diamond. A unique form of structural relaxation permits the residual stress in the material to be reduced from an as-deposited value of 8 GPa compressive down to zero stress or even to slightly tensile values. Irreversible plastic deformation, achieved by heat treating elastically strained structures, is also possible in this material. Several types of amorphous diamond MEMS devices have been fabricated, including electrostatically-actuated comb drives, micro-tensile test structures, and cantilever beams. Measurements using these structures indicate the material has an elastic modulus close to 800 GPa, fracture toughness of 8 MPa.m½, an advancing H2O contact angle of 84° to 94°, and a surface roughness of 0.1 to 0.9 nm R.M.S. on Si and SiO2, respectively.