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The complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequences of three Amaranthus species (Amaranthus hypochondriacus, A. cruentus and A. caudatus) were determined by next-generation sequencing. The cp genome sequences of A. hypochondriacus, A. cruentus and A. caudatus were 150,523, 150,757 and 150,523 bp in length, respectively, each containing 84 genes with identical contents and orders. Expansion or contraction of the inverted repeat region was not observed among the three Amaranthus species. The coding regions were highly conserved with 99.3% homology in nucleotide and amino acid sequences. Five genes – matK, accD, ndhJ, ccsA and ndhF – showed relatively high non-synonymous/synonymous values (Ka/Ks > 0.1). Sequence comparison identified two insertion/deletion (InDels) greater than 40 bp in length, and polymerase chain reaction markers that could amplify these InDel regions were applied to diverse Korean Genbank accessions, which could discriminate the three Amaranthus species. Phylogenetic analyses based on 62 protein-coding genes showed that the core Caryophyllales were monophyletic and Amaranthoideae formed a sister group with the Betoideae and Chenopodioideae clade. Comparing each homologous locus among the three Amaranthus species, identified eight regions with high Pi values (>0.03). Seven of these loci, except for rps19-trnH (GUG), were considered to be useful molecular markers for further phylogenetic studies.
Given its diverse disease courses and symptom presentations, multiple phenotype dimensions with different biological underpinnings are expected with bipolar disorders (BPs). In this study, we aimed to identify lifetime BP psychopathology dimensions. We also explored the differing associations with bipolar I (BP-I) and bipolar II (BP-II) disorders.
We included a total of 307 subjects with BPs in the analysis. For the factor analysis, we chose six variables related to clinical courses, 29 indicators covering lifetime symptoms of mood episodes, and 6 specific comorbid conditions. To determine the relationships among the identified phenotypic dimensions and their effects on differentiating BP subtypes, we applied structural equation modeling.
We selected a six-factor solution through scree plot, Velicer's minimum average partial test, and face validity evaluations; the six factors were cyclicity, depression, atypical vegetative symptoms, elation, psychotic/irritable mania, and comorbidity. In the path analysis, five factors excluding atypical vegetative symptoms were associated with one another. Cyclicity, depression, and comorbidity had positive associations, and they correlated negatively with psychotic/irritable mania; elation showed positive correlations with cyclicity and psychotic/irritable mania. Depression, cyclicity, and comorbidity were stronger in BP-II than in BP-I, and they contributed significantly to the distinction between the two disorders.
We identified six phenotype dimensions; in addition to symptom features of manic and depressive episodes, various comorbidities and high cyclicity constructed separate dimensions. Except for atypical vegetative symptoms, all factors showed a complex interdependency and played roles in discriminating BP-II from BP-I.
The structure of polymer networks in hydrogels determines the properties. In this study, we investigated the structure of a charge-balanced polyampholyte, poly(4-vinylbenzenesulfonate-co-[3-(methacryloylamino) propyl] trimethylammonium chloride). From as-prepared samples, nanoscale globules were visualized in polyampholyte hydrogels for the first time. The impact of dialyses processes on polymer structures were also studied. In deionized water, salt ions are leached out, thus polymer chains undergo zipping process to form cellular structure with micrometer-thick polymer walls that allow mechanical toughness to the hydrogel. Samples dialyzed in 6 M potassium hydroxide solution did not show such cellular structure, as in the case of as-prepared samples.
Depressive symptoms are common in bereaved caregivers; however, there have been few prospective studies using a structured interview. This study investigated the prevalence and preloss predictors of major depressive disorder (MDD) in bereaved caregivers of patients in a palliative care unit.
This prospective cohort study collected caregiver sociodemographic and psychological data before the death of a palliative care unit patient, including MDD, care-burden, coping style, and hopeful attitude. Postloss MDD was assessed 6 and 13 months after death, and a multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify its predictors.
Of 305 caregivers contacted, 92 participated in this study. The prevalence of preloss MDD was 21.8%; the prevalences of postloss MDD were 34.8% and 24.7% at 6 and 13 months, respectively. Preloss MDD predicted postloss MDD at 6 months (odds ratio [OR] = 5.38, 95% confidence interval [CI95%] = 1.29, 22.43); preloss nonhopeful attitude and unemployment status of caregivers predicted postloss MDD at 13 months (OR = 8.77, CI95% = 1.87, 41.13 and OR = 7.10, CI95% = 1.28, 39.36, respectively).
Significance of results
Approximately 35% of caregivers suffered from MDD at 6 months postloss, but the prevalence of MDD decreased to about 25% at 13 months. Preloss MDD significantly predicted postloss MDD at 6 months, whereas hopeful attitude and unemployment at baseline were significantly associated with postloss MDD at 13 months.
Bloodstream infection (BSI) occurred in 21 of 121 patients (17%) receiving venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation within the median time of 6 days after initiation (interquartile range, 4–19 days). Longer duration of arterial catheterization and more blood transfusions were independently associated with BSI, which is associated with poor clinical outcomes.
A number of multiple-casualty incidents during 2014 and 2015 brought changes to Korea’s disaster medical assistance system. We report these changes here.
Reports about these incidents, revisions to laws, and the government’s revised medical disaster response guidelines were reviewed.
The number of DMAT (Disaster Medical Assistance Team) staff members was reduced to 4 from 8, and the mobilization method changed. An emergency response manual was created that contains the main content of the DMAT, and there is now a DMAT training program to educate staff. The government created and launched a national 24-hour Disaster Emergency Medical Service Situation Room, and instead of the traditional wireless communications, mobile instant smart phone messaging has been added as a new means of communication. The number of disaster base hospitals has also been doubled.
Although there are still limitations that need to be remedied, the changes to the current emergency medical assistance system are expected to improve the system’s response capacity. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:526–530)
This study investigates the relationship between insomnia and cognitive dysfunctions including, subjective memory impairment (SMI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and dementia, by considering depression in a community sample of elderly individuals.
Data for 1,740 elderly individuals aged 65 years and over were obtained from a nationwide dementia epidemiological study conducted in South Korea. Cognitive functional status was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination and the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Packet Clinical Assessment Battery. Insomnia was defined as the presence of at least one of the four sleep complaints (difficulty in initiating sleep, difficulty in maintaining sleep, early morning awakening, and non-restorative sleep), accompanied by moderate to severe daytime consequences. Depression was evaluated using the Geriatric Depression Scale.
The prevalence of insomnia in the patients with SMI, MCI, and dementia was found to be 23.2%, 19.6%, and 31.0%, respectively. The patients with SMI, MCI, and dementia were significantly more likely to have insomnia and the four sleep complaints than the normal comparison patients. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, the significant relationships between cognitive dysfunctional status and insomnia remained. However, after adjusting for sociodemographic factors and depression, no significant relationships with any of the sleep complaints or insomnia remained.
Insomnia is a very common complaint in the elderly with SMI, MCI, and dementia. Depression might play an important factor in the relationship between insomnia and cognitive dysfunctional status in the elderly.
To evaluate the appropriateness of the screening strategy for healthcare personnel (HCP) during a hospital-associated Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) outbreak, we performed a serologic investigation in 189 rRT-PCR–negative HCP exposed and assigned to MERS patients. Although 20%–25% of HCP experienced MERS-like symptoms, none of them showed seroconversion by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT).
The Sewol ferry disaster is one of the most tragic events in Korea’s modern history. Among the 476 people on board, which included Danwon High School students (324) and teachers (14), 304 passengers died in the disaster (295 recovered corpses and 9 missing) and 172 survived. Of the rescued survivors, 72 were attending Danwon High School, located in Ansan City, and residing in a residence nearby. Because the students were young, emotionally susceptible adolescents, both the government and the parents requested the students be grouped together at a single hospital capable of appropriate psychiatric care. Korea University Ansan Hospital was the logical choice, as the only third-tier university-grade hospital with the necessary faculty and facilities within the residential area of the families of the students. We report the experiences and the lessons learned from the processes of preparing for and managing the surviving young students as a community-based hospital. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:389–393)
Zygote wishes to inform its readers that its Editor-in-Chief has decided to retract the above article after an investigation carried out in compliance with the Committee on Publication Ethics guidelines found that the authors duplicated substantial parts of the following two articles:
1.Kim H, Yamanouchi K, Nishihara M. (2006) Expression of ski in the granulosa cells of atretic follicles in the rat ovary. J. Reprod. Dev. 52, 715–721
2.Kim H, Yamanouchi K, Matsuwaki T, Nishihara M. (2012) Induction of Ski protein expression upon luteinization in rat granulosa cells without a change in its mRNA expression. J. Reprod. Dev. 58, 254–259
Sloan-Kettering virus gene, a product of a cellular proto-oncogene c-Ski is a unique nuclear pro-oncoprotein and belongs to the Ski/Sno proto-oncogene family. The aim of the present study was to locate Ski protein in rat ovaries in order to find insights into the possible involvement of Ski in follicular development. First, expression of c-Ski mRNA in the ovaries of adult female rats was confirmed by RT-PCR. Then, ovaries obtained on the day of estrus were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis for Ski and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in combination with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). RT-PCR and in situ hybridization revealed that c-Ski mRNA was expressed in the ovaries of the adult rat on the day of estrous and localized mainly in the granulose cells. Ski was expressed in granulosa cells that were positive for TUNEL, but negative for PCNA, regardless of the shape and size of follicles. Expression of Ski in TUNEL-positive granulosa cells, but not in PCNA-positive granulosa cells, was also verified in rats having atretic follicles with double staining. These results indicate that Ski is profoundly expressed in the granulosa cells of atretic follicles, but not in growing follicles. Based on the present findings, Ski may play a role in the apoptosis of granulosa cells during follicular atresia.
Formation of patterned metal and semiconductor (e.g. silicon) nanowires is achieved using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates with porous structures of different heights resulting from an initial step difference made by etching the aluminum (Al) thin film with a photoresist developer prior to the anodization process. This approach allows for the growth of vertically aligned nanowire arrays on a metal substrate, instead of an oriented semiconductor substrate, using an electroplating or a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process. The vertically aligned metal and semiconductor nanowires defined on a metal substrate could be applied to the realization of vertical 3D transistors, field emission devices, or nano-micro sensors for biological applications.
Despite recent reports regarding the biology of cytosine methylation in Schistosoma mansoni, the impact of the regulatory machinery remains unclear in diverse platyhelminthes. This ambiguity is reinforced by discoveries of DNA methyltransferase 2 (DNMT2)-only organisms and the substrate specificity of DNMT2 preferential to RNA molecules. Here, we characterized a novel DNA methyltransferase, named CsDNMT2, in a liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis. The protein exhibited structural properties conserved in other members of the DNMT2 family. The native and recombinant CsDNMT2 exhibited considerable enzymatic activity on DNA. The spatiotemporal expression of CsDNMT2 mirrored that of 5-methylcytosine (5 mC), both of which were elevated in the C. sinensis eggs. However, CsDNMT2 and 5 mC were marginally detected in other histological regions of C. sinensis adults including ovaries and seminal receptacle. The methylation site seemed not related to genomic loci occupied by progenies of an active long-terminal-repeat retrotransposon. Taken together, our data strongly suggest that C. sinensis has preserved the functional DNA methylation machinery and that DNMT2 acts as a genuine alternative to DNMT1/DNMT3 to methylate DNA in the DNMT2-only organism. The epigenetic regulation would target functional genes primarily involved in the formation and/or maturation of eggs, rather than retrotransposons.
Since 1994, the KHNP has developed a vitrification technology to treat the LILW generated from Korean nuclear power plant. To vitrify the LILW including combustible Dry Active Waste (DAW) and Ion Exchange Resin (IER) containing Zeolite, two borosilicate glasses are formulated. One of the formulated glass, DG2, is for the DAW vitrification solely and the other one, AG8W1, is for the blended wastes (DAW & IER) vitrification in a commercial vitrification facility in HanUl (former Ulchin) nuclear power plant. The physicochemical properties of the two glasses have been evaluated. To evaluate the processability of the glasses, the viscosities and electrical conductivities of the glass melts were measured in the laboratory within a temperature range between 950 and 1,350 degrees C, respectively. The liquidus temperatures of the glasses were evaluated using a gradient furnace for DG2 and data from heat treatment for AG8W1. The Mössbauer spectroscopy for AG8W1 was employed to evaluate the relations between the redox equilibria of iron. In addition, to verify the waste acceptance criteria for the final disposal of the vitrified forms, the compressive strengths of the vitrified forms were tested after an immersion test, a thermal cycling test, and an irradiation test. To verify the chemical durability of the glasses, several tests such as PCT, ISO, VHT, Soxhlet, MCC-1, and ANS16.1 were carried out. The PCT showed leach rates of B, Na, Li and Si were much less than those of the benchmark glass. The ISO test was performed at 90 degrees C for 1,022 days and Cumulative Fraction Leached of all elements in the glasses were analyzed. According to the VHT, the glasses had an outstanding chemical resistance under humid environment at 200 degrees C for 7 days. The Soxhlet leaching was performed on rectangular glass samples at 98 degrees C for 30 days. To analyze the forward dissolution rates of major glass elements, the MCC-1 was conducted at temperatures of 40, 70, and 90 degrees C for three weeks in pH buffer solutions ranging from pH 4 to 11. The processability of the glasses was in the desired ranges. And the product quality of the glasses met all regulatory guidelines. Using two glasses, the CCIM commissioning tests in the UVF were successfully performed and they showed good workability.
Epidemiological studies have reported that higher education (HE) is associated with a reduced risk of incident Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, after the clinical onset of AD, patients with HE levels show more rapid cognitive decline than patients with lower education (LE) levels. Although education level and cognition have been linked, there have been few longitudinal studies investigating the relationship between education level and cortical decline in patients with AD. The aim of this study was to compare the topography of cortical atrophy longitudinally between AD patients with HE (HE-AD) and AD patients with LE (LE-AD).
We prospectively recruited 36 patients with early-stage AD and 14 normal controls. The patients were classified into two groups according to educational level, 23 HE-AD (>9 years) and 13 LE-AD (≤9 years).
As AD progressed over the 5-year longitudinal follow-ups, the HE-AD showed a significant group-by-time interaction in the right dorsolateral frontal and precuneus, and the left parahippocampal regions compared to the LE-AD.
Our study reveals that the preliminary longitudinal effect of HE accelerates cortical atrophy in AD patients over time, which underlines the importance of education level for predicting prognosis.
Semi-insulating undoped GaN films were grown based on controlling the size of the nucleation sites through a special two-step growth method: First, 16 nm LT-GaN was annealed at 950 ° with a ramping time of 4 min, then the GaN was grown at this temperature for 1 min. Second, the growth temperature was increased to 1020° with a ramping time of 2 min and the GaN layer finally grown at 1020 ° for 40 min. The film grown by this sequence exhibited sheet resistance of up to 109 Ω/sq with mirror-like surface morphology. By slow ramping to 950° in the initial phase of growth, smaller grain sizes and higher nuclei densities were formed and the columnar growth mode along the c direction was dominant. The observation of higher resistance in two-step growth is believed due to the increased misorientation of nuclei when the growth proceeds during temperature ramping to 1020°. The fabricated saw filter on semi-insulating GaN exhibited a high velocity of 5342 m/s at center frequencies of 133.57 MHz and an electromechanical coupling coefficient(k2) of about 0.763 %, which was enhanced due to the improvement of surface morphology with high sheet resistance by the two- step ramping technique.
A GaN/AlGaN heterojunction bipolar transistor has been fabricated using Cl2/Ar dry etching for mesa formation. As the hole concentration increases due to more efficient ionization of the Mg acceptors at elevated temperatures (> 250°C), the device shows improved gain. Future efforts should focus on methods for reducing base resistance, which are briefly summarized.