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Fuente Mudarra is on a gentle slope on the left bank of the Pico River, near Sierra de Atapuerca, Burgos, Spain. A 12−m2 test pit was dug at this large open-air site between 2012 and 2017. Several upper Pleistocene archaeological levels were documented. Results from Fuente Mudarra confirm that Neanderthal groups, little represented at cave sites, occupied Sierra de Atapuerca from the end of the middle Pleistocene and during the upper Pleistocene. The site also provides insight into Neanderthal spatial organization in the Atapuerca area and whether they used the caves in an occasional, non-habitual way like the open-air sites.
Platform design has been firmly established in the automotive industry as a strategy to provide wider product variety while maintaining cost effective production. But this strategy can struggle to keep up with the pace and nature of emerging technologies. This paper reviews the existing approaches to modelling product platforms, and showcases the challenges at OEMs introducing new technological innovations in their platforms. A gap is identified in the methods to assess the ability of existing platforms to integrate new technologies whenever they become available.
Nowadays several authors defend the existence of an obsessive-compulsive (OC) spectrum in which eating disorders (ED), especially anorexia nervosa, would be include. We investigated the presence of OC symptoms in bulimic and anorexic patients and its relationships with personality traits.
The Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Questionnaire (MOCQ) and the revised version of the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI-R) were administered to patients and healthy controls.
Patients show higher scores than controls in the global punctuation of de MOCQ, and in the checking and doubt subscales. Cases also score higher in harm avoidance (dimension associated with personality disorders of cluster C) and in its subscale anticipatory worry. No differences were found between patients subgroups.
Restricting Anorexia Nervosa (RAN, n = 21)
Binging-Purging Anorexia Nervosa (BPAN, n = 29)
Bulimia Nervosa (BN, n = 34)
Control (C, n = 52)
RAN, BPAN, BN > C
Checking subscale (MOCQ)
BPAN, BN > C
RAN, BPAN, BN > C
Harm avoidance (TCI-R)
BPAN, BN > C
Anticipatory worry vs optimism (TCI-R)
RAN, BPAN, BN > C
Patients present more OC behaviours in comparison with healthy population but measures of obsessivity do not differ between the types of ED. Traits of personality characteristically associated to cluster C and to anxiety disorders seem to be also common features. These results do not support a separated classification of RAN into the OC spectrum.
Mixed Bipolar patients are those who have co-existing depressive symptoms during mania. These patients are supposed to have a worse evolution.
The objective of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes of patients who had at least one mixed episode with those who experienced only pure manic episodes.
169 outpatients diagnosed of Bipolar I disorder and treated at least during two years were included. 120 patients (71%) complited the follow-up over 10 years. Baseline demographic and clinical variables were included.
The patients with mixed episodes (37%) had a significantly younger mean age at onset comparing with those with manic episodes (25.3 years vs. 30.8 years; p=0.025) they also had more previous mood- incongruent psychotic symptoms χ2= 6.77, p=0.034), more number of hospitalizations (OR= 1.36, 95% CI = 1.14; -1.63; p< 0.001), and more number of episodes (OR= 1.21, 95% CI = 1.10-1.31; p< 0.001). There were no significant differences relating to depressive episodes, alcohol use, drug abuse, suicidal behaviour and suicide attempts.
Age at onset differed significantly between the mixed episode and pure mania groups, with mixed episode patients having a younger age of onset. This is interesting as one of the major results of the study we have found that age at onset mediates some of the factors classically related to outcome in mixed episodes like alcohol abuse and suicide attempts. However, independently of age at onset, these patients represent a especially severe type of bipolar disorder.
The aim of this study is to assess the personality traits in a sample of Spanish anorexic and bulimic outpatients.
The revised version of the Temperament and Character Inventory was administered to 76 women attended in an Eating Disorders Unit and to 46 healthy controls. Both groups were matched by gender, age and instruction.
Diagnoses in the sample were distributed as follows: bulimia nervosa (BN) 33, binging-purging type anorexia nervosa (BPAN) 23 and restricting anorexia nervosa (RAN) 18. RAN patients were significantly younger (21.6 vs. 26.3 p < 0.01). Differences in the harm avoidance, persistence and selfdirectedness subscales of the TCI were found (see table).
BPAN, BN > C
RAN > C
C > RAN, BPAN, BN
In concordance with previous reports, compared with healthy controls, patients show lower scores in self-directedness. Persistence seems to be associated with restricting behaviours, whereas harm avoidance with binging and purging. RAN trends to have low scores in novelty seeking items and BN shows lower reward dependence, but this differences are not statistically significant, perhaps because of sample size.
Suicide is one of the most frequent causes of death. In 1993, Bleuler emphasized its importance in his “Suicidal behavior is the most serious symptom of schizophrenia”. Since then, various studies have confirmed importance of suicide in schizophrenia, and today it's clear that his research and knowledge is one of the great challenges of psychiatry.
- Establish clinical-socio-demographic profile and risk factors for psychotic people with autolytic behaviors.
- Determine frequency of suicides in psychotic disorders in our area of care.
Material and methods
Retrospective study(3 years evolution) that includes psychotic patients(diagnosed according DSM IV-TR) admitted to the HCU of Valladolid. With data provided by hospital medical records, analyzed socio-demographic variables and clinics. Study consists of two groups:group of cases(those patients who have suicidal behavior) and control group (those that haven't autolytic gesture during the study period). Statistical evaluation was performed with SPSS.
- The sample includes 191 patients:41(21%) have attempted suicide.
- Of them:73% are males;88% singles;51% have basic studies;61% we re unemployed;37% were 31-40 aged;54% started disease 21-30 aged and 63.5% are schizophrenic.
- Considering statistical study we find that suicidal patient profile is male(p = 0.039),diagnosed with schizophrenia(p = 0.033),with previous suicide attempts(p = 0.009)and lack of social support(p = 0.007).
- 21% of hospitalized psychotic patients have presented some autolytic attempt.
- Profile of suicidal psychotic patient is a male, single, 21-40 aged, primary education, unemployed, with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia, particularly paranoid, with ten years evolution,without acceptable social support, number of revenues higher than non-suicidal psychotic and a personal history of previous autolytic attempts.
At present,the need of antipsychotic treatments for the improvement of the condition of people with psychotic disorders is unquestionable.Despite the current availability of highly effective drugs with few secondary effects,the main cause behind hospitalization is still the lack of compliance.
Analysis of the determining variables behind the need for hospitalization and the influence of the types of antipsychotic treatments.
Retrospective and follow-up analysis of psychotic patients hospitalized in the Psychiatric Ward of the Hospital de Conxo (1998-2005).Three groups of patients:with Oral neuroleptics(170), with Depot typical neuroleptics (238),with Long-Acting Risperidone(60);and comparison based on treatment maintenance.
Males,day-to-day living with the family of origin and single status are predominant in all three groups,although in a higher proportion in the Long-Acting Risperidone one(75,71 and 85%respectively).Only 7% of the patients with Long-Acting Risperidone completed their university studies,62% were pensioners.The average duration of hospitalization periods is 21 days for the patients with Long-Acting Risperidone,23.3 days in the Oral group,29.5 days in the Depot group.The main cause behind re-hospitalization is the lack of compliance(68% in Depot group),whilst after the introduction of Long-Acting Risperidone,no compliance rate is 59%.If we compare the number of hospitalizations/year of the patients with Long-Acting Risperidone,before and after its introduction,the rate is reduced significantly from 0.89 to 0.73.
Despite the fact that patients treated with Long-Acting Risperidone show a more seriously ill condition and less social capacity,they have less need for hospitalization than patients treated with Depot neuroleptics.Median lengths of stay were shorter than patients in the other two groups,and are less re-hospitalized after the introduction of this treatment.
To compare CATIE, a randomized double blind study, and SOHO, a 3-year prospective non-randomized observational European study of outpatients with schizophrenia, on the Number Needed to Treat (NNT) for all-cause medication discontinuation. NNTs place data into a clinically meaningful context - the number of patients needed to be treated with one antipsychotic instead of another to prevent one negative outcome, defined here as one additional medication discontinuation for any cause.
Rate of medication discontinuation for any cause during the 18 months post initiation was calculated for patients newly initiated on olanzapine (N=4247), risperidone (N=1549), quetiapine (N=583), amisulpride (N=256), clozapine (N=274), oral typicals (N=471) or depot typicals (N=348). Cox models were employed to adjust for treatment group differences at baseline. NNTs with their 95% confidence intervals were calculated and compared with published NNTs for CATIE (Phase 1).
The NNTs for all-cause discontinuation of olanzapine vs. each studied atypical antipsychotic during the 18 month following medication initiation in SOHO were comparable to CATIE: 4.3(95% CI: 3.6–5.3) for olanzapine vs. quetiapine (5.5 in CATIE); 16.1(11.0–28.1) for olanzapine vs. risperidone (10.1 in CATIE); 6.9(5.2–10.1) for olanzapine vs. oral typicals (9.0 in CATIE for olanzapine vs. perphenazine).
The NNTs for all-cause medication discontinuation based on CATIE appeared comparable to NNTs based on SOHO. The NNTs for olanzapine therapy were consistently better when compared to each studied atypical antipsychotic (except clozapine) and when compared to typical antipsychotics. Results should be interpreted conservatively, due to the observational design of SOHO.
Musical hallucinations are a rare phenomenon in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to analyze the clinical spectrum of musical hallucinations.
We analysed demographic and clinical features of cases published in English, Italian, French or Spanish between 1991 and 2006 registered in MEDLINE, including three of our own cases. The cases were separated into four groups according to their main diagnoses (hearing impairment; psychiatric disorder; neurological disorder; toxic or metabolic disorder).
115 patients with musical hallucinations were included, of which 63.5% were female. The mean age was 57,25 years. Main diagnoses were: psychiatric disorder (46.1%; schizophrenia 30.4%), neurological disorder (21,7%), hearing impairment (17,4%), toxic or metabolic disorder (12.2%) and 2.6% other diagnoses.
61.7% patients presented simple diagnoses while 36.5% presented two or more diagnoses. 2.1% of patients didn't receive any diagnoses. 35.7% of patients and 60.9% of non psychiatric patients presented hearing impairment.
Both instrumental and vocal were the more frequent musical hallucinations and most of the patients had insight about the abnormality of their perceptions. Another kind of hallucinations was present in 40.9% of patients, auditory hallucinations being the most common. Also, 38,3% of the global sample had abnormalities in brain structural image (MRI, CT).
Musical hallucinations are a heterogeneous phenomenon in clinical practice. published cases describe them as more common in women and in psychiatric and neurological patients. Hearing impairment seem to be an important risk factor in the development of musical hallucinations.
The risk of abuse/dependence of alcohol or drugs in schizofrenia have been estimed about 4 times the prevalence in general population. This fact difficults the treatment results and efficcacy: more relapses, more treatments withdrawal and poorer prognosis. The aims of our study is to evaluate the effect of Zyprasidone, an atypical antipsychotic with 5HT propierties, in patients with schizofrenia and comorbid substance use disorder in a single, open, prospective-naturalistic design.
36 outpatients were selected with Schizofrenic disorder diagnosis (DSMIV) and abuse/dependence of at least 1 substance in which Zyprasidone was recommended (inneficacy, intolerance of prior treatments,..). They were evaluated clinically and data about actual consum and craving were collected at inicial visit and follow-up monthly (3 to 6 months). Results were analized with SPSS pack.
The mean follow-up period was 3 month. 28 patients finished the evaluation showing a decrease in clinical measures (PANSS, ICG) with good tolerance (only 4 drop-outs associated to indesirable effects). The most frequent drug use disorder was tobacco followed by alcohol and cannabis.The results on number and frequency of drug use shows a slow tendency to reduce at the end of the evaluation as well the craving measures but no significant differences were found.
Our exploratory study with Zyprasidone, althougt metodological limitations, suggests that clinical schizofrenic symptoms can improve but also drug pattern use. Naturalistic studies of schizofrenia with comorbid substance use disorder can be useful to show the efficacy of antipsychotics in real clinical practice
Auditory and musical hallucinations have been reported in patients as an adverse effect of the use of opioids. Hearing loss, old age, and female gender are considered risk factors in the development of musical hallucinations. The aim of this report is to describe a case of a patient with auditory and musical hallucinations and to discuss the role of an opioid –tramadol- in the origin of those.
An 80 years old woman experiencing auditory hallucinations was referred to our hospital from an emergency room. The patient had bilateral mild hearing loss and was receiving tramadol 112.5 mg/daily during the last year for cervical pain. In the last ten months, she had been gradually noticing the voice of her dead husband coming from under her pillow, as well as intermittently hearing popular songs being played inside her head. The patient had good insight on both types of abnormal perceptions, which were reported as increasingly unpleasant through time.
Tramadol was discontinued and pimocide (range 1-4 mg/day) and loracepam (2.5 mg/day) were introduced, achieving the improvement of the hallucinations and the anxiety associated with them.
The outcome of this case supports the hypotheses that Opioids could induce musical hallucinations. Hearing impairment, old age, and gender could be underlying risk factors on the development of musical hallucinations.
This study attempted to determine whether Anorexia nervosa (AN), Bulimia nervosa (BN) and Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) share clinical and psychopathological traits.
The sample consisted of 90 female patients (30 OCD; 30 AN; 30 BN), who had been consecutively referred to our Unit. All subjects met DSM-IV criteria for those pathologies. The assessment consisted on the Maudsley Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory, Questionnaire of obsessive traits and personality by Vallejo, Eating Attitudes Test-40, Eating Disorder Inventory, and Beck Depression Inventory. ANCOVA tests (adjusted for age and body mass index) and multiple linear regression models based on obsessive-compulsiveness, obsessive personality traits and perfectionism, as independent variables, were applied to determine the best predictors of eating disorder severity.
ANCOVA revealed several significant differences between obsessive-compulsive and eating disordered patients (MOCI, p < 0.001; EAT, p < 0.001; EDI, p < 0.001), whereas some obsessive personality traits were not eating disorder-specific. 16.7% OCD presented a comorbid eating disorder, whereas 3.3% eating disorders had an OCD diagnosis. In the eating disorder group, the presence of OC symptomatology was positively associated (r = 0.57, p < 0.001) with the severity of the eating disorder. The results were maintained after adjusting for comorbidity.
Although some obsessive-compulsive and eating disorder patients share common traits (e.g. some personality traits especially between OCD and AN), both disorders seem to be clinically and psychopathologically different.
Sexuality and emotional life are rarely focus on attention in people suffering from severe long-term mental diseases like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
53 patients and 47 matched controls were studied using a new questionnaire (SEXSAM Scale) measuring relevance of sexual and emotional relationships in patients’ daily life. A specific Psychotropic-Related Sexual Dysfunction Questionnaire (PRSexDQ-SALSEX Montejo 2001-2008), Sexual Activity Assessment Scale modified from Kinsey (Montejo 2006) and the HONOS Scale measuring bio-psychosocial functioning were also applied.
Sexuality (physic and emotional) was scored as high valuable and the main motivation for sexual activity was looking for love and fondness in both groups. No differences were found in the value of more affective behaviours such as kissing, caressing, hugging or massaging. Global satisfaction in sexual and emotional life was significantly superior in control group and linked to the higher frequency of sexual relations. Many patients suffered for sexual dysfunction related to the treatment use and many of then were dissatisfied with their sexual life. Just a few numbers of patients had regular sexual intercourses. Patients describe an improvement in the self-perception of mood, appetite, sleep, anxiety level, humour sense and self-esteem when they have sexual relations. Predominant sexual activity for patients was masturbation. Prostitution use was higher in patient group. All these findings are negatively influencing personal satisfaction and quality of life.
Relevance of sexual and emotional life in patients is as high as in normal population. These patients are more concerned about affection and companionship than about physical pleasure.
Currently the Eating Behavior Disorders have become a social and health problem of the first kind that requires a specialized and interdisciplinary approach to these disorders. These clinical conditions are characterized by their complexity and diversity symptomatology, which implies a significant interference in their functioning in different areas of life and clinically significant distress.
Given the high burden of care in the USMC that difficult to monitor these patients at appropriate intervals, as well as the seriousness of the clinical and physical complications that can result, ultimately, in death, it seems necessary to implement group interventions to ensure greater continuity of care.
In all forms of group therapy underlying common advantages which advocate their implementation. Recent studies show that group therapy for eating disorders is equally effective as individual treatment. So in the USMC - Huelva conducted a psychotherapeutic group aimed at people with these clinical pictures. The present work is to analyze the impact of the intervention group in the eating disorder symptoms, anxiety and depression, comparing the results obtained in the tests applied before and after treatment.
Psychometric tests used were:
- Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)
- Inventory of State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)
- Inventory of Eating disorders (EDI)
The results reflect a clinically relevant improvement in both psychometric testing quality indicators (no hospitalizations, no emergency service attendance, adherence, etc.)
We should consider that group psychotherapy has unique properties that offer individual psychotherapy.
Psychedelic drugs were used extensively in psychotherapy in the 1950s to lower psychological defences and facilitate emotional insight. Thousands of research participants were administered hallucinogens in the context of basic clinical research or therapeutic clinical research, resulting in hundreds of publications. Results across studies were ultimately inconclusive due to such variations in methods and a lack of modern controls and experimental rigour. The growing controversy and sensationalism resulted in increasing restrictions on access to hallucinogens throughout the 1960s (ultimately resulting in the placement of the most popular hallucinogens into Schedule I of the 1970 Controlled Substances Act in the United States).
Renewed human administration research began in the 1990s. Recent clinical studies have administered hallucinogens to evaluate their safety and efficacy in the treatment of psychiatric disorders: specifically, anxiety related to advanced-stage cancer (Grob, 2005), obsessive-compulsive disorder (Moreno, et al., 2006), heroin dependence (Krupitsky, et al., 2007), personal meaning and spiritual significance (Griffiths, et al., 2008), and a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of LSD for alcoholism (Krebs,et al., 2012).
Psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy utilizes the acute psychological effects of psychedelic drugs to enhance the normal mechanisms of psychotherapy. The effects of psychedelic psychotherapy are often very pronounced within several days or weeks after a treatment session, but then these effects quickly decline. This phenomenon was termed a “psychedelic afterglow”.
Fhurther research, blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, methodology should explore the efficacy of hallucinogens.
Parkinson's disease (PD) is classified primarily as a movement disorder. Psychiatric complications, however, are common during the progression of the disease. Psychosis is rare in untreated patients with PD, but the prevalence rises to 40% during dopaminergic treatment.
We report the clinical course of a ropinirole induced psychosis in a 57-year-old female with PD.
The patient was treated with different antiparkinsonians (rasagiline, ropinirole and levodopa), and after a dosage increase of ropinirole, psychotic symptoms appeared (auditory hallucinations and paranoid delusion). Antipsychotic treatment started with quetiapine and a gradual dose reduction of antiparkisonians. Nevertheless, psychotic symptoms required a hospital admission.
Rasagiline was suspended at admission, the dose of ropinirole was decreased until withdrawal, and the dose of levodopa was reduced. The dose of quetiapine was increased to control psychotic symptoms.
The pathogenesis of psychosis in PD is poorly understood. It has been related with the presence of dementia and concomitant treatment with dopaminergic agonists (DA). According to the literature, pergolide is associated with a significantly increased risk for the development of psychosis, followed by ropinirole, pramipexole and cabergoline, whereas levodopa has the lowest associated risk. Treatment includes, in the first place, suspending anticholinergics and selegiline, and then, amantadine, DA, and entacapone. Finally, levodopa may also be reduced. These patients frequently require antipsychotic treatment that may worsen extrapyramidal symptoms.
Psychosis should be considered in PD, especially in patients treated with DA. Treatment begins with reducing antiparkinsonians and then adding antipsychotics. Clozapine and quetiapine are a good choice.
Description of a manic episode with psychotic symptoms in a patient by consumption of energy drinks.
Aims and methods
Literature review of the relationship between energy drink consumption and the possibility of suffering a manic episode and description of a clinical case.
This case report describes a patient with no history of psychiatric interest suffers a manic episode with psychotic symptoms after consuming high amounts of energy drinks.
Results and conclusions
To my knowledge, this is one of the few cases that describe a manic episode in relation to the consumption of energy drinks, given this possibility, clinicians should consider asking about the consumption of energy drinks to young people without previous psychiatric history presenting a manic episode.
Gender dysphoria is incoherence between the sex a person feels or expresses and the biological.
Revise the inclusion criteria for hormone therapy and sex reassignment surgery in gender dysphoria. Expose the multidisciplinary approach. Make differential diagnosis with other psychological disorders.
A 45 years old male patient (biological female), who was sent from Endocrinology Unit for a psychiatric evaluation before restart a hormonal treatment. Since his childhood, he has presented dissatisfaction with his sexual characteristics; he has had fantasies and dreams, in which he belonged to the other sex. He has always chosen male activities and male stereotypes companies. He has presented preference for cross-dressing from 9 years. Always felt the sexual attraction for women. He first consulted for this reason in 1995.
It reported favorably to start hormone treatment after completing the eligibility criteria: > 18 years old; knowledge of the effects of hormones; and more 3 months documented real-life experience. The hormone therapy caused the growth of microprolactinoma, which was treated with dopamine agonists until it disappeared and the cessation of galactorrhea. Testosterone treatment is restarted. Laboratory tests are done every 3 months during the first year and then, every 6 months.
Is the gender disphoria a pathology? The EU recommends a reclassification as no pathological disorders in ICD-11. The treatment of gender dysphoria is necessary, and there is no reason to postpone it. The main difficulty is the differential diagnosis; there may be comorbidity with others mental disorders which are not exclusive (psychotic disorder, OCD, personality disorders and other disorders of gender identity).
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Between 25–50% of psychiatric patients are non-compliant with their pharmacological treatment. When differences between compliant and non-compliant patients were analyzed, differences were found in relation to their beliefs and feelings about medication. The Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI) was created to measure attitudes towards medication in adults. It predicted adherence in schizophrenia and depression studies.
Determine if psychotherapeutic and psychoeducational activities – during a partial hospitalization at the Psychiatric Day Hospital – can improve aspects related to feelings and thoughts about medication.
We gathered retrospectively a sample of 151 patients hospitalized at the Psychiatric Day Hospital, from September 2013 to June 2015. Their thoughts and feelings about medication were measured with the DAI before and after the hospitalization. From the sample of 151 patients, 94 completed both tests, excluding who did not have the final DAI score. Differences between initial and final scores were statistically analyzed with the Wilcoxon test for paired samples.
Of the 94 patients who completed the study, 52 showed an improvement in their DAI score, whereas the remaining 27 showed an equal or decreased final DAI compared to initial evaluation. The difference was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05).
It seems that psychoeducational activities related to medication are important in order to reconsider or modify feelings and thoughts about treatment. Information on medication provided to psychiatric patients (to those who need psychopharmacological treatment), carried out in a group context, which facilitates an open and sincere communication, can be a useful strategy to improve compliance with treatment.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The personality disorders are defined according to the DSM-5 like “an enduring maladaptive patterns of behavior, cognition and inner experience, exhibited across many contexts and deviating markedly from those accepted by the individual's cultures. These patterns develop in adolescence and the beginning of adulthood, and are associated with significant distress or disability”. The personality disorders can be a risk factor for different processes of the psychiatric pathology like suicide. The personality disorders are classified in 3 groups according to the DSM-5:
– cluster A (strange subjects): paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal;
– cluster B (immature subjects): antisocial, bordeline, histrionic and narcissistic;
– cluster C (frightened subjects): avoidant, dependent and obsessive-compulsive.
To describe the influence of personality disorders in suicide attempts.
Exhibition of clinical cases.
In this case report, we exhibit three clinical cases of suicide attempts which correspond to a type of personality disorder belonging to each of the three big groups of the DSM-5 classification, specifically the paranoid disorder of the cluster A, the disorder borderline of cluster B and the obsessive compulsive of cluster C.
The personality disorders have a clear relation with the suicide attempts, increasing this influence in some of them, especially the borderline personality disorder.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.