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The aim of the 25 and Up (25Up) study was to assess a wide range of psychological and behavioral risk factors behind mental illness in a large cohort of Australian twins and their non-twin siblings. Participants had already been studied longitudinally from the age of 12 and most recently in the 19Up study (mean age = 26.1 years, SD = 4.1, range = 20–39). This subsequent wave follows up these twins several years later in life (mean age = 29.7 years, SD = 2.2, range = 22–44). The resulting data set enables additional detailed investigations of genetic pathways underlying psychiatric illnesses in the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study (BLTS). Data were collected between 2016 and 2018 from 2540 twins and their non-twin siblings (59% female, including 341 monozygotic complete twin-pairs, 415 dizygotic complete pairs and 1028 non-twin siblings and singletons). Participants were from South-East Queensland, Australia, and the sample was of predominantly European ancestry. The 25Up study collected information on 20 different mental disorders, including depression, anxiety, substance use, psychosis, bipolar and attention-deficit hyper-activity disorder, as well as general demographic information such as occupation, education level, number of children, self-perceived IQ and household environment. In this article, we describe the prevalence, comorbidities and age of onset for all 20 examined disorders. The 25Up study also assessed general and physical health, including physical activity, sleep patterns, eating behaviors, baldness, acne, migraines and allergies, as well as psychosocial items such as suicidality, perceived stress, loneliness, aggression, sleep–wake cycle, sexual identity and preferences, technology and internet use, traumatic life events, gambling and cyberbullying. In addition, 25Up assessed female health traits such as morning sickness, breastfeeding and endometriosis. Furthermore, given that the 25Up study is an extension of previous BLTS studies, 86% of participants have already been genotyped. This rich resource will enable the assessment of epidemiological risk factors, as well as the heritability and genetic correlations of mental conditions.
The objective of this study was to determine the serotype distribution and antibiotic resistance of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) strains in children from Lima, Peru, before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7), which was introduced in the national immunisation program on 2009. We conducted a prospective, multicentre, passive surveillance IPD study during 2006–2008 and 2009–2011, before and right after the introduction of PCV7 in Peru. The study was performed in 11 hospitals and five private laboratories in Lima, Peru, in patients <18 years old, with sterile site cultures yielding Streptococcus pneumoniae. In total 159 S. pneumoniae isolates were recovered. There was a decrease in the incidence of IPD in children <2 years old after the introduction of PCV7 (18.4/100 000 vs. 5.1/100 000, P = 0.004). Meningitis cases decreased significantly in the second period (P = 0.036) as well as the overall case fatality rate (P = 0.025), including a decreased case fatality rate of pneumonia (16.3% to 0%, P = 0.04). PCV7 serotypes showed a downward trend. Vaccine-preventable serotypes caused 78.9% of IPD cases, mainly 14, 6B, 5, 19F and 23F. A non-significant increase in erythromycin resistance was reported. Our findings suggest that the introduction of PCV7 led to a significant decrease of IPD in children under 2 years old and in the overall case fatality rate.
Non-decorticated sunflower meal (SFM) is a potential protein source for dairy cows with high-fibre content but high ruminal degradability. The effect of replacement of soybean meal (SBM) and wheat middlings (WM) with SFM on the intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, nitrogen utilization and milk production of dairy cows was evaluated. Twelve Holstein cows were blocked by days in milk and distributed in three 4 × 4 Latin squares. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and contained 550 g maize silage/kg dry matter (DM). Treatment diets were no SFM (CON) or 70, 140 and 210 g/kg DM of SFM replacing fixed mixture of SBM and WM (536 and 464 g/kg of the mixture, respectively). The inclusion of SFM in diet did not affect DM intake, but intake of rumen degradable protein increased linearly. Inclusion of SFM reduced or tended to reduce total-tract digestibility of non-fibre carbohydrate, total digestible nutrients and excretion of purine derivatives. Milk production, milk protein content and efficiency of nitrogen use for lactation were reduced with increasing levels of SFM in the diet. The use of non-decorticated SFM as a replacement for SBM–WM mixture in diet reduces performance and efficiency of nutrient use in lactating dairy cows. The outcome of the current study is attributed to reduced fibre digestibility in SFM hulls. Therefore, future studies should evaluate the use of decorticated SFM.
Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for humans, yet its dietary intake is low, mostly due to the low bioavailability in soils and therefore in edible plant tissues. To overcome Se deficiency, the breeding approach (i.e., genetic biofortification), namely in rice, is largely dependent on available Se pools. To ensure the success of genetic biofortification with Se, agronomic biofortification can be accomplished through foliar Se application. Considering this background, the main hypothesis of this work was centered in the foliar application of Se to attain agronomic biofortification of rice crops. This study also aimed to assess the full potential for increasing grain Se concentrations during rice filling, as well as the types of nutrients deposition. An experimental design applying two foliar fertilizers (sodium selenite and sodium selenate) was developed. As test systems, four rice genotypes (Ariete, Albatros, OP1105 and OP1109) were used and the kinetics of micro- and macro-nutrients accumulation and deposition were assessed. Biofortification was performed in field trials for two years with foliar fertilization ranging between 0 and 300 g Se ha−1. At the end of the plant cycle, selenite applications triggered 427- to 884-fold increases in grain Se concentrations among rice genotypes (Albatros > OP1105 > OP1109 > Ariete). The application of selenate also prompted 128- to 347-fold increases in grain Se concentrations in rice crops (Albatros > OP1105 > Ariete > OP1109). Regardless of the foliar fertilizer applied, Se deposition among genotypes occurred throughout the grain without relevant inhibitory effects on yields. In each genotype, micro and macronutrients varied among crop tissues.
An experiment was carried to evaluate the energy and protein requirements for the growth and maintenance of lambs of different sex classes. In all, 38 hair lambs (13.0±1.49 kg initial BW and 2 months old) were allocated in a factorial design with diet restriction levels (ad libitum, 30% and 60% feed restriction) and sex classes (castrated and non-castrated males). Four animals from each sex class were slaughtered at the beginning of the trial as a reference group to estimate the initial empty BW and body composition. The remaining lambs were weighed weekly to calculate BW gain (BWG), and when the animals fed ad libitum reached an average BW of 30 kg, all of the experimental animals were slaughtered. Before slaughter, fasted BW (FBW) was determined after 18 h without feed and water. Feed restriction induced reductions in body fat and energy concentration, whereas water restriction showed the opposite effect, and the protein concentration was not affected. The increase in BW promoted increases in body fat and energy content, and these increases were greater in castrated lambs, whereas the protein content was similar between classes tending to stabilize. The net energy required for gain (NEg) and the net protein required for gain (NPg) were not affected by sex class; therefore, an equation was generated for the combined results of both castrated and non-castrated lambs. The NEg varied from 1.13 to 2.01 MJ/day for lambs with BW of 15 and 30 kg and BWG of 200 g. The NPg varied from 24.57 to 16.33 g/day for lambs with BW of 15 and 30 kg and BWG of 200 g. The metabolizable energy efficiency for gain (kg) was 0.37, and the metabolizable protein efficiency for gain (kpg) was 0.28. The net energy required for maintenance (NEm) and the net requirement of protein for maintenance (NPm) did not differ between castrated and non-castrated lambs, with values of 0.241 MJ/kg FBW0.75 per day and 1.30 g/kg FBW0.75 per day, respectively. The metabolizable energy efficiency for maintenance (km) was 0.60, and the efficiency of metabolizable protein use for maintenance (kpm) was 0.57. Nutritional requirements for growth and maintenance did not differ between castrated and non-castrated lambs. This study emphasizes the importance of updating the tables of international committees and of including data obtained from studies with sheep breeds raised in tropical conditions, with the purpose of improving the productive efficiency of the animals
This work proposes a methodology that uses remote sensing (RS) images to obtain optimum nitrogen crop uptake (Nuptake) maps, for the all pixels in the image included in the field during the entire growing season. The Nuptake was determined from relationship between critical nitrogen concentration (Nc) and biomass where biomass was estimated by a crop growth model based on the water use efficiency. The paper proposes the use of this methodology in commercial wheat farm. The results are discussed with respect to field measurements of crop biomass and N concentration on different dates and in zones with different nitrogen treatments from 8 commercial wheat farms in Albacete, Spain during 2015 and 2016.
Intensive agriculture has the objective to increase nutrients use efficiency. Nitrogen (N) is a key nutrient for crops and the estimations of crop N status allow adjusting the fertilization levels to crop requirements, while reducing the environmental costs and optimizing the benefits for farmers. In this work the N status of wheat in a commercial plot has been monitored, varying the N supply taking into account the variability of the soil. The N content in the cover has been monitored simultaneously by sampling at field level and by using vegetation indices based on reflectance in the red-edge band. The results of the field campaign along a crop growth cycle show that the REP, MTCI, AIVI and CCCI calculated from narrow spectral bands show good linear correlations (R2>0.93) with respect to N content (g·m−2). These indices are stable when passing to broad bands as the case of Sentinel 2 with R2>0.9.
Biomass production is a diagnosis tool for the evaluation of the effect of climate, crop genomic and management. The differences in biomass accumulation are necessary for the assessment of the fertilization necessities in the strategies for variable nitrogen doses. Remote sensing-based data provide a direct observation of the differences in canopy development across time and space and can be integrated into the physiological basis of crop growth models to provide estimates of biomass production at fine scales. The proposed approach was applied in a wheat field in Albacete, Spain and the results were compared with measurements of aboveground biomass and yield maps obtained by a combined-mounted grain yield monitor.
Mammal species contribute in different ways to seed dispersal effectiveness, acting as endozoochorous dispersers, scatter-hoarders and seed predators. Seed removal by these functional mammal groups could be affected by anthropogenic drivers, such as grazing management, a common practice in drylands. We evaluated removal of seeds from a native tree species (Prosopis flexuosa) by terrestrial wildlife mammals with different functional roles, on grazed and ungrazed sites and at different times during the fruiting period of Prosopis. We offered Prosopis fruits, each containing 15 seeds, to animals and used camera traps to identify the species removing them. We obtained the number of seeds removed (1 fruit removed = 15 seeds removed) by each animal species and each functional group. Native and domestic mammals removed 65.4% of the total seeds offered; 69.5% of offered seeds were removed from the grazed area and 61% from the ungrazed site. Considering removal times, 64.25% of offered seeds were removed during the beginning of the fruiting period of Prosopis and 67% towards the end of this period. Small mammals acting either as seed predators (Graomys griseoflavus and Akodon dolores) or scatter-hoarders (Microcavia australis) were the functional mammal groups removing the highest amount of seeds. Seed predators removed more seeds from the ungrazed site, whereas the scatter-hoarder did so at the grazed site. In the ungrazed area, it would be important to ensure habitat heterogeneity in order to improve seed removal by functional groups that disperse seeds, such as endozoochorous dispersers and scatter-hoarders.
Small-scale kG strong magnetic field elements in the solar photosphere are often identified as so-called magnetic bright points (MBPs). In principle these MBPs represent the cross-section of a vertical, strong, magnetic flux tube which is expanding with height in the solar atmosphere. As these magnetic elements represent possible MHD wave guides, a significant interest has been already paid to them from the viewpoint of observations and simulations. In this work we would like to shed more light on a possible scenario for the creation of such strong magnetic field concentrations. The accepted standard scenario involves the convective collapse process. In this ongoing work we will show indications that this convective collapse process may become triggered by sufficiently strong pressure disturbances. However, it is highly unlikely that p-mode waves can be of such a strength.
Python is considered to be a mature programming language, besides of being widely accepted as an engaging option for scientific analysis in multiple areas, as will be presented in this work for the particular case of solar physics research. SunPy is an open-source library based on Python that has been recently developed to furnish software tools to solar data analysis and visualization. In this work we present a graphical user interface (GUI) based on Python and Qt to effectively compute proper motions for the analysis of time series of solar data. This user-friendly computing interface, that is intended to be incorporated to the Sunpy library, uses a local correlation tracking technique and some extra tools that allows the selection of different parameters to calculate, vizualize and analyze vector velocity fields of solar data, i.e. time series of solar filtergrams and magnetograms.
To assess vitamin D status and the influence of risk factors such as skin pigmentation and time spent outdoors on hypovitaminosis D among Guatemalan Kekchi and Garifuna adolescents.
Cross-sectional study, with convenient sampling design. Blood samples, anthropometric and behavioural data were all collected during the dry season. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured by RIA.
Communities of Rio Dulce and Livingston, Izabal Province, Caribbean coast of Guatemala, with latitude and longitude of 15°49′N and 88°45′W for Livingston and 15°46′N and 88°49′W for Rio Dulce, respectively.
Eighty-six adolescents, divided evenly by sex and ethnicity, with mean age of 14 years.
Mean (sd) 25(OH)D value was 27·8 (7·2) ng/ml for the total group, with 25·8 (5·9) and 29·8 (7·9) ng/ml, respectively, in Kekchis and Garifunas (P=0·01). Use of vitamin D supplementation, clothing practices and sun protection were not statistically different between groups. Skin area exposed on the day of data collection ranged from 20·0 % minimum to 49·4 % maximum, with mean (sd) exposure of 32·0 (8.5) %. With univariate regression analysis, age (P=0·034), sex (P=0·044), ethnicity (P=0·010), time spent outdoors (P=0·006) and percentage skin area exposed (P=0·001) were predictive. However, multivariate analysis indicated that only sex (P=0·034) and percentage skin area exposed (P=0·044) remained as predictors of 25(OH)D.
Despite residing in an optimal geographic location for sunlight exposure, nearly 65 % of study adolescents were either insufficient or deficient in vitamin D. Correction and long-term prevention of this nutritional problem may be instrumental in avoiding adverse effects in adulthood attributed to low 25(OH)D during adolescence.
After 22 yr of the low-level liquid scintillation counting 14C laboratory at the Center for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture (CENA) at São Paulo University (USP), Piracicaba, Brazil, and several collaborative projects with Brazilian and international researchers from distinct scientific areas, the first 14C accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) laboratory in Latin America was installed at the Physics Institute of the Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niterói, Brazil. A 250kV single stage accelerator produced by National Electrostatics Corporation began its operation in 2012. In this work, we compare measurements performed at the AMS Radiocarbon Laboratory at UFF (LAC-UFF) with those performed at CENA and the University of Georgia (UGAMS), Georgia, USA. All the results obtained from distinct inorganic and organic samples were in very good agreement.
We report the first mono-specific facies of Parazoanthus axinellae from the western Portuguese coast. The habitat was recorded using a MiniRov Observer on a large outcrop at ca. 55–60 m in the Luiz Saldanha Marine Park. A method to estimate the maximum uncertainty of the ROV position is illustrated and the occurrence of the facies is discussed.
Undoped and Li-doped ZnO films were fabricated by screen printing approach on sapphire substrate. The effect of Li doping and annealing temperature on the luminescent, optical, electrical and structural properties of the films has been investigated by the photoluminescence (PL), Raman scattering, conductivity, Atomic Force microscopy and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. The XRD study revealed that the films have polycrystalline wurtzite structure with grain sizes ranging from 26 to 38 nm. In the undoped ZnO films, the increase of annealing temperature from 800 to 1000 °C resulted in the increase of the grain sizes, film conductivity and the intensity of the ultraviolet PL. The introduction of Li of low concentration of 0.003 wt % at 800 °C or 900 °C allows producing the low-resistive films with enhanced ultraviolet PL and reduced density of crystalline defects. Highly doped films (with 0.3 wt % of Li) were found to be semi-insulating with deteriorated PL properties irrespectively of the annealing temperature. It is shown that introduction of Li in the ZnO films affects their PL spectra mainly via the evolution of the film crystallinity and the density of intrinsic defects.
A total of 64 intensively reared Friesian steers were used in a 2×2×2 design to study the effects of age of castration (15 days old v. 5 months old), dietary protein level (14.6% v. 16.8%; DM basis) and lysine/methionine (lys/met) ratio (3.0 v. 3.4) on meat quality. The lys/met ratio of 3.0 was reached with supplementation of protected methionine. Animals were slaughtered at a live weight of 443.5±26.2 kg at around 12 months of age. Colour and lipid oxidation were measured in the longissimus thoracis muscle throughout the 14 days of display under modified atmospheric and commercial display conditions. A panel of 17 consumers assessed daily the visual acceptability of the meat on display. A consumer acceptability eating test was also performed with 120 consumers in meat aged for 7 days under vacuum conditions. Lipid oxidation was not influenced by castration age and the protein level in the diet. Castration age did not affect meat colour, but meat from the low protein level diet and the low lys/met ratio showed higher redness (a*) from 3 days of display onwards. Nevertheless, from 6 days onwards, consumer visual acceptability was below the level of acceptance in all treatments, and even from 5 days onwards in those animals that underwent early castration and were fed either a high protein diet or a combination diet low in protein content and high in lys/met ratio. The best accepted treatments throughout the display period were those from late castrated animals fed a low protein diet, probably related to other visual aspects. However, the best accepted meat after consumption was that from late castrated animals fed high protein and high lys/met. The addition of protected methionine to reach lys/met levels of 3.0 did not improve beef acceptability, with the high protein diet being preferred by consumers in terms of palatability in late castrated animals.
Dengue virus, commonly transmitted by mosquitoes, causes a human disease of significant social impact and presents a serious public health problem in Brazil. This report describes the unusual emergence of DENV-4 in northern Brazil after a nearly 30-year-long absence. DENV-4 genotype I is of Asian origin and was identified in the serum of patients receiving treatment at a hospital serving the Salvador area (Brazilian state of Bahia). The identification of dengue virus serotypes through molecular and phylogenetic analysis is essential for predicting disease severity or fatal illness, principally in endemic countries such as Brazil.
Intermolecular interaction potentials of the acrylamide dimer in 12 equilibrium configurations have been calculated using the second-order Møller-Plesset (MP2) perturbation theory. We have employed Pople’s medium size basis sets [up to 6-311++G(3df,2p)] and Dunning’s correlation consistent basis sets (up to aug-cc-pVTZ). We have also carried out density functional theory (DFT) type calculations and compared the results with those calculated with the MP2 theory.