To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
We examine the origin of very-large-scale motions (VLSMs) in fully developed turbulent pipe flow at friction Reynolds number,
, using data from a direct numerical simulation. The VLSMs and the packet-like large-scale motions (LSMs) found in this study are very similar to those found in earlier studies. Three-dimensional time-evolving instantaneous fields show that one component of the process leading to the large streamwise length of VLSMs is the concatenation of adjacent streamwise LSMs caused by the continuous elongation of LSMs due to the strain component of the mean shear. Spatial organization patterns of the VLSMs and LSMs and their properties are studied by separating auto-correlation of the streamwise velocity fluctuations into the components of the VLSM and the LSM defined by low-pass/high-pass filtering in the streamwise direction. The structures of the two-point spatial correlations of the streamwise velocity component of the VLSMs and the LSMs in the streamwise-azimuthal plane are characterized by multiple maxima and complex patterns that beg explanation in terms of patterned coherent arrangements of the LSMs. Using proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), it is found that the X-shape correlation pattern of the VLSMs results from the superposition of very long helically inclined structures and streamwise-aligned structures. Further explanation of the patterns in the correlations of the VLSMs and LSMs is provided through the study of synthetically constructed arrangements of simple hairpin packet models of the LSM. Head-to-tail alignment of the model packets along streamwise and helical directions suggested by the eigenvalues of the POD creates a pair of long roll-cells centred above the logarithmic layer, and bracketing the LSMs. These roll-cells are pure kinematic consequences of the induction within the LSM packets, but they may also serve to organize smaller packets.
Although neurocognitive dysfunction and physical performance are known to be impaired in patients with schizophrenia, evidence regarding the relationship between these two domains remains insufficient. Thus, we aimed to investigate the relationship between various physical performance domains and cognitive domains in individuals with schizophrenia, while considering other disorder-related clinical symptoms.
Sixty patients with schizophrenia participated in the study. Cardiorespiratory fitness and functional mobility were evaluated using the step test and supine-to-standing (STS) test, respectively. Executive function and working memory were assessed using the Stroop task and Sternberg working memory (SWM) task, respectively. Clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Multivariate analyses were performed to adjust for relevant covariates and identify predictive factors associated with neurocognition.
Multiple regression analysis revealed that the step test index was most strongly associated with reaction time in the Stroop task (β = 0.434, p = 0.001) and SWM task (β = 0.331, p = 0.026), while STS test time was most strongly associated with accuracy on the Stoop task (β=−0.418, p = 0.001) and SWM task (β=−0.383, p = 0.007). Total cholesterol levels were positively associated with Stroop task accuracy (β=−0.307, p = 0.018) after controlling for other clinical correlates. However, clinical symptoms were not associated with any variables in Stroop or SWM task.
The present findings demonstrate the relationship between physical performance and neurocognition in patients with schizophrenia. Considering that these factors are modifiable, exercise intervention may help to improve cognitive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia, thereby leading to improvements in function and prognosis.
We develop the limit theory of the quantilogram and cross-quantilogram under long memory. We establish the sub-root-n central limit theorems for quantilograms that depend on nuisance parameters. We propose a moving block bootstrap (MBB) procedure for inference and establish its consistency, thereby enabling a consistent confidence interval construction for the quantilograms. The newly developed reduction principles for the quantilograms serve as the main technical devices used to derive the asymptotics and establish the validity of MBB. We report some simulation evidence that our methods work satisfactorily. We apply our method to quantile predictive relations between financial returns and long-memory predictors.
Objectives: Rotator cuff tear is the leading cause of the decline in quality of life for older adults, but comparative evidence on treatment effectiveness is lacking. This study systematically reviewed the effects of various rotator cuff tear treatments through a Bayesian meta-analysis of the related randomized clinical trials (RCTs).
Methods: We searched nine electronic databases for RCTs evaluating rotator cuff tear treatments from their inception through June 2017. A systematic review was performed following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence-Decision Support Unit guidelines (Supplementary Table 1). Outcomes included functional improvement, pain one year after surgical treatment, and tendon structural integrity. The Bayesian network meta-analysis was applied for functional improvement and pain, based on an assumption of consistency and similarity. Tendon integrity was reported descriptively.
Results: Fifteen RCTs were selected. Patients undergoing physiotherapy after open surgery showed statistically significant functional improvements compared with those undergoing physiotherapy only (mean differences, 9.1 [credible interval, 0.9–17.4]). Open surgery with physiotherapy was associated with a decrease in pain 1 year after treatment compared with when physiotherapy was combined with arthroscopic rotator cuff surgery, mini open surgery, platelet-rich plasma therapy, or physiotherapy alone (absolute value of mean difference 1.2 to 1.4). The tendon integrity results were inconsistent.
Conclusions: Some surgical treatments were associated with significant improvement in function and pain, but evidence regarding their comparative effectiveness is still lacking. A well-designed RCT discussing functional and structural treatment outcomes is needed in future.
The association between body size, weight change and depression has not been systematically summarised, especially for individuals who are underweight.
To conduct a systematic review and a meta-analysis to examine the association between indices of body size, weight change and depression.
A total of 183 studies were selected. Fully adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) or odds ratios (ORs) were extracted. A total of 76 studies contributed to data synthesis with a random-effect model, and subgroup analyses were conducted to evaluate the effect of potential moderators.
In cohort studies, underweight at baseline increased the risk of subsequent depression (OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.08–1.24). Overweight (BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2) showed no statistically significant relationship with depression overall; however, the subgroup analyses found different results according to gender (men: OR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.72–0.97, women: OR = 1.16, 95% CI 1.07–1.25). In cross-sectional designs, obesity with BMI >40kg/m2 showed a greater pooled odds ratio than obesity with BMI >30kg/m2.
Both underweight and obesity increase the risk of depression. The association between overweight and depression differs by gender.
This study responds to the call for more ecologically valid psycholinguistic research (Spivey & Cardon, 2015) by examining how readers incidentally acquire multifaceted vocabulary knowledge while reading a long, authentic text. Using eye tracking, we explore how the processing of unfamiliar words changes with repeated exposure and how the repeated exposure and processing affect word learning. In two sessions, native and non-native English speakers read five chapters of an authentic English novel containing Dari words. After reading, participants received a comprehension test and three surprise vocabulary tests. Growth curve modeling revealed a non-linear decrease in reading times that followed an S shaped curve. Number of exposures was the strongest predictor of vocabulary learning (form and meaning), while total reading time independently contributed to the learning of word meaning. Thus, both quantity and quality of lexical processing aid incremental vocabulary development and may reveal themselves differently in readers’ eye movement records.
This paper studies the GMM estimation and inference problem that occurs when the Jacobian of the moment conditions is rank deficient of known forms at the true parameter values. Dovonon and Renault (2013) recently raised a local identification issue stemming from this type of degenerate Jacobian. The local identification issue leads to a slow rate of convergence of the GMM estimator and a nonstandard asymptotic distribution of the over-identification test statistics. We show that the known form of rank-deficient Jacobian matrix contains nontrivial information about the economic model. By exploiting such information in estimation, we provide GMM estimator and over-identification tests with standard properties. The main theory developed in this paper is applied to the estimation of and inference about the common conditionally heteroskedastic (CH) features in asset returns. The performances of the newly proposed GMM estimators and over-identification tests are investigated under the similar simulation designs used in Dovonon and Renault (2013).
The effect of large-scale motions (LSMs) on the turbulent/non-turbulent (T/NT) interface is examined in a turbulent boundary layer. Using flow fields from direct numerical simulation, the shape of the interface and near-interface statistics are evaluated conditional on the position of the LSM. The T/NT interface is identified using the vorticity magnitude and a streak detection algorithm is adopted to identify and track the LSMs. Two-point correlation and spectral analysis of variations in the interface height show that the spatial undulation of the interface is longer in streamwise wavelength than the boundary-layer thickness, and grows with the Reynolds number in a similar manner to the LSMs. The average variation in the interface height was evaluated conditional on the position of the LSMs. The result provides statistical evidence that the interface is locally modulated by the LSMs in both the streamwise and spanwise directions. The modulation is different when the coherent structure is high- versus low-speed motion: high-speed structures lead to a wedge-shaped deformation of the T/NT interface, which causes an anti-correlation between the angles of the interface and the internal shear layer. On the other hand, low-speed structures are correlated with crests in the interface. Finally, the sudden changes in turbulence statistics across the interface are in line with the changes in the population of low-speed structures, which consist of slower mean streamwise velocity and stronger turbulence than the high-speed counterparts.
Personality may predispose family caregivers to experience caregiving differently in similar situations and influence the outcomes of caregiving. A limited body of research has examined the role of some personality traits for health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among family caregivers of persons with dementia (PWD) in relation to burden and depression.
Data from a large clinic-based national study in South Korea, the Caregivers of Alzheimer's Disease Research (CARE), were analyzed (N = 476). Path analysis was performed to explore the association between family caregivers’ personality traits and HRQoL. With depression and burden as mediating factors, direct and indirect associations between five personality traits and HRQoL of family caregivers were examined.
Results demonstrated the mediating role of caregiver burden and depression in linking two personality traits (neuroticism and extraversion) and HRQoL. Neuroticism and extraversion directly and indirectly influenced the mental HRQoL of caregivers. Neuroticism and extraversion only indirectly influenced their physical HRQoL. Neuroticism increased the caregiver's depression, whereas extraversion decreased it. Neuroticism only was mediated by burden to influence depression and mental and physical HRQoL.
Personality traits can influence caregiving outcomes and be viewed as an individual resource of the caregiver. A family caregiver's personality characteristics need to be assessed for tailoring support programs to get the optimal benefits from caregiver interventions.
Direct numerical simulation data from turbulent pipe and channel flows at
are used to investigate their statistical difference by focusing on large-scale motions (LSMs). The contribution to the bulk production of turbulent kinetic energy shows marked differences in the overlap and core regions. These discrepancies arise from the dominant contributions of the LSMs (
) to the Reynolds shear stress in the channel flow. The spectrum of the net Reynolds shear force reveals that the LSMs accelerate the mean flow in the overlap region. The net force spectrum is further decomposed into the spectra of velocity–vorticity correlations,
, which are related to the advective vorticity transport and the change-of-scale effect, respectively. The dominance of large-scale accelerating motions (LSAMs) in the overlap region of the channel flow is due to the contribution of
at longer wavelengths (
), The LSAMs are related to the long low-speed regions, and these regions are longer and wider in the channel flow than in the pipe flow. Due to the pipe curvature, the spanwise size of the LSMs is restricted by neighbouring LSMs and the spanwise velocity fluctuations are reduced. The contribution of
to the acceleration is prominent in the channel flow, leading to the dominance of the LSAMs associated with the change-of-scale effect.
To examine the hypothesis that the association between vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms is dependent upon total cholesterol level in a representative national sample of the South Korean population.
This was a population-based cross-sectional study.
The Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, 2010–2012).
We included 7198 adults aged 20–88 years.
The incidence of depressive symptoms in individuals with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D<20 ng/ml) was 1·54-fold (95 % CI 1·20, 1·98) greater than in individuals without vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D ≥20 ng/ml). The relationship was stronger in individuals with normal-to-borderline serum total cholesterol (serum total cholesterol<240 mg/dl; OR=1·60; 95 % CI 1·23, 2·08) and non-significant in individuals with high serum total cholesterol (OR=0·97; 95 % CI 0·52, 1·81) after adjustment for confounding variables (age, sex, BMI, alcohol consumption, smoking status, regular exercise, income level, education level, marital status, changes in body weight, perceived body shape, season of examination date and cholesterol profiles).
The association between vitamin D deficiency and depressive symptoms was weakened by high serum total cholesterol status. These findings suggest that both vitamin D and total cholesterol are important targets for the prevention and treatment of depression.
We present a series of numerical models describing the dynamical evolution of globular clusters with a mass spectrum, based on integration of the Fokker-Planck equation. We include three-body binary heating and a steady galactic tidal field. A wide range of initial mass functions is adopted and the evolution of the mass function is examined. The mass function begins to change appreciably during the post-collapse expansion phase due to the selective evaporation of low mass stars through the tidal boundary. One signature of highly evolved clusters is thus the significant flattening of the mass function. The age (in units of the half-mass relaxation time) increases very rapidly beyond about 100 signifying the final stage of cluster disruption. This appears to be consistent with the sharp cut-off of half-mass relaxation times at near 108 years for the Galactic globular clusters.
Northeast Asia is an active region that forms one important pillar of the world economy. Considering the cumulative effect of the population and global trade volume of each economy, the region has the potential to create one of the largest economic blocs in the world, on par with the European Union (EU) and North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The financial and debt crisis derived from the United States and the EU during 2008–12 has increased the importance of further regional economic cooperation in the region. In order to achieve greater and more effective regional cooperation, China, Japan, and South Korea — the key players in the Northeast Asian region — should continue their efforts to find areas where the countries share common economic objectives and look for concrete measures to pursue them.
One viable option to spur economic cooperation among the three countries is to pursue a Free Trade Agreement (FTA). Heeding the broad consensus on the need of a China–Japan–Korea FTA (CJK FTA), the governments of the three countries recently launched the negotiations for a CJK FTA in November 2012. This was an achievement after nearly ten years of in-depth research on the needs and possible impacts of a CJK FTA on each country. However, the possibility of concluding a high standard CJK FTA seems dim as competition between major industries among the three countries is intensifying (Jeong and Bang 2011). Nevertheless, the intensified production network of Northeast Asia, labelled as “Factory Asia” (Baldwin and Kawai 2013; Baldwin 2008), the increased overlapping FTAs in East Asia, the potential of Northeast Asia to evolve into a “Global Mall” (Helble and Ngiang 2014), and the recent trend of pursuing mega-FTA blocs by advanced countries all support the argument that a CJK FTA is a viable option to enrich the region as a whole. The important considerations here are to what extent the region should liberalize and through which path the negotiations should take.
Many studies have examined the necessity of a CJK FTA. By assessing the economic impacts of a CJK FTA via a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model, the Trilateral Joint Research project concluded that a CJK FTA “will be a win-win-win strategy bringing about benefits to all members” (DRC, NIRA and KIEP 2008, p. 3).
Direct numerical simulation data of turbulent channel flow (
) are used to investigate the statistics of long motions of streamwise velocity fluctuations (
), and the interaction of these structures with the near-wall disturbances, which is facilitated by their associated large-scale circulations. In the log layer, the negative-
structures are organized into longer streamwise extent (
) in comparison to the positive-
counterparts. Near the wall, the footprint of negative-
structures is relatively narrow in comparison to the footprint of positive-
structures. This difference is due to the opposite spanwise motions in the vicinity of the footprints, which are either congregative or dispersive depending on the circulation of the outer roll cells. Conditional sampling of the footprints shows that the spanwise velocity fluctuations (
) are significantly enhanced by the dispersive motions of high-speed structures. On the other hand, the near-wall congregative motions of negative-
structures generate relatively weak
but intense negative-
regions due, in part, to the spanwise collective migration of near-wall streaks. The concentrated near-wall regions of negative-
upwell during the merging of the outer long scales – an effect that is demonstrated using statistical analysis of the merging process. This leads to a reduction of the convection speed of downstream negative-
structures and thus promotes the merging with upstream ones. These top-down and bottom-up interactions enhance the spatial coherence of long negative-
structures in the log region.
We discuss a control problem involving a stochastic Burgers equation with a random diffusion coefficient. Numerical schemes are developed, involving the finite element method for the spatial discretisation and the sparse grid stochastic collocation method in the random parameter space. We also use these schemes to compute closed-loop suboptimal state feedback control. Several numerical experiments are performed, to demonstrate the efficiency and plausibility of our approximation methods for the stochastic Burgers equation and the related control problem.
In this paper, the electrical properties of bottom-gate (BG) polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) by NiSi2 seed-induced lateral crystallization (SILC) and its applications are presented. Sequential lateral solidification (SLS), which is one of crystallization methods, is known to have poor electrical properties of TFTs with BG structures due to problems induced by laser. Therefore, the laser method cannot be used to well-developed production line of amorphous-Si (a-Si) TFT, resulting in large initial investment cost to change fabrication procedures. On the other hand, the BG poly-Si TFT by SILC (SILC-BGPS TFT) has basically compatible process flows with that of the a-Si TFT. The SILC-BGPS TFT exhibited threshold voltage of -3.9 V, steep subthreshold slope of 130 mV/dec, a high field-effect mobility of 129 cm2/Vs , and Ion/Ioff ratio of ∼106.
Decreased hemoglobin levels increase the risk of developing dementia among the elderly. However, the underlying mechanisms that link decreased hemoglobin levels to incident dementia still remain unclear, possibly due to the fact that few studies have reported on the relationship between low hemoglobin levels and neuroimaging markers. We, therefore, investigated the relationships between decreased hemoglobin levels, cerebral small-vessel disease (CSVD), and cortical atrophy in cognitively healthy women and men.
Cognitively normal women (n = 1,022) and men (n = 1,018) who underwent medical check-ups and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were enrolled at a health promotion center. We measured hemoglobin levels, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) scales, lacunes, and microbleeds. Cortical thickness was automatically measured using surface based methods. Multivariate regression analyses were performed after controlling for possible confounders.
Decreased hemoglobin levels were not associated with the presence of WMH, lacunes, or microbleeds in women and men. Among women, decreased hemoglobin levels were associated with decreased cortical thickness in the frontal (Estimates, 95% confidence interval, −0.007, (−0.013, −0.001)), temporal (−0.010, (−0.018, −0.002)), parietal (−0.009, (−0.015, −0.003)), and occipital regions (−0.011, (−0.019, −0.003)). Among men, however, no associations were observed between hemoglobin levels and cortical thickness.
Our findings suggested that decreased hemoglobin levels affected cortical atrophy, but not increased CSVD, among women, although the association is modest. Given the paucity of modifiable risk factors for age-related cognitive decline, our results have important public health implications.
A reduced-order model for distributed feedback control of the Benjamin-Bona-Mahony-Burgers (BBMB) equation is discussed. To retain more information in our model, we first calculate the functional gain in the full-order case, and then invoke the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) method to design a low-order controller and thereby reduce the order of the model. Numerical experiments demonstrate that a solution of the reduced-order model performs well in comparison with a solution for the full-order description.
Nasal swab culture is the standard method for identifying methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriers. However, this method is known to miss a substantial portion of those carrying MRSA elsewhere. We hypothesized that the additional use of a sponge to collect skin culture samples would significantly improve the sensitivity of MRSA detection.
Hospitalized patients with recent MRSA infection were enrolled and underwent MRSA screening of the forehead, nostrils, pharynx, axilla, and groin with separate swabs and the forehead, axilla, and groin with separate sponges. Staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) typing was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
A total of 105 MRSA patients were included in the study.
At least 1 specimen from 56.2% of the patients grew MRSA. Among patients with at least 1 positive specimen, the detection sensitivities were 79.7% for the swabs and 64.4% for the sponges. Notably, 86.4% were detected by a combination of sponges and nasal swab, and 72.9% were detected by a combination of pharyngeal and nasal swabs, whereas only 50.9% were detected by nasal swab alone (P<0.0001 and P=0.0003, respectively). Most isolates had SCCmec type II (59.9%) and IV (35.7%). No correlation was observed between the SCCmec types and collection sites.
Screening using a sponge significantly improves MRSA detection when used in addition to screening with the standard nasal swab.