In contrast to symmetric division in mitosis, mammalian oocyte maturation is characterized by asymmetric cell division that produces a large egg and a small polar body. The asymmetry results from oocyte polarization, which includes spindle positioning, migration, and cortical reorganization, and this process is critical for fertilization and the retention of maternal components for early embryo development. Although actin dynamics are involved in this process, the molecular mechanism underlying this remained unclear until the use of confocal microscopy and live cell imaging became widespread in recent years. Information obtained through a PubMed database search of all articles published in English between 2000 and 2012 that included the phrases “oocyte, actin, spindle migration,” “oocyte, actin, polar body,” or “oocyte, actin, asymmetric division” was reviewed. The actin nucleation factor actin-related protein 2/3 complex and its nucleation-promoting factors, formins and Spire, and regulators such as small GTPases, partitioning-defective/protein kinase C, Fyn, microRNAs, cis-Golgi apparatus components, myosin/myosin light-chain kinase, spindle stability regulators, and spindle assembly checkpoint regulators, play critical roles in asymmetric cell division in oocytes. This review summarizes recent findings on these actin-related regulators in mammalian oocyte asymmetric division and outlines a complete signaling pathway.