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The submarine channel-fill system of the Cambrian Spurs Formation exhibits unique metre-scale cycles of breccia and diamictite. The studied sections, Eureka Spurs, are located at the Mariner Glacier in the central-eastern part of northern Victoria Land, Antarctica. A facies analysis of the channel-fill deposit has led to the recognition of four main lithofacies: breccia, diamictite, thin-bedded sandstone and mudstone. The channel-fill deposit consists of two architectural elements: hollow-fill (HF) and sheet-like (SL) elements. The SL has wide convex-up geometry and consists solely of a very thick bed of diamictite, and is interpreted as a submarine channel lobe. The HF has a concave-up erosional base and flat upper surface. The HF consists of nine cyclic alternations of underlying breccia (cohesionless debris flow) and overlying diamictite (cohesive debris flow). The deposition of breccia is interpreted to have been controlled by repeated allogenic processes such as earthquakes. In contrast, the abrupt vertical transition from breccia to diamictite in each cycle is interpreted to have resulted from an autogenic, slope instability-related process. The interaction of the allogenic and autogenic factors recorded in the metre-scale unique cyclic deposits provides new criteria to interpret cycles of submarine debris flow.
The Korean VLBI Network (KVN) is a unique millimeter VLBI system which is consisted of three 21 m telescopes with relatively short baselines. We present the preliminary results of simultaneous monitoring observations of the 22.2 GHz H2O and 43.1/42.8/86.2/129.3 GHz SiO masers based on the KVN Key Science Project (KSP). We obtained the astrometrically registered maps of the H2O and SiO masers toward nine evolved stars using the source frequency phase referencing method (SFPR). The SFPR maps of the H2O and SiO masers enabled us to investigate the spatial structure and kinematics from the SiO to H2O maser regions including the development of an outward motion from the ring-like or elliptical structures of SiO masers to the asymmetric structures of the 22.2 GHz H2O maser features. In particular, the 86.2/129.3 GHz SiO (v=1, J=2–1 and J=3–2) masers were clearly imaged toward several objects for the first time. The SiO v=1, J=3–2 maser shows different distributions compared to those of the SiO v=1, 2, J=1–0 and v=1, J=2–1 masers implying a different physical condition.
Stable carbon isotope ratios were measured on the alpha-cellulose in tree rings of a pine tree (Pinus densiflora) from Yeongwol, Korea. We developed an annual-resolution δ13C series (1835–1905) by correcting the measured data for changes in δ13C of air to minimize non-climatic influences. To investigate the climatic signal in the δ13C series, we performed correlation analysis between δ13C and the Cheugugi climate data. The Cheugugi precipitation data were first recorded by King Sejong (1397–1450) of the Joseon Dynasty. However, the longest set of precipitation data available is the one collected in Seoul (1776–1907). Although many studies support the reliability of the Cheugugi data, no previous studies have investigated the potential of the δ13C signal in tree rings as paleoclimate proxy using the Cheugugi data. Recent precipitation trends in Yeongwol are quite similar to that of Seoul, and we found significant correlations between the Cheugugi data and the δ13C series. We suggest further studies to replicate these results and confirm whether comparing δ13C variations in tree rings and Cheugugi data is a useful method of investigating the potential of the δ13C signal as a paleoclimate proxy in or near the Korean peninsula.
The aim of this study is to develop predictive models to predict organ at risk (OAR) complication level, classification of OAR dose-volume and combination of this function with our in-house developed treatment decision support system.
Materials and methods
We analysed the support vector machine and decision tree algorithm for predicting OAR complication level and toxicity in order to integrate this function into our in-house radiation treatment planning decision support system. A total of 12 TomoTherapyTM treatment plans for prostate cancer were established, and a hundred modelled plans were generated to analyse the toxicity prediction for bladder and rectum.
The toxicity prediction algorithm analysis showed 91·0% accuracy in the training process. A scatter plot for bladder and rectum was obtained by 100 modelled plans and classification result derived. OAR complication level was analysed and risk factor for 25% bladder and 50% rectum was detected by decision tree. Therefore, it was shown that complication prediction of patients using big data-based clinical information is possible.
We verified the accuracy of the tested algorithm using prostate cancer cases. Side effects can be minimised by applying this predictive modelling algorithm with the planning decision support system for patient-specific radiotherapy planning.
This paper examines the influence of risks on alliance governance modes in high-tech industries. The extant literature has devoted little attention to the preferred governance mode based on the risks surrounding alliances. In this paper, we examine why risks are key factors in the alliance governance decision and investigate the choice of alliance governance mode in high-tech industries. Hypotheses are formulated based on risk perspectives; these hypotheses are empirically tested using data on 3,228 alliance records generated over the past 5 years in high-tech industries. The results suggest that risk perspectives provide an effective rationale for choosing an alliance governance mode in a high-tech industry. In the conclusion, we discuss critical issues in the current debates on predicting alliance governance modes.
In this paper, the electrical properties of bottom-gate (BG) polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) thin-film transistors (TFTs) by NiSi2 seed-induced lateral crystallization (SILC) and its applications are presented. Sequential lateral solidification (SLS), which is one of crystallization methods, is known to have poor electrical properties of TFTs with BG structures due to problems induced by laser. Therefore, the laser method cannot be used to well-developed production line of amorphous-Si (a-Si) TFT, resulting in large initial investment cost to change fabrication procedures. On the other hand, the BG poly-Si TFT by SILC (SILC-BGPS TFT) has basically compatible process flows with that of the a-Si TFT. The SILC-BGPS TFT exhibited threshold voltage of -3.9 V, steep subthreshold slope of 130 mV/dec, a high field-effect mobility of 129 cm2/Vs , and Ion/Ioff ratio of ∼106.
In this study, the ternary Ge–Sb–Se chalcogenide glass was fabricated by a standard melt-quenching technique for flexible infrared lenses. Chalcogenide glass should have unique thermal and mechanical properties to be applied to precision glass molding (PGM) process. Therefore, the relations between thermal properties and the moldability were investigated for (35–20)Ge–(5–20)Sb–60Se glass systems. The thermal and thermos-mechanical properties were characterized by the differential scanning calorimeter and thermos-mechanical analysis, respectively. Preceding experiments using a pressing tester were conducted before PGM process to evaluate the moldability. The surface condition of both chalcogenide glass disks and Tungsten Carbide (WC) molds were characterized by using an optical microscopy and an interferometer. The preferential compositions in (35–20)Ge–(5–20)Sb–60Se glass systems were selected to produce molded lenses. Finally, the molded chalcogenide lens was successfully fabricated using the preferential compositions and the processing conditions from the preceding experiments using a pressing tester.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are common dietary exposures that cross the human placenta and are classified as a probable human carcinogen. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential impact of exposure to PAH-containing meat consumed during pregnancy on birth outcomes.
Prospective birth cohort study. Only non-smoking women with singleton pregnancies, who were free from chronic disease such as diabetes and hypertension, were included in the study. Maternal consumption of PAH-rich meat was estimated through FFQ. Multiple linear regression was used to assess factors related to higher intake and the association between dietary PAH and birth outcomes.
Republic of Korea, 2006–2011.
Pregnant women (n 778) at 12–28 weeks of gestation enrolled in the Mothers and Children’s Environmental Health (MOCEH) study.
The multivariable regression model showed a significant reduction in birth weight associated with higher consumption level of foods rich in PAH, such as grilled or roasted meat, during pregnancy (β=−17·48 g, P<0·05 for every 1 point higher in meat score). Further adjusting for biomarkers of airborne PAH did not alter this association. There was no evidence that higher consumption level of PAH-rich meat shortens the duration of gestation (P=0·561). Regression models performed for birth length and head circumference produced negative effects that were not statistically significant.
Consumption of higher levels of barbecued, fried, roasted and smoked meats during pregnancy was associated with reduced birth weight. Dietary risk of PAH exposure in Korean women is of concern.
Zygote wishes to inform its readers that its Editor-in-Chief has decided to retract the above article after an investigation carried out in compliance with the Committee on Publication Ethics guidelines found that the authors duplicated substantial parts of the following two articles:
1.Kim H, Yamanouchi K, Nishihara M. (2006) Expression of ski in the granulosa cells of atretic follicles in the rat ovary. J. Reprod. Dev. 52, 715–721
2.Kim H, Yamanouchi K, Matsuwaki T, Nishihara M. (2012) Induction of Ski protein expression upon luteinization in rat granulosa cells without a change in its mRNA expression. J. Reprod. Dev. 58, 254–259
Sloan-Kettering virus gene, a product of a cellular proto-oncogene c-Ski is a unique nuclear pro-oncoprotein and belongs to the Ski/Sno proto-oncogene family. The aim of the present study was to locate Ski protein in rat ovaries in order to find insights into the possible involvement of Ski in follicular development. First, expression of c-Ski mRNA in the ovaries of adult female rats was confirmed by RT-PCR. Then, ovaries obtained on the day of estrus were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis for Ski and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in combination with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). RT-PCR and in situ hybridization revealed that c-Ski mRNA was expressed in the ovaries of the adult rat on the day of estrous and localized mainly in the granulose cells. Ski was expressed in granulosa cells that were positive for TUNEL, but negative for PCNA, regardless of the shape and size of follicles. Expression of Ski in TUNEL-positive granulosa cells, but not in PCNA-positive granulosa cells, was also verified in rats having atretic follicles with double staining. These results indicate that Ski is profoundly expressed in the granulosa cells of atretic follicles, but not in growing follicles. Based on the present findings, Ski may play a role in the apoptosis of granulosa cells during follicular atresia.
We report on the formation of highly flexible and transparent TiO2/Ag/ITO multilayer films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates. The optical and electrical properties of the multilayer films were investigated as a function of oxide thickness. The transmission window gradually shifted toward lower energies with increasing oxide thickness. The TiO2 (40 nm)/Ag (18 nm)/ITO (40 nm) films gave the transmittance of 93.1% at 560 nm. The relationship between transmittance and oxide thickness was simulated using the scattering matrix method to understand high transmittance. As the oxide thickness increased from 20 to 50 nm, the carrier concentration gradually decreased from 1.08 × 1022 to 6.66 × 1021 cm−3, while the sheet resistance varied from 5.8 to 6.1 Ω/sq. Haacke's figure of merit reached a maximum at 40 nm and then decreased with increasing oxide thickness. The change in resistance for the 60 nm-thick ITO single film rapidly increased with increasing bending cycles, while that of the TiO2/Ag/ITO (40 nm/18 nm/40 nm) film remained virtually unchanged during the bending test.
In this study, the effect of simple shearing on microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of 316L austenitic stainless steel were investigated. Two different shear strain routes were obtained by twisting cylindrical specimens in the forward and backward directions. The strain-induced martensite phase was effectively obtained by alteration of the routes. Formation of the martensite phase clearly resulted in significant hardening of the steel. Grain-size reduction and strain-induced martensitic transformation within the deformed structures of the strained specimens were characterized by scanning electron microscopy – electron back-scattered diffraction, X-ray diffraction, and the TEM-ASTAR (transmission electron microscopy – analytical scanning transmission atomic resolution, automatic crystal orientation/phase mapping for TEM) system. Significant numbers of twin networks were formed by alteration of the shear strain routes, and the martensite phases were nucleated at the twin interfaces.
To determine the influence of early pain relief for patients with suspected appendicitis on the diagnostic performance of surgical residents.
A prospective randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted for patients with suspected appendicitis. The patients were randomized to receive placebo (normal saline intravenous [IV]) infusions over 5 minutes or the study drug (morphine 5 mg IV). All of the clinical evaluations by surgical residents were performed 30 minutes after administration of the study drug or placebo. After obtaining the clinical probability of appendicitis, as determined by the surgical residents, abdominal computed tomography was performed. The primary objective was to compare the influence of IV morphine on the ability of surgical residents to diagnose appendicitis.
A total of 213 patients with suspected appendicitis were enrolled. Of these patients, 107 patients received morphine, and 106 patients received placebo saline. The negative appendectomy percentages in each group were similar (3.8% in the placebo group and 3.2% in the pain control group, p=0.62). The perforation rates in each group were also similar (18.9% in the placebo group and 14.3% in the pain control group, p=0.75). Receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the overall diagnostic accuracy in each group was similar (the area under the curve of the placebo group and the pain control group was 0.63 v. 0.61, respectively, p=0.81).
Early pain control in patients with suspected appendicitis does not affect the diagnostic performance of surgical residents.
The mitochondrial genome is maternally inherited in animals, despite the fact that paternal mitochondria enter oocytes during fertilization. Autophagy and ubiquitin-mediated degradation are responsible for the elimination of paternal mitochondria in Caenorhabditis elegans; however, the involvement of these two processes in the degradation of paternal mitochondria in mammals is not well understood. We investigated the localization patterns of light chain 3 (LC3) and ubiquitin in mouse and porcine embryos during preimplantation development. We found that LC3 and ubiquitin localized to the spermatozoon midpiece at 3 h post-fertilization, and that both proteins were colocalized with paternal mitochondria and removed upon fertilization during the 4-cell stage in mouse and the zygote stage in porcine embryos. Sporadic paternal mitochondria were present beyond the morula stage in the mouse, and paternal mitochondria were restricted to one blastomere of 4-cell embryos. An autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), did not affect the distribution of paternal mitochondria compared with the positive control, while an autophagy inducer, rapamycin, accelerated the removal of paternal mitochondria compared with the control. After the intracytoplasmic injection of intact spermatozoon into mouse oocytes, LC3 and ubiquitin localized to the spermatozoon midpiece, but remnants of undegraded paternal mitochondria were retained until the blastocyst stage. Our results show that paternal mitochondria colocalize with autophagy receptors and ubiquitin and are removed after in vitro fertilization, but some remnants of sperm mitochondrial sheath may persist up to morula stage after intracytoplasmic spermatozoon injection (ICSI).
The dehydrogenated microstructure of the lithium borohydride-yttrium hydride (LiBH4-YH3) composite obtained at 350°C under 0.3 MPa of hydrogen and static vacuum was investigated by transmission electron microscopy combined with a focused ion beam technique. The dehydrogenation reaction between LiBH4 and YH3 into LiH and YB4 takes place under 0.3 MPa of hydrogen, which produces YB4 nano-crystallites that are uniformly distributed in the LiH matrix. This microstructural feature seems to be beneficial for rehydrogenation of the dehydrogenation products. On the other hand, the dehydrogenation process is incomplete under static vacuum, leading to the unreacted microstructure, where YH3 and YH2 crystallites are embedded in LiBH4 matrix. High resolution imaging confirmed the presence of crystalline B resulting from the self-decomposition of LiBH4. However, Li2B12H12, which is assumed to be present in the LiBH4 matrix, was not clearly observed.
Background: Holt–Oram syndrome is characterised by CHD and limb anomalies. Mutations in TBX5 gene, encoding the T-box transcription factor, are responsible for the development of Holt–Oram syndrome, but such mutations are variably detected in 30–75% of patients. Methods: Clinically diagnosed eight Holt–Oram syndrome patients from six families were evaluated the clinical characteristics, focusing on the cardiac manifestations, in particular, and molecular aetiologies. In addition to the investigation of the mutation of TBX5, SALL4, NKX2.5, and GATA4 genes, which are known to regulate cardiac development by physically and functionally interacting with TBX5, were also analyzed. Multiple ligation-dependent probe amplification analysis was performed to detect exonic deletion and duplication mutations in these genes. Results: All included patients showed cardiac septal defects and upper-limb anomalies. Of the eight patients, seven underwent cardiac surgery, and four suffered from conduction abnormalities such as severe sinus bradycardia and complete atrioventricular block. Although our patients showed typical clinical findings of Holt–Oram syndrome, only three distinct TBX5 mutations were detected in three families: one nonsense, one splicing, and one missense mutation. No new mutations were identified by testing SALL4, NKX2.5, and GATA4 genes. Conclusions: All Holt–Oram syndrome patients in this study showed cardiac septal anomalies. Half of them showed TBX5 gene mutations. To understand the genetic causes for inherited CHD such as Holt–Oram syndrome is helpful to take care of the patients and their families. Further efforts with large-scale genomic research are required to identify genes responsible for cardiac manifestations or genotype–phenotype relation in Holt–Oram syndrome.