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In our study, we intended to observe the impact of recommending the pneumococcal vaccine to individuals who were called on the phone or interviewed face-to-face by their doctors on vaccination rates.
Two hundred individuals who were 65 years old and older were included in our study. They were questioned about their awareness regarding adult immunisation, and their knowledge level and vaccination statuses were determined regarding the tetanus, influenza, hepatitis, and pneumococcal vaccines. After they were given information about the pneumococcal vaccine, they were asked about their interest in being vaccinated. Those who agreed to be vaccinated were invited and vaccinated.
According to the questionnaire, 150 people (75%) knew of the influenza vaccine, 130 people (65%) knew of the tetanus vaccine, 53 people (26.5%) knew of the hepatitis B vaccine, and 49 people (24.5%) knew of the pneumococcal vaccine. A total of five people (2.5%) had received the pneumococcal vaccine. Fifty-eight of 97 patients (59.8%) who completed the questionnaire during a phone call and 84 of 103 patients (81.6%) who completed the questionnaire during a face-to-face interview received the pneumococcal vaccine. As a result, the rates of pneumococcal vaccination increased from 2.5% before the study to 73.5% after the study.
The findings show that the vaccination rates for pneumococcus were very low among our participants. The immunisation rates increased when doctors provided consultation to participants about adult immunisation.
Possible therapeutic and protective benefits of intratympanic autologous serum application in amikacin-induced ototoxicity were investigated.
Twenty-four guinea pigs were separated equally into two groups: therapeutic (group A) and protective (group B). Transient evoked otoacoustic emissions were recorded before and after autologous serum application. Apoptotic cells were identified in the organ of Corti, spiral limbus and spiral ganglion by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (‘TUNEL’) method.
Transient evoked otoacoustic emission responses at 1, 1.4 and 2.8 kHz improved without significance after autologous serum application in group A (p > 0.05). A significantly protective effect of autologous serum was determined at 4 kHz in group B (p < 0.05). There were significantly fewer apoptotic cells at the spiral limbus in the therapeutic and protective groups compared to the control group (p < 0.05).
Autologous serum may offer protection against ototoxicity-induced hearing loss, but it cannot restore hearing. Immunohistochemically, autologous serum significantly decreases activation of the intrinsic pathway of pro-apoptotic signalling in mesenchymal cells compared to neurons and neurosensory cells.
This study aimed to describe the results of a retrospective analysis of a specific cohort of patients with benign lip lesions encountered in the last 15 years in the School of Medicine at Karadeniz Technical University.
A total of 312 patients were managed for lip lesions during the period 2000–2014. Data from 160 samples of benign lip biopsies were retrieved from the pathology laboratory records.
The study group included 20 different histopathological types of lesions, with mucocele being the most frequent lesion (43.13 per cent). The other frequent lesions were chronic inflammatory infiltrate (11.25 per cent), intradermal naevus (5.63 per cent), pyogenic granuloma (5.63 per cent), fibroma (5 per cent) and papilloma (5 per cent). Mucocele was significantly more common in younger patients (p < 0.001).
Knowledge of the epidemiology and distribution of oral mucosal lesions is essential to promote early diagnosis and treatment. Further epidemiological studies exploring the causal relationships and risk factors for lip lesions are necessary for a better understanding of lip diseases.
This study aimed to assess the histopathological effect of OK-432 (Picibanil) on rabbit nasal turbinates.
A total of 21 rabbits were divided into 3 treatment groups and various parts of both nasal turbinates were injected with 0.5 ml OK-432, 0.2 ml OK-432 or 0.6 ml saline (control). Bilateral nasal turbinates were later excised and studied under light microscopy to assess any histopathological changes.
Animals in the 0.2 ml and 0.5 ml OK-432 groups exhibited mild ciliary loss, goblet cell loss and epithelial damage, and a marked increase in inflammatory cell infiltration, submucosal vascularisation and fibrosis. There was a significant difference in histopathological changes between the two OK-432 treated groups. In addition, each OK-432 treated group had significantly more inflammatory cell infiltration, increased submucosal vascularisation and fibrosis compared with controls.
The marked fibrosis observed in OK-432-injected turbinates may be responsible for a reduction in turbinate size.
This study aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of maxillary sinus hypoplasia and isolated agenesis of the uncinate process in sinusitis aetiology.
Three patients with isolated agenesis of the uncinate process and 27 patients with 43 maxillary sinus hypoplasia variations were recruited. The frequencies of sinusitis episodes and radiological findings were compared between patient subgroups.
In all, 23 type I maxillary sinus hypoplasia, 13 type II maxillary sinus hypoplasia and 7 type III maxillary sinus hypoplasia variations were detected. Patients with isolated agenesis of the uncinate process underwent antibiotic treatment an average of 7 times per year, whereas those with types I, II and III maxillary sinus hypoplasia were treated 1.57, 3.22, and 5.75 times per year, respectively, over a 5-year period. The antibiotic treatment frequency for patients with isolated agenesis of the uncinate process was significantly higher than for those with types I and II maxillary sinus hypoplasia.
Isolated agenesis of the uncinate process seems to play a stronger role than types I and II maxillary sinus hypoplasia in the pathophysiology of chronic sinusitis.
Silver thin films are used as a functional layer in many applications such as low-emissivity and solar control coatings on glass for insulating windows, as well as transparent conducting electrodes for OLEDs and PV. For these applications, the conductivity of the film is critical; it is linked to the crystallinity and the grain size of silver layers which thickness ranges from 5 to 15nm. Such coatings often undergo thermal treatments up to 700°C aimed at toughening the glass substrate or improving the coating itself by promoting grain growth and curing point defects. This treatment can however dramatically damage the silver layer by inducing the formation of defects in the layer, such as holes or silver domes, decreasing both conductivity and light transmission of the coatings. Because of the extreme thinness of the films (less than 15 nm), the investigation of these phenomena requires in situ imaging at the nanoscale. In this study, grain growth and defects formation were observed in 15 nm-thick Ag films encapsulated with zinc oxide and silicon nitride using Transmission Electron Microscopy with in-situ heating from ambient temperature to 600°C. Significant grain growth was found to occur only from 400°C, and from 500°C holes in the silver layer started to form and grow, as well as thick silver domes formed by dewetting. Irradiation by the electron beam was also found to cause grain growth.
This study aimed to determine whether or not the middle cranial fossa dural plate is located lower (i.e. more caudally) in patients with chronic otitis media, relative to adjacent structures.
The authors retrospectively investigated computed tomography temporal bone scans of 267 ears of 206 patients who had undergone surgery with a diagnosis of chronic otitis media, together with scans of 222 ears of 111 patients without chronic otitis media. The depth of the middle cranial fossa dural plates was recorded.
The mean depth of the middle cranial fossa dural plate was 4.59 mm in the study group and 2.71 mm in the control group (p < 0.001). The middle cranial fossa dural plate was located lower in the right ear in both the study and control groups.
The middle cranial fossa dural plate was located lower in patients with chronic otitis media, and in the right ears of both patients and controls. Surgeons should take this low location into consideration, and take extra care, during relevant surgery on patients with chronic otitis media.
Turkish (Origanum onites L.) and Greek oregano (Origanum vulgare L., ssp. hirtum (Link.) Ietswaart) species were investigated to determine herbage colour, essential oil content and composition changes due to sage leafhopper (Eupteryx melissae) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) infestation. Sage leafhopper population on both Turkish and Greek oregano did not significantly vary. The sage leafhopper damage was more severe in the lower part of the canopy than the middle and upper parts. Extensive sage leafhopper feeding dramatically reduced essential oil contents, resulting in 28.8 and 34.8% reductions for Greek and Turkish oregano, respectively. Carvacrol, the major essential oil component of both oregano species, did not remarkably vary between leafhopper infested and non-infested plants. With respect to herbage colour, the brightness, redness and yellowness values were significantly different between infested and non-infested plants. Sage leafhopper damage increased brightness and yellowness but decreased greenness of the oregano herbage. To avoid the feeding damage, it is essential to detect the sage leafhopper problem as early as possible and certain control practices are necessary when the infestation is high.