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There are growing concerns about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of older adults. We examined the effect of the pandemic on the risk of depression in older adults.
We analyzed data from the prospective cohort study of Korean older adults, which has been followed every 2 years. Among the 2308 participants who completed both the third and the fourth follow-up assessments, 58.4% completed their fourth follow-up before the outbreak of COVID-19 and the rest completed it during the pandemic. We conducted face-to-face diagnostic interviews using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview and used Geriatric Depression Scale. We performed generalized estimating equations and logistic regression analyses.
The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with increased depressive symptoms in older adults [b (standard error) = 0.42 (0.20), p = 0.040] and a doubling of the risk for incident depressive disorder even in euthymic older adults without a history of depression (odds ratio = 2.44, 95% confidence interval 1.18–5.02, p = 0.016). Less social activities, which was associated with the risk of depressive disorder before the pandemic, was not associated with the risk of depressive disorder during the pandemic. However, less family gatherings, which was not associated with the risk of depressive disorder before the pandemic, was associated with the doubled risk of depressive disorder during the pandemic.
The COVID-19 pandemic significantly influences the risk of late-life depression in the community. Older adults with a lack of family gatherings may be particularly vulnerable.
A disaster in the hospital is particularly serious and quite different from other ordinary disasters. This study aimed at analyzing the activity outcomes of a disaster medical assistance team (DMAT) for a fire disaster at the hospital.
The data which was documented by a DMAT and emergent medical technicians of a fire department contained information about the patient’s characteristics, medical records, triage results, and the hospital which the patient was transferred from. Patients were categorized into four groups according to results of field triage using the simple triage and rapid treatment method.
DMAT arrived on the scene in 37 minutes. One hundred and thirty eight (138) patients were evacuated from the disaster scene. There were 25 patients (18.1%) in the Red group, 96 patients (69.6%) in the Yellow group, and 1 patient (0.7%) in the Green group. One patient died. There were 16 (11.6%) medical staff and hospital employees. The injury of the caregiver or the medical staff was more severe compared to the family protector.
For an effective disaster-response system in hospital disasters, it is important to secure the safety of medical staff, to utilize available medical resources, to secure patients’ medical records, and to reorganize the DMAT dispatch system.
A certain degree of pulmonary stenosis after total correction of tetralogy of Fallot has been considered acceptable. But the long-term outcomes are not well understood. We observed the natural course of immediate pulmonary stenosis and investigated related factors for progression.
Fifty-two patients with acceptable pulmonary stenosis immediately after operation were enrolled. Acceptable pulmonary stenosis was defined as peak pressure gradient between 15 and 45 mmHg by Doppler echocardiography. Latent class linear mixed model was used to differentiate patients with progressed pulmonary stenosis, and the factors related to progression were analysed.
Pulmonary stenosis progressed in 14 patients (27%). Between the progression group and no progression group, there were no significant differences in operative age, sex, and the use of the transannular patch technique. However, immediate gradient was higher in the progression group (32.1 mmHg versus 25.7 mmHg, p = 0.009), and the cut-off value was 26.8 mmHg (sensitivity = 65.3%, specificity = 65.8%). Main stenosis at the sub-valve was observed more frequently in the progression group (85.7% versus 52.6%, p = 0.027). Despite no difference in the preoperative pulmonary valve z value, the last follow-up pulmonary valve z value was significantly lower in the progression group (−1.15 versus 0.35, p = 0.002).
Pulmonary stenosis immediately after tetralogy of Fallot total correction might progress in patients with immediate pulmonary stenosis higher than ≥26.8 mmHg and the main site was sub-valve area.
To propose a new anthropometric index that can be employed to better predict percent body fat (PBF) among young adults and to compare with current anthropometric indices.
All measurements were taken in a controlled laboratory setting in Seoul (South Korea), between 1 December 2015 and 30 June 2016.
Eighty-seven young adults (18–35 years) who underwent dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were used for analysis. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to develop a body fat index (BFI) using simple demographic and anthropometric information. Correlations of DXA measured PBF (DXA_PBF) with previously developed anthropometric indices and the BFI were analysed. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were conducted to compare the ability of anthropometric indices to identify obese individuals.
BFI showed a strong correlation with DXA_PBF (r = 0·84), which was higher than the correlations of DXA_PBF with the traditional (waist circumference, r = 0·49; waist to height ratio, r = 0·68; BMI, r = 0·36) and alternate anthropometric indices (a body shape index, r = 0·47; body roundness index, r = 0·68; body adiposity index, r = 0·70). Moreover, the BFI showed higher accuracy at identifying obese individuals (area under the curve (AUC) = 0·91), compared with the other anthropometric indices (AUC = 0·71–0·86).
The BFI can accurately predict DXA_PBF in young adults, using simple demographic and anthropometric information that are commonly available in research and clinical settings. However, larger representative studies are required to build on our findings.
Market demand for touch panel/lens has been exceptionally high for the recent years due to smartphones, tablet PCs, etc. Among the available technologies to envision touch functionality, capacitive touch screen has received the great attention due to the various superiorities over the competing ones. Capacitive touch screen features two transparent conductive electrodes, such as ITO (indium tin oxide). However, the difference in refractive indices of ITO, substrate, and air, ITO pattern is clearly visible if there is no proper countermeasure. Most of touch screen makers and ITO substrate supplier utilize “index-matching technology” to prevent this phenomenon.
Even though of the attempts to minimize visible ITO pattern in final product, there are many technical and process challenges. In this study, the causes around visible ITO pattern were investigated to understand and provide the proper countermeasures.
One of the possible causes for visible ITO pattern was improper annealing process in ITO especially for film substrate. According to XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy)/ESCA (electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis) and other analysis results, ITO, which is normally deposited through sputtering, is not fully transformed to oxidized state. After aligning and adjusting annealing condition, acknowledged visible ITO pattern was disappeared.
Other causes for visible patterns were also discussed in detail, and the relevant countermeasures were provided.
To maintain pulmonary valvar function subsequent to repair of tetralogy of Fallot, we have inserted a homograft monocusp when a transjunctional patch was required. In this study, we have evaluated the mid- to long-term outcomes, aiming to determine the durability of the homograft.
Among 218 repairs performed for tetralogy of Fallot between July, 1996, and June, 2005, we inserted homograft monocusps in 54 patients, 4 of whom had associated absent pulmonary valve syndrome, 3 had pulmonary valvar atresia, and 1 had an atrioventricular septal defect with common atrioventricular junction. The median body weight at surgery was 7.8 kilograms, with a range from 3.9 to 42 kilograms. The function of the monocusp valve was assessed by regular echocardiography, using the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox regression model for statistical analyses.
There were 2 early deaths (3.7%), associated with respiratory infection. No late deaths were observed during the follow-up, which ranged from 0.3 to 120 months, with a median of 64.3 months. Freedom from valvar dysfunction was 67.2 ± 6.7% at 1 year, 37.1 ± 7.3% at 3 years, 23.8 ± 6.7% at 5 years, and 21.2 ± 6.4% at 7 years. We needed to replace the valve in 1 patient during follow-up. We found that ABO blood group incompatibility, stenosis of the pulmonary arteries, and associated absent pulmonary valve syndrome all adversely affected the function of the monocusp.
Our experiences show that insertion of a homograft monocusp can prevent pulmonary regurgitation in the early period after repair of tetralogy of Fallot, but the effects are limited in duration as degeneration progressed. We still need to determine whether this finding can improve the longer-term function of the right ventricle.
Silica slurry used as abrasives in wafer polishing process is made by dispersing silica particles in an alkali solution. Since commercially available colloidal or fumed silica particles need some modifications to be directly used as abrasive slurry due to their small sizes, irregular shapes or broad size distribution, we have prepared silica abrasives by particle growth of fumed silica or colloidal silica as seeds by sol-gel method. Silica slurries prepared by this step-wise growth from commercial seeds were tested using one-armed polisher for the comparison with commercial slurries and showed the performance comparable to commercial slurries. Microstructures of polishing slurries were investigated using transmission electron microscopy and ARES rheometer. From the result, stability of the slurry was found to be more important than the primary particle sizes for the polishing performance.
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