To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Diabetes mellitus is reaching epidemic proportions globally and is associated with a number of long-term central nervous system complications in older diabetic adults which are potentially modifiable. Improving diabetic brain health literacy among the public, diabetic individuals and healthcare staff has the potential to reduce the incidence of such complications as depression, cognitive impairment and dementia, leading to healthier ageing.
To establish diabetic brain health literacy levels among the general public, healthcare professionals and diabetic outpatient attendees using a knowledge questionnaire.
A self-administered questionnaire was made available to the public for completion via an Irish website. An adapted questionnaire was disseminated among medicine for the elderly nursing staff and diabetes outpatient attendees in a large urban teaching hospital in Dublin, Ireland. Questions assessed knowledge of potential brain health diabetic complications and garnered pertinent demographic information.
Graph 1- Knowledge of potential brain health complications of diabetes.
Graph 2 – Knowledge of potential non-central nervous system complications of diabetes
This study demonstrates poor knowledge among the public of the increased risk of brain health complications in older diabetic adults. Nursing staff members had greater knowledge and diabetic patients had the greatest, but less than satisfactory knowledge. This contrasts with greater awareness of non-brain diabetic complications such as eye disease and neuropathy among all three groups. Results suggest a need for expansion of health literacy campaigns to promote awareness, and to highlight potentially modifiable risk factors to aid in disease prevention, control and prevention of brain health complications.
The existence of a frontotemporal dementia phenocopy (phFTD) syndrome remains controversial. Opinions differ on whether the phenocopy presentation represents the neuropsychological manifestation of a mid-life decompensation in vulnerable pre-morbid personalities or an indolent prodrome of behavioral-variant FTD (bvFTD). Literature on this topic is sparse and clinicians and patients have little guidance around prognosis and management.
To describe the demographic, neuropsychological and biomarker profiles of a case series of phFTD patients, attending the memory clinic and review relevant literature.
Retrospective review of all cases diagnosed with phFTD.
Eleven cases were identified (male = 9, female = 2). Mean age 55.8 years. Subjective complaints comprised memory and language difficulties. Collateral reports described apathy, aggression, impulsivity, disinhibition, hyperorality. Function was relatively preserved though motivation or supervision for higher-level tasks was sometimes required. All had non-neurodegenerative MRI and PET scans. Neuropsychological test (NPT) findings predominantly showed executive dysfunction and fluency impairment. A total of 3/11 had non-amnestic memory impairment. Follow-up imaging and NPT were invariably unchanged; 1/11 had a pre-morbid psychiatric diagnosis; 5/11 had unusual personality traits pre-morbidly. Major psychosocial stressors were documented in 7/11. Management consisted of psychosocial interventions to support function and interpersonal relationships.
The literature describes the phFTD syndrome as predominantly affecting males though we include 2 females who meet the criteria. In keeping with our findings, personality traits and psychosocial stressors may be more common in phFTD than bvFTD. More severe symptoms, memory impairment at presentation and C9ORF72 gene mutation may predict eventual progression. Those who do not progress have minimal long-term functional impairment though behavioral symptoms persist.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Evidence from the literature suggests that group mindfulness interventions result in improved quality of life, less depressive symptoms and improved subjective sleep quality among patients with memory problems .
To design and pilot a brief mindfulness intervention for Memory Clinic attendees.
To develop a non-pharmacological low-resource intervention for Memory Clinic attendees.
An introduction to mindfulness pack, designed by author CD, includes a booklet introducing the concept of mindfulness, instructions for meditation exercises with an accompanying CD. Memory clinic attendees diagnosed with subjective memory complaints or mild cognitive impairment were invited to take part. Participants completed standardised questionnaires pre- and post-intervention, which examined subjective memory, depression and anxiety symptoms, subjective sleep quality, worry and mindfulness levels. Qualitative information was also gathered.
Of twenty-four participants (66.6% female, mean age 60.8 years), 14 (58.3%) completed the 6-week study. There was no statistical difference in anxiety and depressive symptoms, quality of life, sleep quality and worry levels pre- and post-intervention among participants. However, 100% of participants found the mindfulness intervention beneficial, with 64.3% (n = 9) reporting a subjective improvement in both memory and concentration.
In this small pilot study, a brief self-guided mindfulness intervention was found to be acceptable to a heterogenous group of Memory Clinic attendees.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Drinking water instead of beverages with added sugar can help prevent obesity and cavities and promote overall health. Children spend much of their day in school, where they have variable access to drinking water. In 2010, federal and state law required California public schools to provide free potable water to students in areas where meals are served and/or eaten. The current study aims to identify factors associated with an excellent drinking water culture in schools.
A qualitative assessment of barriers and facilitators to providing excellent water quality and access in a purposive sample of California schools. In-depth interviews with key informants were conducted using a snowball sampling approach, after which data were analysed using both inductive and deductive methods.
California public elementary, middle/junior and high schools.
Knowledgeable individuals involved in initiatives related to school drinking water accessibility, quality or education at each selected school.
Thirty-four interviewees participated across fifteen schools. Six themes emerged as prominent facilitators to a school’s success in providing excellent water access to students: active and engaged champions, school culture and policy, coordination between groups, community influences, available resources and environmentalism.
While policy is an important step for achieving minimum standards, resources and interest in promoting excellence in drinking water access and quality can vary among schools. Ensuring that schools have dedicated staff committed to advancing student health and promoting the benefits of water programs that are more salient to schools could help reduce disparities in drinking water excellence across schools.
These lecture notes were presented by Allan N. Kaufman in his graduate plasma theory course and a follow-on special topics course (Physics 242A, B, C and Physics 250 at the University of California Berkeley). The notes follow the order of the lectures. The equations and derivations are as Kaufman presented, but the text is a reconstruction of Kaufman’s discussion and commentary. The notes were transcribed by Bruce I. Cohen in 1971 and 1972, and word processed, edited and illustrations added by Cohen in 2017 and 2018. The series of lectures is divided into four major parts: (i) collisionless Vlasov plasmas (linear theory of waves and instabilities with and without an applied magnetic field, Vlasov–Poisson and Vlasov–Maxwell systems, Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin–Jeffreys (WKBJ) eikonal theory of wave propagation); (ii) nonlinear Vlasov plasmas and miscellaneous topics (the plasma dispersion function, singular solutions of the Vlasov–Poisson system, pulse-response solutions for initial-value problems, Gardner’s stability theorem, gyroresonant effects, nonlinear waves, particle trapping in waves, quasilinear theory, nonlinear three-wave interactions); (iii) plasma collisional and discreteness phenomena (test-particle theory of dynamic friction and wave emission, classical resistivity, extension of test-particle theory to many-particle phenomena and the derivation of the Boltzmann and Lenard–Balescu equations, the Fokker–Planck collision operator, a general scattering theory, nonlinear Landau damping, radiation transport and Dupree’s theory of clumps); (iv) non-uniform plasmas (adiabatic invariance, guiding-centre drifts, hydromagnetic theory, introduction to drift-wave stability theory).
High Na intake and chronically elevated cortisol levels are independently associated with the development of chronic diseases. In adults, high Na intake is associated with high levels of urinary cortisol. We aimed to determine the association between urinary Na and K and urinary cortisol in a cross-sectional sample of Australian schoolchildren and their mothers. Participants were a sample of Australian children (n 120) and their mothers (n 100) recruited through primary schools. We assessed Na, K, free cortisol and cortisol metabolites in one 24 h urine collection. Associations between 24 h urinary electrolytes and 24 h urinary cortisol were assessed using multilevel mixed-effects linear regression models. In children, urinary Na was positively associated with urinary free cortisol (β=0·31, 95 % CI 0·19, 0·44) and urinary cortisol metabolites (β=0·006, 95 % CI 0·002, 0·010). Positive associations were also observed between urinary K and urinary free cortisol (β=0·65, 95 % CI 0·23, 1·07) and urinary cortisol metabolites (β=0·02, 95 % CI 0·03, 0·031). In mothers, urinary Na was positively associated with urinary free cortisol (β=0·23, 95 % CI 0·01, 0·50) and urinary cortisol metabolites (β=0·008, 95 % CI 0·0007, 0·016). Our findings show that daily Na and K intake were positively associated with cortisol production in children and their mothers. Investigation of the mechanisms involved and the potential impact of Na reduction on cortisol levels in these populations is warranted.
The role that vitamin D plays in pulmonary function remains uncertain. Epidemiological studies reported mixed findings for serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)–pulmonary function association. We conducted the largest cross-sectional meta-analysis of the 25(OH)D–pulmonary function association to date, based on nine European ancestry (EA) cohorts (n 22 838) and five African ancestry (AA) cohorts (n 4290) in the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium. Data were analysed using linear models by cohort and ancestry. Effect modification by smoking status (current/former/never) was tested. Results were combined using fixed-effects meta-analysis. Mean serum 25(OH)D was 68 (sd 29) nmol/l for EA and 49 (sd 21) nmol/l for AA. For each 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, forced expiratory volume in the 1st second (FEV1) was higher by 1·1 ml in EA (95 % CI 0·9, 1·3; P<0·0001) and 1·8 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·5; P<0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·06), and forced vital capacity (FVC) was higher by 1·3 ml in EA (95 % CI 1·0, 1·6; P<0·0001) and 1·5 ml (95 % CI 0·8, 2·3; P=0·0001) in AA (Prace difference=0·56). Among EA, the 25(OH)D–FVC association was stronger in smokers: per 1 nmol/l higher 25(OH)D, FVC was higher by 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·1, 2·3) for current smokers and 1·7 ml (95 % CI 1·2, 2·1) for former smokers, compared with 0·8 ml (95 % CI 0·4, 1·2) for never smokers. In summary, the 25(OH)D associations with FEV1 and FVC were positive in both ancestries. In EA, a stronger association was observed for smokers compared with never smokers, which supports the importance of vitamin D in vulnerable populations.
Anomalies in the abundance measurements of short lived radionuclides in meteorites indicate that the protosolar nebulae was irradiated by a large number of energetic particles (E≳ 10 MeV), often called solar cosmic rays. The particle flux of the contemporary Sun cannot explain these anomalies, but, similar to T Tauri stars, the young Sun was more active and probably produced enough high energy particles. However, the stellar particle (SP) flux of young stars is essentially unknown. We model the impact of high-energy ionization sources on the chemistry of the circumstellar environment (disks and envelopes). The model includes X-ray radiative transfer and makes use of particle transport models to calculate the individual molecular hydrogen ionization rates. We study the impact on the chemistry via the ionization tracers HCO+ and N2H+. We argue that spatially resolved observations of those molecules combined with detailed models allow for disentangling the contribution of the individual high-energy ionization sources and to put constraints on the SP flux in young stars.
We compared the number of lunar craters with diameters greater than 15 km with age less than 1.1 Gyr in the region of the Oceanus Procellarum with the estimates of the number of craters made based on the number of near-Earth objects and on the characteristic times elapsed before collisions of near-Earth objects with the Moon. Our estimates allow the increase of the number of near-Earth objects after a recent catastrophic disruption of a large main-belt asteroid. However, destruction of some old craters and variations in orbital distribution of near-Earth objects with time could allow that the mean number of near-Earth objects during the last billion years could be close to the present value.
High spatial resolution observations with ALMA and VLT/SPHERE show gaps and rings in continuum emission of protoplanetary disks, possibly indicating ongoing planet formation. However, it is still unclear if the gas follows the dust distribution. We present radiation thermo-chemical models for the disk of HD 163296 to study the impact of dust and gas gaps on the chemistry and molecular line emission. We compare a model with only dust gaps to a model that also has gas gaps. In both models, rings and gaps are visible in (sub)mm molecular line emission. Due to chemistry, certain molecules are sensitive to dust gaps where others are more sensitive to gas depletion. Observations of multiple molecules might allow to accurately determine the degree of gas depletion within the dust gaps, information crucial to discriminate between gap formation theories (e.g. planets, ice lines).
Formation of resonant multi-lane patterns in circumbinary young debris disks with planets is considered in a set of representative massively simulated models. We find that the long term-stable resonant patterns are generically formed, shepherded by embedded planets. The patterns are multi-lane, i.e., they consist of several concentric rings. Statistical dependences of their parameters on the planetary parameters are recovered. Relevant additional massive simulations of planetesimal disks in systems with parameters of Kepler-16, 34, and 35 are accomplished and described. We find that co-orbital patterns generically form in systems with moderate orbital eccentricities of the binary’s and planetary orbits (like in Kepler-16 and 35 cases).
Migration of dense gaseous clumps that form in young protostellar disks via gravitational fragmentation is investigated to determine the likelihood of giant-planet formation. We show that gaseous clumps that form in the outer regions of the disk (> 100 au) through disk fragmentation often migrate toward the central star on timescales from a few thousand to few tens of thousands of years. The tidal mass loss helps the clumps to significantly slow down or even halt their inward migration at a distance of a few tens of AU from the protostar.
Computer simulations of migration of planetesimals from beyond the Jupiter’s orbit to the terrestrial planets have been made. Based on obtained arrays of orbital elements of planetesimals and planets during the dynamical lifetimes of planetesimals, we calculated the probabilities of collisions of planetesimals with planets, the Moon, and their embryos. The results of calculations showed that for the total mass of planetesimals of about 200 Earth masses, the mass of water delivered to the Earth from beyond the orbit of Jupiter could be about the mass of the terrestrial oceans. For the growth of the mass of the Earth embryo up to a half of the present mass of the Earth, the mass of water delivered to the embryo could be up to 30% of all water delivered to the Earth from the zone of Jupiter and Saturn. The water of the terrestrial oceans and its D/H ratio could be the result of mixing of water from several exogenic and endogenic sources with large and low D/H ratios. The ratio of the mass of water delivered from beyond the orbit of Jupiter to a planet to the mass of the planet for Venus, Mars, and Mercury was not smaller than that for the Earth. The mass of water in planetesimals that collided the Moon and migrated from beyond the Jupiter’s orbit could be not more than 20 times smaller than that for the Earth.
Self-Consistent 2D modelling of stellar wind interaction with the upper atmosphere of WASP-12b has been performed. The two case-scenarios of the planetary material escape and interaction with the stellar wind, namely the ‘blown by the wind’ (without the inclusion of tidal force) and ‘captured by the star’ (with the tidal force) have been modelled under different stellar XUV radiations and stellar wind parameters. In the first scenario, a shock is formed around the planet, and the planetary mass loss is controlled completely by the stellar radiation energy input. In the second scenario, the mass loss is mainly due to the gravitational interaction effects. The dynamics of MGII and related absorption were modelled with three sets of different stellar wind parameters and XUV flux values.
The second (after Pluto) plausible target object for the New Horizons mission is 2014 MU69. It is a classical TNO, a primordial contact binary. Identifying any material in the vicinities of a target object is of an especial concern for planning cosmic fly-byes, as it is hazardous for a space probe. Luckily, no such material has been reported for MU69 up to now. The point of our report is that this lucky absence is just a dynamical consequence of the physical nature of MU69. Spinning gravitating dumbbells create zones of dynamical chaos around them, and this has a clearing effect: any material put in orbits around a rotating dumbbell (e.g., any material ejected from its surface) cannot be long-lived in such zones; it either escapes into space, or returns to the parent body’s surface. As the orbiting matter is removed in this way, a spinning gravitating dumbbell clears its vicinities. We show that MU69 is able to create such a clearing, making itself a safe and hospitable target for a space mission. Therefore, the guest probe is expected to be safe on arrival.
Final water inventories of newly formed terrestrial planets are shaped by their collision history. A setting where volatiles are transported from beyond the snowline to habitable-zone planets suggests collisions of very dry with water-rich bodies. By means of smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations we study water delivery in scenarios where a dry target is hit by a water-rich projectile, focusing on hit-and-run encounters with two large surviving bodies, which probably comprise about half of all similar-sized collisions (Genda et al. 2017).
New data obtained by space missions to various objects in the Solar system and observations of the outer Solar system and exoplanets by space and ground-based telescopes allowed us to conclude that the atmospheric escape plays an important role in the evolution of the terrestrial planets in the Solar system. We present the recent results of application of the kinetic approach to the problem of neutral escape from planetary atmospheres. As an example, the recent measurements by Mars Express and MAVEN spacecraft are compared with the calculations of neutral escape with the aim to understand the atmospheric loss at Mars. Also the recent calculations of the mass-loss rates of the hot Neptune and Jupiter atmospheres are presented.
The initial mass function (IMF) is a profoundly studied subject, however its origin is still unclear and heavily disputed. The Core Mass Function (CMF) has a remarkable resemblance to a shifted IMF along the mass axis of a factor of 3. This CMF has been observed amongst others in the Pipe Nebula, a calm molecular cloud at approximately 130 pc. We study the origin of the CMF under the assumption that collisions and merging of prestellar cores shape the CMF. We present our preliminary results of core collisions for the well known FeSt 1-457.
Trans-Neptunian satellite systems and embryos of the Earth-Moon system could be formed as a result of contraction of rarefied condensations. The angular momenta of rarefied condensations needed for such formation could be acquired at collisions of condensations. The angular momentum of the present Earth-Moon system could be acquired at a collision of two rarefied condensations with a total mass not smaller than 0.1ME, where ME is the mass of the Earth. The mass of the condensation that was a parent for the embryos of the Earth and the Moon could be about 0.01ME, if we take into account the growth of the angular momentum of the embryos with growth of their masses. The Moon embryo could get by an order of magnitude more material ejected from the Earth embryo than that fell directly onto the Moon embryo.