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The Sewol ferry disaster is one of the most tragic events in Korea’s modern history. Among the 476 people on board, which included Danwon High School students (324) and teachers (14), 304 passengers died in the disaster (295 recovered corpses and 9 missing) and 172 survived. Of the rescued survivors, 72 were attending Danwon High School, located in Ansan City, and residing in a residence nearby. Because the students were young, emotionally susceptible adolescents, both the government and the parents requested the students be grouped together at a single hospital capable of appropriate psychiatric care. Korea University Ansan Hospital was the logical choice, as the only third-tier university-grade hospital with the necessary faculty and facilities within the residential area of the families of the students. We report the experiences and the lessons learned from the processes of preparing for and managing the surviving young students as a community-based hospital. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:389–393)
Echinochloa species are among the most troublesome weeds in
rice cultivation, and grow in a broad habitat range in Korea. Although
various ecotypes of Echinochloa have been collected as
germplasm for future studies, it has been difficult to classify them due to
their high level of morphological similarity. This study was thus conducted
to develop and investigate the phylogenetic relationships between 77
Echinochloa accessions with the use of 23 simple
sequence repeat (SSR) markers and 24 morphological traits. Of 77
Echinochloa accessions, including 57 accessions from
Korea and 5 reference species, late watergrass was clearly clustered as a
distinctive group from barnyardgrass and other Echinochloa
species. In this analysis, we also identified core genetic and morphological
markers that can be used for the future identification and classification of
Echinochloa species. Five out of 23 SSR makers produced
distinctive bands that discriminate late watergrass from barnyardgrass and
other Echinochloa species. Four morphological traits of the
reproductive organs were the most influential contributors for classifying
Echinochloa species. Although there was no clear
consensus generated in this study between SSR markers and morphological
trait analyses, our results support the potential use of the selected SSR
markers and morphological traits in future studies of
Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are prevalent incident findings on brain MRI scans among elderly people and have been consistently implicated in cognitive dysfunction. However, differential roles of WMH by region in cognitive function are still unclear. The aim of this study was to ascertain the differential role of regional WMH in predicting progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to different subtypes of dementia.
Participants were recruited from the Clinical Research Center for Dementia of South Korea (CREDOS) study. A total of 622 participants with MCI diagnoses at baseline and follow-up evaluations were included for the analysis. Initial MRI scans were rated for WMH on a visual rating scale developed for the CREDOS. Differential effects of regional WMH in predicting incident dementia were evaluated using the Cox proportional hazards model.
Of the 622 participants with MCI at baseline, 139 patients (22.3%) converted to all-cause dementia over a median of 14.3 (range 6.0–36.5) months. Severe periventricular WMH (PWMH) predicted incident all-cause dementia (Hazard ratio (HR) 2.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43–3.43) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) (HR 1.86; 95% CI 1.12–3.07). Subcortical vascular dementia (SVD) was predicted by both PWMH (HR 16.14; 95% CI 1.97–132.06) and DWMH (HR 8.77; 95% CI 1.77–43.49) in more severe form (≥ 10 mm).
WMH differentially predict dementia by region and severity. Our findings suggest that PWMH may play an independent role in the pathogenesis of dementia, especially in AD.
Epidemiological studies have reported that higher education (HE) is associated with a reduced risk of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, after the clinical onset of AD, patients with HE levels show more rapid cognitive decline than patients with lower education (LE) levels. Although education level and cognition have been linked, there have been few longitudinal studies investigating the relationship between education level and cortical decline in patients with AD. The aim of this study was to compare the topography of cortical atrophy longitudinally between AD patients with HE (HE-AD) and AD patients with LE (LE-AD).
We prospectively recruited 36 patients with early-stage AD and 14 normal controls. The patients were classified into two groups according to educational level, 23 HE-AD (>9 years) and 13 LE-AD (≤9 years).
As AD progressed over the 5-year longitudinal follow-ups, the HE-AD showed a significant group-by-time interaction in the right dorsolateral frontal and precuneus, and the left parahippocampal regions compared to the LE-AD.
Our study reveals that the preliminary longitudinal effect of HE accelerates cortical atrophy in AD patients over time, which underlines the importance of education level for predicting prognosis.
This study aimed to investigate the influences of age, education, and gender on the two total scores (TS-I and TS-II) of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological assessment battery (CERAD-NP) and to provide normative information based on an analysis for a large number of elderly persons with a wide range of educational levels.
In the study, 1,987 community-dwelling healthy volunteers (620 males and 1,367 females; 50–90 years of age; and zero to 25 years of education) were included. People with serious neurological, medical, and psychiatric disorders (including dementia) were excluded. All participants underwent the CERAD-NP assessment. TS-I was generated by summing raw scores from the CERAD-NP subtests, excluding Mini-Mental State Examination and Constructional Praxis (CP) recall subtests. TS-II was calculated by adding CP recall score to TS-I.
Both TS-I and TS-II were significantly influenced by demographic variables. Education accounted for the greatest proportion of score variance. Interaction effect between age and gender was found. Based on the results obtained, normative data of the CERAD-NP total scores were stratified by age (six overlapping tables), education (four strata), and gender.
The normative information will be very useful for better interpretation of the CERAD-NP total scores in various clinical and research settings and for comparing individuals’ performance of the battery across countries.
Genetic variation in wild soybean (Glycine soja Sieb. and Zucc.) is a valuable resource for crop improvement efforts. Soybean is believed to have originated from China, Korea, and Japan, but little is known about the diversity or evolution of Korean wild soybean. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the genetic diversity and population structure of 733 G. soja accessions collected in Korea using 21 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The SSR loci produced 539 alleles (25.7 per locus) with a mean genetic diversity of 0.882 in these accessions. Rare alleles, those with a frequency of less than 5%, represented 75% of the total number. This collection was divided into two populations based on the principal coordinate analysis. Accessions from population 1 were distributed throughout the country, whereas most of the accessions from population 2 were distributed on the western side of the Taebaek and Sobaek mountains. The Korean G. soja collection evaluated in this study should provide useful background information for allele mining approach and breeding programmes to introgress alleles into the cultivated soybean (G. max (L). Merr.) from wild soybean.
Liposomal drug delivery products have been already commercialized in tumor therapeutics, which can realize passive tumor targeting via enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect resulting from the leaky tumor vasculature. To control drug release out of the liposomes, thermo-sensitive liposomes (TSLs) have been developed so that an abrupt exposure of highly concentrated drugs to tumor tissues was enabled by locally treated thermal stimuli. As interests upon TSL have increased along with ongoing clinical trials, some types of TSLs with different physical properties in pharmacokinetics and the mechanism of drug release have been formulated. However, there are few protocols established with a desirable heat source to maximize the efficacy of different TSLs as treating tumors. In this study, we examined different protocols for the most effective application of different TSLs to tumor therapy. First, we examined if enhancing the accumulation of TSLs within tumor tissues prior to bursting drugs out of TSLs could lead to increasing anti-tumor efficacy. Second, we compared the efficiency of two different heat sources on the use of TSL, a warm water bath (42°C) and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Our study suggests that the specified protocol be setup for TSLs with different physical properties to optimally function in tumor therapies.
This study aimed to determine the potential impact of an oil spill on intertidal meiofauna at a clean, sandy beach in Korea. This objective was accomplished by examining changes in the structure of meiofaunal assemblages after a controlled oil spill of different concentrations on the beach. The concentration of total petroleum hydrocabon (TPH) in the experimental plots after oil application was expectedly higher for the first 4 d compared to before oil application. The TPH concentrations decreased at a faster rate in the first 4 d, and then progressively. The sharp decline in meiofaunal density in the experimental plots during the first 4 d after the spill might be attributed to the short-term toxic effects of the oil. This suggestion is supported by a significant negative interaction of the TPH on meiofaunal density during the study period. The period of low density of meiofauna also coincided with the maximum concentration of TPH in the sediment. The multivariate indices proved to be highly efficient, showing that samples contaminated with oil had high TPH concentrations, and were partially separated in terms of meiofaunal communities from samples before oil application or samples with low TPH concentrations. The structure of the meiofaunal communities in the experimental plots was similar before and 1 month after oil application. However, the density of meiofauna sharply decreased immediately after oil application in the experiment plots. Furthermore, the meiofaunal density recovered slowly as time passed.
We investigated the structural complexity and texture of the cytoskeleton and nucleus in human mesenchymal stem cells during early phase differentiation into osteoblasts according to the differentiation–induction method: mechanical and/or chemical stimuli. For this, fractal dimension and a number of parameters utilizing the gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) were calculated based on single-cell images after confirmation of differentiation by immunofluorescence staining. The F-actin and nuclear fractal dimensions were greater in both stimulus groups compared with the control group. The GLCM values for energy and homogeneity were lower in fibers of the F-actin cytoskeleton, indicating a dispersed F-actin arrangement during differentiation. In the nuclei of both stimulus groups, higher values for energy and homogeneity were calculated, indicating that the chromatin arrangement was chaotic during the early phase of differentiation. It was shown and confirmed that combined stimulation with mechanical and chemical factors accelerated differentiation, even in the early phase. Fractal dimension analysis and GLCM methods have the potential to provide a framework for further investigation of stem cell differentiation.
The size dependence of the lattice parameter of nanosolids has extensively been studied because lattice strain engineering is important in controlling the physical properties of nanowires (NWs), such as band gap, carrier transport, mechanical strength, etc. We have investigated the size-dependent lattice behavior of microstructure-controlled Sn NWs with radii of 7–35 nm. The NW microstructures were controlled as single-crystal, granular, and bamboo structures in the longitudinal direction. Results showed that the a-axis lattice parameter in the -longitudinal direction of NWs can be controlled within 1% by varying the wire microstructure for the same wire radius because it is strongly dependent on the microstructure and the wire radius. Moreover, as the randomness of the grain orientation in the microstructure-controlled NWs increases, by which the anisotropy of surface stress is effectively reduced, the lattice strain of the NW can be compressive or tensile as a function of the wire radius. The longitudinal lattice parameters of microstructure-controlled Sn NWs can be tailored by reducing the effective anisotropy of surface stresses under a dimension confinement in the nanometer scale.
Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) has emerged as an important tool for producing transgenic animals and deriving transgenic embryonic stem cells. The process of SCNT involves fusion of in vitro matured oocytes with somatic cells to make embryos that are transgenic when the nuclear donor somatic cells carry ‘foreign’ DNA and are clones when all the donor cells are genetically identical. However, in canines, it is difficult to obtain enough mature oocytes for successful SCNT due to the very low efficiency of in vitro oocyte maturation in this species that hinders canine transgenic cloning. One solution is to use oocytes from a different species or even a different genus, such as bovine oocytes, that can be matured easily in vitro. Accordingly, the aim of this study was: (1) to establish a canine fetal fibroblast line transfected with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene; and (2) to investigate in vitro embryonic development of canine cloned embryos derived from transgenic and non-transgenic cell lines using bovine in vitro matured oocytes. Canine fetal fibroblasts were transfected with constructs containing the GFP and puromycin resistance genes using FuGENE 6®. Viability levels of these cells were determined by the MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay. Interspecies SCNT (iSCNT) embryos from normal or transfected cells were produced and cultured in vitro. The MTT measurement of GFP-transfected fetal fibroblasts (mean OD = 0.25) was not significantly different from non-transfected fetal fibroblasts (mean OD = 0.35). There was no difference between transgenic iSCNT versus non-transgenic iSCNT embryos in terms of fusion rates (73.1% and 75.7%, respectively), cleavage rates (69.7% vs. 73.8%) and development to the 8–16-cell stage (40.1% vs. 42.7%). Embryos derived from the transfected cells completely expressed GFP at the 2-cell, 4-cell, and 8–16-cell stages without mosaicism. In summary, our results demonstrated that, following successful isolation of canine transgenic cells, iSCNT embryos developed to early pre-implantation stages in vitro, showing stable GFP expression. These canine–bovine iSCNT embryos can be used for further in vitro analysis of canine transgenic cells and will contribute to the production of various transgenic dogs for use as specific human disease models.
Stream development can generate environmental changes that impact fish communities. In temperate streams, the distribution of fish species is associated with environmental gradients. To analyze the relevant factors, large-scale exploration is required. Thus, to evaluate the distribution patterns of fish in Korea, sampling was conducted on a national scale at 720 sites over a 6-week period in 2009. A total of 124 fish species in 27 families were identified; Zacco platypus and Zacco koreanus of the Cyprinidae were the dominant and subdominant species, respectively. Of the species found, 46 (37.1%) were endemic and 4 (3.2%) exotic; of the latter, Micropterus salmoides and Lepomis macrochirus were widely distributed. Upon canonical correspondence analysis (CCA), both altitude and biological oxygen demand (BOD) were highly correlated with CCA axes 1 and 2, respectively. This explained 62.5% of the species–environment relationship. Altitude and stream order were longitudinally related to species distribution. The numbers of both total and endemic species gradually increased as streams grew in size to the fourth–fifth-order, and decreased in sixth-order, streams. Overall, fish communities were stable throughout the entire watershed, whereas some species showed site-specific occurrence patterns due to the paleogeomorphological characteristics of Korean peninsula. However, various anthropogenic activities may negatively affect fish communities. Therefore, both short- and long-term sustainable management strategies are required to conserve native fish fauna.
Tungsten oxide nanorods (TONs) with the diameters of 40 nm and the length of 130 nm have been synthesized on substrates using two step electrochemical anodizing processes. The TONs were vertically well-ordered on the substrates with the average interdistance of 100 nm. The TONs had amorphous structure and was mainly composed of W, Al, and O elements, of which the contents varied gradually along the nanorod length from the top surface to the bottom. The cyclic voltammograms (CVs) and galvanostatic charge-discharge analyses showed that TONs had the typical electrochemical pseudocapacitive features of rectangular CV hysteresis and symmetric charge-discharge behaviors, respectively. When the TONs were heat-treated at 600℃ in vacuum, they showed the maximum specific capacitance of 660 ㎌/cm2, which was higher, by an order of magnitude, than that (68 ㎌/cm2) of the TONs annealed at 300 ℃ in ambient atmosphere.
The kinetic study of the nitrogen dissolution was investigated.
An isotope exchange technique is employed as a method for
measuring the rate of nitrogen dissolution into the molten steel
and the effects of O, S, C, Mn, and B addition on surface
reaction have been considered at 1873 K.
Recently, non-volatile polymer memories have been researched as a next generation of non-volatile memory because of its simple structure and easy fabrication process. We found that two types of non-volatile polymer memory have different I-V behavior. First Polymer non-volatile memory with metal / oxide / polymer / metal structure But Polymer non-volatile memory embedded Au Nano-crystal shows different I-V behavior. Polymer non-volatile memory shows NDR(Negative Differential Resistance) Region after threshold voltage and low to high current path at increasing positive and negative bias. We can observe NDR(Negative Differential Resistance) Region on Polymer non-volatile memory embedded Au Nano crystal. We fabricated devices three different type to confirm difference Polymer non-volatile memory with metal / polymer / metal structure, metal / oxide / polymer / metal structure and Au nano-crystal embedded Polymer non-volatile memory. First we fabricated Polymer non-volatile memory with metal / PVK(Poly-n-vinyl carbarzole) / metal structure. first type of device shows ohmic I-V behavior. Second type of polymer non-volatile memory has oxide layer between metal and polymer layer. Oxide layer made by O2 plasma treatment(100W RF power, 100SCCM O2 gas flow) after metal layer deposited. Second type of device has same structure as first device except oxide layer. Second type of device shows I-V behavior similar to Resistive Memory. Resistive non-volatile memory shows low to high current path at increasing positive bias and high to low current path at increasing negative bias. I-V behaviors of second device due to effect of oxide layer between metal and polymer layer. Third type of polymer non-volatile memory we embed Au nano-crystal layer in polymer layer. Au nano-crystal layer embedded by curing process. We deposit 5nm Au layer after spin coated PVK(Poly-n-vinyl carbarzole) layer and curing at 300¡É. We can observe NDR(Negative Differential Resistance) Region and different I-V behaviors with other type of device. Finally we fabricated polymer non-volatile memory embedded au nano-crystal by dispersion method to confirm effect of au nano-crystal. We report difference I-V behaviors polymer non-volatile memory with metal / polymer / metal structure and polymer non-volatile memory embedded au nano-crystals
Many researchers have investigated organic nonvolatile memory devices as one of candidates device for next generation nonvolatile memory because of their low-cost, flexible and simple fabrication. The memory phenomenon in these devices is based on the electrical bistability of the material, which has two resistance states. We report memory effect in organic molecules based on electrical bistability of the materials and the bistable phenomenon was observed in poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) layer, containing a high density of Au nanocrystals and sandwiched between Al electrodes. The device was fabricated on cleaned SiO2. First, Al for the bottom electrode was deposited on SiO2 substrate by thermal evaporation in a vacuum chamber (pressure ∼10−6 torr). The PVK was dissolved with chloroform, spin-coated on the Al electrode, and baked at 120¡ÆC for 2 min to evaporate the solvent away. Subsequently, a 5-nm-thick Au film was deposited on the PVK. Additional PVK was then spin-coated on the Au film and baked. Next, the device was cured at 300¡É for 2 h in air to produce the Au nano-crystals. This device showed good nonvolatile memory characteristics. It was confirmed that it shows several region of current levels, (ION, IOFF, IINTER). When the voltage increased from zero in the OFF state (low conductivity state), the current increased rapidly at the threshold voltage (Vth), and presented a regime of negative differential resistance (NDR) after writing. Moreover ON and OFF states could be set at voltages at Vprogram (or Vp) and Verase (or Ve), respectively, and could be read at 1 V. After the device was programmed by sweeping the voltage from 0 to Vp, the current followed the high conductivity state and stayed in the ON state. And the device was programmed by sweeping the voltage from 0 to Ve, the current followed the low conductivity state and stayed in the OFF state. Furthermore, they exhibited seven different reversible current paths (intermediate states) capable for approving electron charge or discharge on surface of Au nanocrystals by sweeping the voltage from 0 to VNDR. Our results demonstrate that the fundamental parameters of the device were stable; the values of Vth, Vp, and Ve were ∼2.8, ∼4, and ∼8 V, respectively. In particular, this device exhibited excellent nonvolatile memory behavior, with bistability (ION/IOFF) of >1×102 and an intermediate state for multi-bit operation. We suggest that the current conduction mechanism clearly follow space-charge-limited(SCLC) for low conductivity state, thermionic field emission for electron charge(writing) or discharge(erasing), and F-N tunneling after erasing.
We fabricated PMOS SPC-Si TFTs which show better current uniformity than ELA poly-Si TFTs and superior stability compare to a-Si:H TFT on a glass substrate employing alternating magnetic field crystallization. However the leakage current of SPC-Si TFT was rather high for circuit element of AMOLED display due to many grain boundaries which could be electron hole generation centers. We applied off-state bias annealing of VGS=5V, VDS=−20V in order to suppress the leakage current of SPC-Si TFT. When the off-state bias annealing was applied on the SPC-Si TFT, the electron carriers were trapped in the gate insulator by high gate-drain voltage (25V). The trapped electron carriers could reduce the gate-drain field, so that the leakage current of SPC-Si TFT was reduced after off-state bias annealing. We applied AC-bias stress on the gate node of SPC-Si TFT for 20,000 seconds in order to verify that the leakage current of SPC-Si TFT could be remained low at actual AMOLED display circuit after off-state bias annealing. The suppressed leakage current was not altered after AC-bias stress. The off-state bias annealed SPC-Si TFT could be used as pixel element of high quality AMOLED display.