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Gluten is only partially digested by intestinal enzymes and can generate peptides that can alter intestinal permeability, facilitating bacterial translocation, thus affecting the immune system. Few studies addressed the role of diet with gluten in the development of colitis. Therefore, we investigate the effects of wheat gluten-containing diet on the evolution of sodium dextran sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. Mice were fed a standard diet without (colitis group) or with 4·5 % wheat gluten (colitis + gluten) for 15 d and received DSS solution (1·5 %, w/v) instead of water during the last 7 d. Compared with the colitis group, colitis + gluten mice presented a worse clinical score, a larger extension of colonic injury area, and increased mucosal inflammation. Both intestinal permeability and bacterial translocation were increased, propitiating bacteria migration for peripheral organs. The mechanism by which diet with gluten exacerbates colitis appears to be related to changes in protein production and organisation in adhesion junctions and desmosomes. The protein α-E-catenin was especially reduced in mice fed gluten, which compromised the localisation of E-cadherin and β-catenin proteins, weakening the structure of desmosomes. The epithelial damage caused by gluten included shortening of microvilli, a high number of digestive vacuoles, and changes in the endosome/lysosome system. In conclusion, our results show that wheat gluten-containing diet exacerbates the mucosal damage caused by colitis, reducing intestinal barrier function and increasing bacterial translocation. These effects are related to the induction of weakness and disorganisation of adhesion junctions and desmosomes as well as shortening of microvilli and modification of the endocytic vesicle route.
Despite single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) availability and frequent cost reduction has allowed genome-wide association studies even in complex traits as tick resistance, the use of this information source in SNP by environment interaction context is unknown for many economically important traits in cattle. We aimed at identifying putative genomic regions explaining differences in tick resistance in Hereford and Braford cattle under SNP by environment point of view as well as to identify candidate genes derived from outliers/significant markers. The environment was defined as contemporary group means of tick counts, since they seemed to be the most appropriate entities to describe the environmental gradient in beef cattle. A total of 4363 animals having tick counts (n=10 673) originated from 197 sires and 3966 dams were used. Genotypes were acquired on 3591 of these cattle. From top 1% SNPs (410) having the greatest effects in each environment, 75 were consistently relevant in all environments, which indicated SNP by environment interaction. The outliers/significant SNPs were mapped on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 21, 23, 24, 26 and 28, and potential candidate genes were detected across environments. The presence of SNP by environment interaction for tick resistance indicates that genetic expression of resistance depends upon tick burden. Markers with major portion of genetic variance explained across environments appeared to be close to genes with different direct or indirect functions related to immune system, inflammatory process and mechanisms of tissue destruction/repair, such as energy metabolism and cell differentiation.
Major depression cognitive impairments lasts in remission periods, have an impact on treatment outcome and hamper psychosocial functioning. Thus, its accurate detection and specific treatment has become a crucial step.
In order to assess objective cognitive functioning (OCF), a neuropsychological battery was administered. For subjective cognitive functioning (SCF), cognitive perception was evaluated by clinicians and patients.
To determine the concordance between OCF and SCF.
One hundred and two patients were grouped according to Hamilton Depressive Rating Scale (HDRS−17): 18 remitters (RE < 7), 40 partly remitters (PR, 7–18) and 44 acutely depressed (AD > 18). OCF was computed combining T-scores of digit symbol substitution test (WAIS-IV) with two RAVLT subtests (learning and memory). SCF was assessed with a CGI adaptation for cognitive disturbances severity.
The OFC was 41.21(8.49) for all patients and 45.54(6.8), 41.93(6.8) and 38.7 (9.7) for RE, PR, and AD, respectively. Psychiatrist and patients’ SCF had a poor agreement (α=0.518), with Cronbach's alpha for RE, PR and AD of −0.607, 0.518 and 0.404. Concordance between OCF and SCF was calculated for all patients (psychiatrist, r = −0.317, P = 0.002; patient, r = −0.310, P = 0.002), for RE (r = −0.535, P = 0.022; r = 0.395, P = 0.105) for PR (r = −0.013, P = 0.94; r = −0.328, P = 0.045) and for AD (r = −0.252, P = 0.122; r = −0.333, P = 0.033). Patients rated their SFC as more impaired than did clinicians.
Concordance between clinicians and patients regarding SCF is very poor, worsening in AD group and being null in remission. This study also points out that CF is best detected by patients in acute episodes and by psychiatrists when patients are in clinical remission.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Positive Deviance (PD) is a process to achieve a social and cultural change. This strategy has been used for the control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection in some health institutions in the United States, but has rarely been adopted in institutions from developing countries where resources are limited. We describe our experience of PD in the control of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) due to MRSA in a Colombian hospital with the aim of reducing HAI rates through a cultural change in processes. A time-series study was conducted based on the MRSA-HAI rate and the number of months with zero MRSA infections before and after application of PD (2001–2012). On comparing the pre-intervention and intervention periods, the mean overall rates of MRSA-HAI was 0·62 and 0·36, respectively (P = 0·0005); the number of months with zero MRSA-HAIs were 3/70 and 12/74 (odds ratio 0·264, 95% confidence interval 0·078–0·897); the percentage of MRSA-HAIs was 53·2% and 41·0%. These results are consistent with other published data. Implementation of PD was associated with a significant reduction of MRSA-HAIs, it did not involve high costs and the changes have been lasting.
Recent progress in telescope development has brought us different ways to observe protoplanetary disks: interferometers, space missions, adaptive optics, polarimetry, and time- and spectrally-resolved data. While the new facilities have changed the way we can tackle open problems in disk structure and evolution, there is a substantial lack of interconnection between different observing communities. Here, we explore the complementarity of some of the state-of-the-art observing techniques, and how they can be brought together to understand disk dispersal and planet formation.
This paper was born at the ‘Protoplanetary Discussions’ meeting in Edinburgh, 2016. Its goal is to clarify where multi-wavelength observations converge in unveiling disk structure and evolution, and where they challenge our current understanding. We discuss caveats that should be considered when linking results from different observations, or when drawing conclusions from limited datasets (in terms of wavelength or sample). We focus on disk properties that are currently being revolutionized, specifically: the inner disk radius, holes and gaps and their link to large-scale disk structures, the disk mass, and the accretion rate. We discuss how their connections and apparent contradictions can help us to disentangle the disk physics and to learn about disk evolution.
Although mental disorders are significant predictors of educational attainment throughout the entire educational career, most research on mental disorders among students has focused on the primary and secondary school years.
The World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys were used to examine the associations of mental disorders with college entry and attrition by comparing college students (n = 1572) and non-students in the same age range (18–22 years; n = 4178), including non-students who recently left college without graduating (n = 702) based on surveys in 21 countries (four low/lower-middle income, five upper-middle-income, one lower-middle or upper-middle at the times of two different surveys, and 11 high income). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence and age-of-onset of DSM-IV anxiety, mood, behavioral and substance disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
One-fifth (20.3%) of college students had 12-month DSM-IV/CIDI disorders; 83.1% of these cases had pre-matriculation onsets. Disorders with pre-matriculation onsets were more important than those with post-matriculation onsets in predicting subsequent college attrition, with substance disorders and, among women, major depression the most important such disorders. Only 16.4% of students with 12-month disorders received any 12-month healthcare treatment for their mental disorders.
Mental disorders are common among college students, have onsets that mostly occur prior to college entry, in the case of pre-matriculation disorders are associated with college attrition, and are typically untreated. Detection and effective treatment of these disorders early in the college career might reduce attrition and improve educational and psychosocial functioning.
Aortic arch coarctation with post-coarctation aneurysm is rare in infants. We present the case of an asymptomatic 3-month-old infant with severe left ventricular dysfunction in this setting. The patient underwent surgical repair, and the left ventricular ejection fraction improved to recovery the 4th post-operative month.
Two of the problems that currently affect a large proportion of university students are high levels of anxiety and stress experienced in different situations, which are particularly high during the first years of their degree and during exam periods. The present study aims to investigate whether mindfulness training can bring about significant changes in the manifestations of depression, anxiety, and stress of students when compared to another group undergoing a physical activity program and a control group. The sample consisted of 125 students from the Bachelor of Education Program. The measuring instrument used was the Abbreviated Scale of Depression, Anxiety and Stress (DASS-21). The results indicate that the effects of reducing the identified variables were higher for the mindfulness group than for the physical education group and for the control group F(2) = 5.91, p = .004, η2 = .106. The total scores for all variables related to the mindfulness group decreased significantly, including an important stress reduction t(29) = 2.95, p = .006, d = .667. Mindfulness exercises and some individual relaxing exercises involving Physical Education could help to reduce manifestations of stress and anxiety caused by exams in students.
Predation by the mite Lasioseius penicilliger was studied on three nematode species, i.e. infective larval stages (L3) of Haemonchus contortus and adults of Panagrellus redivivus and Rhabditis sp. Experiments were carried out in 5.5-cm diameter Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar over a period of 5 days. Batches of up to 1500 third-stage larvae (L3) of H. contortus and 1000 adult nematodes of P. redivivus and Rhabditis sp. were exposed to five mites in separate Petri dishes. Upon contact, each mite used its pedipalp and legs to identify and hold its prey and then used its chelicerae to feed upon the prey. Predation by L. penicilliger was chance dependent but mites became aggregated around any injured/damaged prey, thereby suggesting some form of chemoperception. The rate of predation on the three species of nematodes was high but L3 of H. contortus and adult Rhabditis sp. were preferred.
Heparin-binding proteins (HBPs) play a key role in Trypanosoma cruzi-host cell interactions. HBPs recognize heparan sulfate (HS) at the host cell surface and are able to induce the cytoadherence and invasion of this parasite. Herein, we analysed the biochemical properties of the HBPs and also evaluated the expression and subcellular localization of HBPs in T. cruzi trypomastigotes. A flow cytometry analysis revealed that HBPs are highly expressed at the surface of trypomastigotes, and their peculiar localization mainly at the flagellar membrane, which is known as an important signalling domain, may enhance their binding to HS and elicit the parasite invasion. The plasmon surface resonance results demonstrated the stability of HBPs and their affinity to HS and heparin. Additionally, gelatinolytic activities of 70 kDa, 65·8 kDa and 59 kDa HBPs over a broad pH range (5·5–8·0) were revealed using a zymography assay. These proteolytic activities were sensitive to serine proteinase inhibitors, such as aprotinin and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, suggesting that HBPs have the properties of trypsin-like proteinases.
A common problem for genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) is lack of power for detection of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) and precision for fine mapping. Here, we present a statistical method, termed single-step GBLUP (ssGBLUP), which increases both power and precision without increasing genotyping costs by taking advantage of phenotypes from other related and unrelated subjects. The procedure achieves these goals by blending traditional pedigree relationships with those derived from genetic markers, and by conversion of estimated breeding values (EBVs) to marker effects and weights. Additionally, the application of mixed model approaches allow for both simple and complex analyses that involve multiple traits and confounding factors, such as environmental, epigenetic or maternal environmental effects. Efficiency of the method was examined using simulations with 15 800 subjects, of which 1500 were genotyped. Thirty QTLs were simulated across genome and assumed heritability was 0·5. Comparisons included ssGBLUP applied directly to phenotypes, BayesB and classical GWAS (CGWAS) with deregressed proofs. An average accuracy of prediction 0·89 was obtained by ssGBLUP after one iteration, which was 0·01 higher than by BayesB. Power and precision for GWAS applications were evaluated by the correlation between true QTL effects and the sum of m adjacent single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects. The highest correlations were 0·82 and 0·74 for ssGBLUP and CGWAS with m=8, and 0·83 for BayesB with m=16. Standard deviations of the correlations across replicates were several times higher in BayesB than in ssGBLUP. The ssGBLUP method with marker weights is faster, more accurate and easier to implement for GWAS applications without computing pseudo-data.
In this work, we use the T-matrix method to study the tunneling of Dirac electrons through graphene multilayers. A graphene sheet is deposited on top of slabs of SiO2-SiC substrates, of which we applied a Gaussian distribution in the size width of the SiC substrate. We calculate the transmittance as a function of energy for different incident angles and different number of layers of the Gaussian distribution. We obtain different stop-band regions. These regions are wider when the width of the barrier is increased. Furthermore, it is possible to tune the width and the position of stop-band with the angle of incidence, the σ value of the Gaussian distribution, and the difference between the maximum-minimum sizes of the barrier.
In order to increase the wettability and capillary forces of the filler metal between micro-cracking and micro-porous on the fracture surfaces of 304 stainless steels, methods of impregnation of Si and growth of Ni nanoparticles were used. These nanoparticles have a role inside the Transient Liquid Phase (TLP) and the substrate when using Brazing process. TLP can react with the nanoparticles previously deposited between micro-cracking and micro-porous and therefore promotes the nucleation and growth sites of phases and decreases the formation of eutectic structures. This method increases the effectiveness of metallic components reparation using Brazing process. Such effectiveness is indicated by an inspection of microstructural failure analysis, as a first stage, in the covered zone by the filler metal.