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International finance is a fast growing and constantly changing area of economic activity. Along with permanent improvements in traditional financial instruments, totally new markets and products such as Eurocurrency markets of Eurobonds have been developed during recent decades. Legal aspects of international finance touch upon so many different problems that only a few of them can be covered in this guide and only in an introductory manner. The guide is not intended as a complete bilbiography but as a selection of some important or representative, general materials in English. The emphasis is on recent publications, which can easily lead to older and more extensive studies.
Preterm birth and exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are early physiological and psychological adversities that have been linked to reduced social functioning across the lifespan. However, the joint effects of being born preterm and being exposed to CSA on adult social outcomes remains unclear. We sought to determine the impact of exposure to both preterm birth and CSA on adult social functioning in a group of 179 extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000 g) survivors and 145 matched normal birth weight (>2500 g) participants in the fourth decade of life. Social outcome data from a prospective, longitudinal, population-based Canadian birth cohort initiated between the years of 1977 and 1982 were examined. At age 29–36 years, ELBW survivors who experienced CSA reported poorer relationships with their partner, worse family functioning, greater loneliness, lower self-esteem and had higher rates of avoidant personality problems than those who had not experienced CSA. Birth weight status was also found to moderate associations between CSA and self-esteem (P=0.032), loneliness (P=0.021) and family functioning (P=0.060), such that the adverse effects of CSA were amplified in ELBW survivors. Exposure to CSA appears to augment the adult social risks associated with perinatal adversity. Individuals born preterm and exposed to CSA appear to be a group at particularly high risk for adverse social outcomes in adulthood.
The oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a destructive insect pest of a wide range of fruits and vegetables. This pest is an invasive species and is currently distributed in some provinces of China. To recover the symbiotic bacteria of B. dorsalis from different invasion regions in China, we researched the bacterial diversity of this fruit fly among one laboratory colony (Guangdong, China) and 15 wild populations (14 sites in China and one site in Thailand) using DNA-based approaches. The construction of 16S rRNA gene libraries allowed the identification of 24 operational taxonomic units of associated bacteria at the 3% distance level, and these were affiliated with 3 phyla, 5 families, and 13 genera. The higher bacterial diversity was recovered in wild populations compared with the laboratory colony and in samples from early term invasion regions compared with samples from late term invasion regions. Moreover, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Providencia sp. were two of the most frequently recovered bacteria, present in flies collected from three different regions in China where B. dorsalis is invasive. This study for the first time provides a systemic investigation of the symbiotic bacteria of B. dorsalis from different invasion regions in China.
Dementia is a common neurological condition affecting many older individuals that leads to a loss of independence, diminished quality of life, premature mortality, caregiver burden and high levels of healthcare utilization and cost. This is an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of the worldwide prevalence and incidence of dementia.
The MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched for relevant studies published between 2000 (1985 for Canadian papers) and July of 2012. Papers selected for full-text review were included in the systematic review if they provided an original population-based estimate for the incidence and/or prevalence of dementia. The reference lists of included articles were also searched for additional studies. Two individuals independently performed abstract and full-text review, data extraction, and quality assessment of the papers. Random-effects models and/or meta-regression were used to generate pooled estimates by age, sex, setting (i.e., community, institution, both), diagnostic criteria utilized, location (i.e., continent) and year of data collection.
Of 16,066 abstracts screened, 707 articles were selected for full-text review. A total of 160 studies met the inclusion criteria. Among individuals 60 and over residing in the community, the pooled point and annual period prevalence estimates of dementia were 48.62 (CI95%: 41.98-56.32) and 69.07 (CI95%: 52.36-91.11) per 1000 persons, respectively. The respective pooled incidence rate (same age and setting) was 17.18 (CI95%: 13.90-21.23) per 1000 person-years, while the annual incidence proportion was 52.85 (CI95%: 33.08-84.42) per 1,000 persons. Increasing participant age was associated with a higher dementia prevalence and incidence. Annual period prevalence was higher in North America than in South America, Europe and Asia (in order of decreasing period prevalence) and higher in institutional compared to community and combined settings. Sex, diagnostic criteria (except for incidence proportion) and year of data collection were not associated with statistically significant different estimates of prevalence or incidence, though estimates were consistently higher for females than males.
Dementia is a common neurological condition in older individuals. Significant gaps in knowledge about its epidemiology were identified, particularly with regard to the incidence of dementia in low- and middle-income countries. Accurate estimates of prevalence and incidence of dementia are needed to plan for the health and social services that will be required to deal with an aging population.
Patients with lateral medullary syndrome classically present with crossed hemisensory disturbance, ipsilateral Horner syndrome, and cerebellar signs, all of which are attributable to infarction of the lateral medulla. However, variability in the presentation of this syndrome is the rule, as illustrated in this case presentation and literature review. We propose an approach to diagnosis and management of the lateral medullary syndrome and illustrate the need to integrate clinical information with an understanding of brainstem anatomy with the goal of determining which patients require urgent neuroimaging and acute stroke therapies. The importance of recognition of this condition in the emergency department is underscored by the association between lateral medullary infarction and vertebral artery dissection. With optimal therapy, the prognosis for recovery from lateral medullary syndrome is good.
A retrospective cohort study was performed following several reported cases of gastrointestinal illness after a catered event. The attack rate was 45/77 (58·4%) by clinical case definition, with four individuals confirmed to have Campylobacter. There was near universal exposure to most foodstuffs served; consumption of duck liver pâté [relative risk (RR) 2·53, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·05–6·10], mixed leaf salad (RR 2·91, 95% CI 1·22–6·92) and table water (RR undefined, P < 0·01) were associated with illness in univariate analysis, with only the latter associated in the final multivariable model (P < 0·001). Samples of cooked duck liver pâté subsequently prepared using identical methods at the venue were contaminated with Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli; water sampling was negative. Making inferences about causation in the presence of near universal exposures in this study required consideration of the limitations of statistical analysis, with the most compelling evidence of the causal role of inadequately prepared duck liver pâté provided by environmental investigation.
We perform a study of 62 solar analog stars to compute their effective temperatures (Teff) using the Balmer line wing fitting procedure and compare them with Teff values obtained using other commonly employed methods. We use observed Hα spectral lines and a fine grid of theoretical LTE model spectra calculated with the best available atomic data and most recent quantum theory. Our spectroscopic data are of very high quality and have been carefully normalized to recover the proper shape of the Hα line profile. We obtain Teff values with internal errors of about 25K. Comparison of our results with those from other methods shows reasonably good agreement. Then, combining Teff values obtained from four independent techniques, we are able to determine final Teff values with errors of about 10K.
The complexities of ultracool atmospheres are best confronted by observations of ultracool dwarfs (UCDs) with well known physical properties (luminosity, mass, Teff, log(g), [M/H]), so-called “benchmark objects.” We present two discoveries from a new WISE+2MASS search for benchmark wide companions to Hipparcos and Gliese stars. This survey combination provides a powerful tool to confirm new companions using color-magnitude and common proper motion selections, and also yield full NIR-MIR measurements of the ultracool emission. These primary companions are providing important constraints on the age and composition of the benchmark brown dwarf, and the new discoveries add to our growing population of benchmarks that is providing crucial tests of ultracool physics.
Epitaxial (100) iridium films have been grown on (100) SrTiO3 (STO) substrates by electron beam evaporation. The epitaxial relationship between the iridium film and STO substrate was determined to be Ir(001)//STO(001). A systematic study of the role of STO substrate surface preparation, Ir thickness, and substrate temperature on Ir film crystallinity and morpholo- gy has been performed. The best Ir films typically have small Ir(200) XRD linewidths < 0.3 °, surface roughness of 0.2 nm, and low ion channeling yields, χmin≤ 4%, when deposited at 800 °C. Films generally become smoother with better crystallinity when the film thickness approaches 300 nm. A growth mode with initial island formation and subsequent layer-by-layer appears to take place at higher substrate temperatures, whereas at lower temperatures the film grows in a 3D mode.
Graphene grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) on nickel subsrate is oxidized by means of oxygen plasma and UV/Ozone treatments to introduce bandgap opening in graphene. The degree of band gap opening is proportional to the degree of oxidation on the graphene. This result is analyzed and confirmed by Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy/Spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy measurements. Compared to conventional wet-oxidation methods, oxygen plasma and UV/Ozone treatments do not require harsh chemicals to perform, allow faster oxidation rates, and enable site-specific oxidation. These features make oxygen plasma and UV/Ozone treatments ideal candidates to be implemented in high-throughput fabrication of graphene-based microelectronics.
Fracture toughness of NiAl–based composite reinforced by TiC particulate was measured using single–edge notched three–point bend specimens. The composite was fabricated by HPES (hot pressing aided exothermic synthesis) technique. It is shown that the ambient toughness of stoichiometric NiAl was increased from 5.9 MPa m1/2 to 8.9 MPa m1/2 by incorporating 20 vol.% TiC particulates. From fracture surface analysis along with the high–resolution electron microscopy (HREM) observation, toughening mechanisms of the NiAl–TiC composite were also discussed.
EXtended Electron Energy Loss Fine Structure (EXELFS) spectra have been obtained above the K-edge of nitrogen atoms adsorbed on Cu. The radial distribution functions obtained from the fine structure indicate N-Cu bond lengths of 1.84(±.03) Å and 1.81(±.03) Å for nitrogen on the Cu(100) and Cu(110) surfaces respectively. As in previous EXELFS measurements, the actual measurements made are of N"(E) rather than direct measurement of N(E), the electron energy loss distribution. The EXELFS spectra from these two surfaces are used to illustrate the influence of this collection scheme on the radial distribution function obtained by Fourier transformation of the raw data. To obtain the direct analog of the radial distribution function found from the EXAFS experiment one must either resort to spectral integration or appropriate scaling of the distribution function found in the EXELFS experiment.
Seven fluidized bed combustion ashes of different composition were studied as to their hydraulicity and pozzolanicity. Four of them exhibited hydraulic reactivity and hardened when mixed with water. All of them exhibited a positive effect on strength development if used as constituents of blended cements. However, the presence of significant amounts of Fe2+ and free lime in the ash, as well as excessive amounts of SO3 in the produced cement caused unsoundness associated with the decline of flexural strength after longer hydration times.
Mid-infrared vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) using PbSe as the active material and broadband high reflectivity Pb1−xSrxSe/BaF 2 distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) as bottom and top mirrors were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. By pulsed optical pumping, this first IV-VI semiconductor VCSEL operated up to 290K at a wavelength of 4.5 µm. Further optimization of such VCSELs could lead to room temperature continuos wave operation.