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To investigate a Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) outbreak event involving multiple healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; to characterize transmission; and to explore infection control implications.
Cases presented in 4 healthcare facilities in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: a tertiary-care hospital, a specialty pulmonary hospital, an outpatient clinic, and an outpatient dialysis unit.
Contact tracing and testing were performed following reports of cases at 2 hospitals. Laboratory results were confirmed by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) and/or genome sequencing. We assessed exposures and determined seropositivity among available healthcare personnel (HCP) cases and HCP contacts of cases.
In total, 48 cases were identified, involving patients, HCP, and family members across 2 hospitals, an outpatient clinic, and a dialysis clinic. At each hospital, transmission was linked to a unique index case. Moreover, 4 cases were associated with superspreading events (any interaction where a case patient transmitted to ≥5 subsequent case patients). All 4 of these patients were severely ill, were initially not recognized as MERS-CoV cases, and subsequently died. Genomic sequences clustered separately, suggesting 2 distinct outbreaks. Overall, 4 (24%) of 17 HCP cases and 3 (3%) of 114 HCP contacts of cases were seropositive.
We describe 2 distinct healthcare-associated outbreaks, each initiated by a unique index case and characterized by multiple superspreading events. Delays in recognition and in subsequent implementation of control measures contributed to secondary transmission. Prompt contact tracing, repeated testing, HCP furloughing, and implementation of recommended transmission-based precautions for suspected cases ultimately halted transmission.
The objectives of the current study were to investigate the dynamics of body calcium (Ca) and to estimate the net Ca maintenance requirements (NCam) of Saanen goats, using 45Ca as a radiotracer. Eighteen castrated male Saanen goats (25 ± 2.3 kg body weight (BW)) received a basal diet (ground ear maize, ground maize and vitamin–mineral premix). The treatments consisted of adding limestone to the basal diet to provide Ca content of 0.6, 1.7 and 3.0 g/kg dry matter (DM). The experiment lasted 45 days (i.e. 36 d of adaptation and 9 days of measurements). On day 38, 0.5 ml of 7.4 MBq 45Ca solution was administrated before feeding. From days 39 to 45, samples of faeces, blood and urine were collected, and Ca concentration determined. The Ca intake, Ca in faeces, Ca in urine, faecal endogenous Ca and true absorbed Ca increased linearly as Ca content in the diets increased, while retained Ca increased at a decreasing rate. Dry matter intake decreased at an increasing rate with increased Ca content in the diets. In contrast, Ca content in the diets did not affect biological availability of Ca, or Ca in plasma. The true biological availability of Ca from limestone in Saanen goats was 0.72. The daily NCam was 11.6 (±1.3) mg/kg BW. The current results might help to understand Ca dynamics in goats and enhance the formulation of balanced diets to best meet Ca requirements of Saanen goats.
The Dark Energy Survey is undertaking an observational programme imaging 1/4 of the southern hemisphere sky with unprecedented photometric accuracy. In the process of observing millions of faint stars and galaxies to constrain the parameters of the dark energy equation of state, the Dark Energy Survey will obtain pre-discovery images of the regions surrounding an estimated 100 gamma-ray bursts over 5 yr. Once gamma-ray bursts are detected by, e.g., the Swift satellite, the DES data will be extremely useful for follow-up observations by the transient astronomy community. We describe a recently-commissioned suite of software that listens continuously for automated notices of gamma-ray burst activity, collates information from archival DES data, and disseminates relevant data products back to the community in near-real-time. Of particular importance are the opportunities that non-public DES data provide for relative photometry of the optical counterparts of gamma-ray bursts, as well as for identifying key characteristics (e.g., photometric redshifts) of potential gamma-ray burst host galaxies. We provide the functional details of the DESAlert software, and its data products, and we show sample results from the application of DESAlert to numerous previously detected gamma-ray bursts, including the possible identification of several heretofore unknown gamma-ray burst hosts.
Ruminal fermentation produces methane (CH4), which represents a loss of feed energy and a significant source of greenhouse gas. Researches have been searching for ways of inhibiting ruminal CH4 yield and promising results have been achieved in in vitro assays (Hu et al., 2005). The in vitro gas production technique can predict the in vivo enteric CH4 production from ruminants. Our research focused on the effect of 2-Bromoethanesulfonic acid (BES) on gas and CH4 production and microbial variation of Lucerne and Tifton-85 hays fermented in vitro.
The isotope dilution technique is the most important way to study the metabolism of minerals. With the use of radiophosphorus (32P), it is possible to describe the kinetics of P including the endogenous fraction. The aim of this work was to study the metabolism of supplemented P using the isotope dilution technique and to apply bio mathematical model to investigate its kinetics.
Calcium is needed for bone formation, muscle contraction, nerve transmission and a variety of other functions in the organism. Experiments has been carried out to study phosphorus metabolism in sheep and cattle, by using isotope dilution techniques however, there is very little information on Ca metabolism in sheep. The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of various Ca sources on the Ca flows in sheep by two models.
Although some argument is still ongoing about the resistance to different anthelmintics, there is a general agreement that reversion to susceptibility is rare once drug resistance (DR) has developed in livestock helminths, even when other drugs with completely different working mechanisms are used for prolonged periods. Some in vitro methods have been used to investigate the efficacy of towards nematode parasite: larval development (LD), larval migration inhibition (LMI), larval feeding inhibition (LFI) and egg hatch (EH) assays (Amarante et al. , 1997; Coles et al., 1988). The aim of this work was to determine the potential inhibitory effect of condensed tannins or other bioactive compounds from Acacia molissima extract on the feeding of first stage larvae of Haemonchus contortus, Trichostrongylus vitrinus and Teladorsagia circumcincta, using the LFI test.
Researches worldwide have been studying ruminal methane production in vitro and the in vitro gas production technique has demonstrated an ability to predict the in vivo enteric methane production from ruminants (Getachew et al., 2005; Tavendale et al., 2005). Studies of rumen microbial ecology in animals fed with tannin rich plants have demonstrated that tannins can affect rumen ecology. The objective of this study was to measure methane (CH4) production of Brazilian tannin rich plants incubated in vitro.
To assess the iodine status of long-term refugees dependent on international food aid and humanitarian assistance.
A series of cross-sectional two-stage cluster or systematic random sample surveys which assessed urinary iodine excretion and the prevalence of visible goitre. Salt samples were also collected and tested for iodine content by titration.
Six refugee camps in East, North and Southern Africa.
Male and female adolescents aged 10–19 years.
The median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) ranged from 254 to 1200 μg l−1 and in five of the camps exceeded the recommended maximum limit of 300 μg l−1, indicating excessive iodine intake. Visible goitre was assessed in four surveys where it ranged from 0.0 to 7.1%. The camp with the highest UIC also had the highest prevalence of visible goitre. The iodine concentrations in 11 salt samples from three camps were measured by titration and six of these exceeded the production-level concentration of 20 to 40 ppm recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), but were all less than 100 ppm.
Excessive consumption of iodine is occurring in most of the surveyed populations. Urgent revision of the level of salt iodisation is required to meet current WHO recommendations. However, the full cause of excessive iodine excretion remains unknown and further investigation is required urgently to identify the cause, assess any health impact and identify remedial action.
The in vitro gas production is a widely used technique for the evaluation of feeds for ruminant animals. Although it measures rate and extension of gas production during feed fermentation in culture medium, rumen inoculum from operated animals (fistulae) is required. Faecal microorganisms function similarly to those in the rumen; they decompose feed and do not require operated animals. The objective of the present experiment was to compare rumen liquor and equine faeces as source of inoculum in the gas production technique.
The phenolic compounds are substances which reduce feed intake, protein digestibility and reduce ruminal activity in sheep and goats. To reduce the effects of tannins a lot of synthetic materials, for example PEG (polyethylene glycol) is tested as tannin-binding agent, and let protein free for the digestibility. The aim of this work was to test the effect of tannins in the rumen microbial growth using the in vitro 32P incorporation technique.
Phosphorus and calcium deficiency in horses represents an important factor responsible for the low equine production in Brazil. The basic mechanisms of P and Ca metabolism differ substantially among species. Regulation of P and Ca metabolism is less well understood in horses than in others species. With the use of the isotopic dilution technique is possible to evaluate the metabolism for this mineral. The aim of the present experiment was to study the effect of different Ca levels in the diet on P and Ca metabolism in horses.
In vitro and in situ techniques for research on ruminants are currently much in focus. Since they have good correlations with in vivo data, they are feasible alternatives to predict the nutrition rates of feeds and may be applied in equine research on in vivo apparent digestibility. On the other hand, the disadvantage of these methods is due to the fact that fistulated animals are required to obtain the inoculum. Theodorou et al., (1994) developed an extremely promising gas production technique to assess feeds for ruminants, but still require rumen inoculum obtained from operated animals. Faecal microorganisms function similarly to those in the rumen and in the large intestine of equines. The objective this experiment was to compare rumen liquor and equine faeces as inoculum to determine in vitro digestibility of equine feeds.
Some herbaceous browses have shown a dry tolerance and had been used as animal feed. However, some of those plants have anti nutritional compounds such as tannins that can interfere on intake and digestibility. Tannins are polyphenolic compounds originated from the secondary metabolism of the plant as protection against insects, birds and as a result of drought, temperature or soil fertility. The objectives of this work were to evaluate the level and variation of tannins in important browses from the semi-arid of Brazil and to investigate the effects of different treatments (oven-, shade- and sun-drying and treatment with urea) on phenolics compounds.
Some herbaceous legumes have shown a dry tolerance and had been used as animal feed. However, some of those plants have anti nutritional compounds such as tannins that can interfere on intake and digestibility. Tannins are polyphenolic compounds originated in a secondary metabolism of the plant as protection against insects, birds and as a result of drought, temperature or soil fertility. In order to preserve the tannin for experimental purposes, it is suggested that the hay preparation should be made under shadow. The objective of this work was to compare the concentration of phenolics compounds in forage legumes havested in dry and wet seasons and under sun, shadow and air circulation dry.
Legume trees are potential sources of protein, vitamins and minerals. However, the presence of tannins may limit the utilization of many leguminous fodder trees and shrubs. The aim of this work was to investigate intake and apparent digestibility of three legume plants fed to sheep in iso-nitrogenous diets with three levels of crude protein (CP) supply.
The use of leguminous forages is an alternative of protein supplementation in animal diets. Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is lifelong leguminous forage that can be directly grazed or harvested, offered fresh, hay or silage to animals. Many leguminous show anti-nutritional factors that may reduce the use of these plants in animal diets. Condensed tannin (CT) is one common anti-nutritional factor present in the leucaena. The objective of this work was to evaluate the use of Leucaena leucocephala in Santa Inês sheep diets on intake and digestibility parameters.
Non-degradable dietetic protein supply depends on rumen degradation. Determination of microbial protein synthesized in the rumen as the result of microbial fermentation is important because microbial protein synthesis could be influenced by diet (Dove and Milne, 1994). Several evaluation systems consider the contribution of microbial protein on protein intestinal flow as a constant, based on feed intake. But this approach has presented great variations. The purpose of this work was to determine in vivo microbial protein kinetics for sheep fed with three protein level hays.
Native herbaceous browses at Northeast of Brazil have a dry tolerance and have been used as animal feed. Some of those plants have anti nutritional compounds such as tannins that can interfere on their intake and digestibility. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been used in gas-based techniques for assessing anti nutritional factors in tanniniferous plants for ruminants. The objective of this work was to compare the tannin bioassay technique using the semi-automated (Reading Pressure Technique - RPT) and manual (syringe) gas production techniques to evaluate the tannin effect upon in vitro rumen fermentation, using PEG as an inhibitor of tannin effects.