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Decision making in an emotionally conflicting situation is important in social life. We aimed to address the similarity and disparity of neural correlates involved in processing ambivalent stimuli in patients with schizophrenia and patients with depression. Behavioral task-related hemodynamic responses were measured using [15O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET) in 12 patients with schizophrenia and 12 patients with depression. The task was a modified word-stem completion task, which was designed to evoke ambivalence in forced and non-forced choice conditions. The prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum were found to show increased activity in the healthy control group. In the schizophrenia group, activity in these two regions was negligible. In the depression group, the pattern of activity was altered and a functional compensatory recruitment of the inferior parietal regions was suggested. The prefrontal cortex seems to be associated with the cognitive control to resolve the conflict toward the ambivalent stimuli, whereas the cerebellum reflects the sustained working memory to search for compromise alternatives. The deficit of cerebellar activation in the schizophrenia group might underlie the inability to search and consider compromising responses for conflict resolution. (JINS, 2009, 15, 990–1001.)
Canine oocytes are ovulated at prophase of the first meiotic division and undergo maturation in the distal part of the oviduct for at least 48–72 h. Because of these differences from other domestic mammals, the efficiency of in vitro maturation (IVM) of canine oocyte is very low. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of canine serum on IVM of canine oocytes recovered from ovaries in various reproductive states (follicular, luteal or anestrous stages). Oocytes were recovered by mincing ovaries from bitches presented for ovariohysterectomy at various stages of the estrous cycle. Heat-inactivated canine serum was prepared with blood taken from dogs at the anestrous, estrous or diestrous stage of the estrous cycle as determined by progesterone concentration and vaginal cytology. Oocytes were cultured for 72 h in tissue culture medium (TCM)-199 supplemented with 10% canine anestrous, estrous or diestrous serum or fetal bovine serum (FBS) (experiment 1), or supplemented with 0 (control), 5%, 10% or 20% canine estrous serum (experiment 2). In experiment 1, IVM of oocytes collected at the follicular stage of the estrous cycle to metaphase II (MII) stage was higher (p < 0.05) with canine estrous serum (14.2%) than with canine anestrous (5.2%) or diestrous serum (6.3%), FBS (2.2%) or in the control (2.2%). In experiment 2, oocytes collected at the follicular stage of the estrous cycle cultured in TCM-199 with 10% canine estrous serum showed a higher maturation rate to MII stage (13.5%, p < 0.05) compared with those cultured with 5% (1.3% MII) or 20% canine estrous serum (5.1% MII) or the control (2.7% MII). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that supplementing culture medium with 10% canine estrous serum improves IVM of canine follicular stage oocytes.
Gallium oxide (Ga2O3) and indium oxide (In2O3) nanostructures were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Ga2O3 nanowires were synthesized using Ga/Ga2O3 mixture and O2. The diameter of the nanowires is 30–80 nm with an average value of 50 nm. They are consisted of single-crystalline monoclinic crystal. While the nanowires grown without catalyst exhibit a significant planar defect, the nanowires grown with nickel catalytic nanoparticles are almost defect-free. The growth direction of the nanowires grown without the catalyst is uniformly . In contrast, the nanowires grown with the catalyst have random growth direction. X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence are well correlated with the structural characteristics of the nanowires. The result provides an evidence for the catalyst effect in controlling the structure of nanowires. In2O3 nanostructures were also synthesized in a controlled manner by selecting the catalyst. The reactants were In and In/In2O3 mixture. The nanowires were produced using catalytic Au nanoparticles and Ga. But the unique bifurcated-structure nanobelts were instead grown without Ga. The nanowires have uniform  growth direction with rectangular cross-section. We converted the In2O3 nanowires to In2O3-Ga2O3 nanostructures.
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