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Compared with the general population, individuals with schizophrenia have a higher risk of periodontal disease, which can potentially reduce their life expectancy. However, evidence for the early development of periodontal disease in schizophrenia is scant. The current study investigated risk factors for periodontal disease in patients newly diagnosed with schizophrenia.
We identified a population-based cohort of patients in Taiwan with newly diagnosed schizophrenia who developed periodontal disease within 1 year of their schizophrenia diagnosis. Treatment with antipsychotics and other medications was categorised according to medication type and duration, and the association between medication use and the treated periodontal disease was assessed through logistic regression.
Among 3610 patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia, 2373 (65.7%) had an incidence of treated periodontal disease during the 1-year follow-up. Female sex (adjusted odds ratios [OR] 1.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–1.63); young age (adjusted OR 0.99; 95% CI 0.98–0.99); a 2-year history of periodontal disease (adjusted OR 2.45; 95% CI 1.84–3.26); high income level (adjusted OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.64–3.06) and exposure to first-generation (adjusted OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.54–2.32) and secondary-generation (adjusted OR 1.33; 95% CI 1.11–1.58) antipsychotics, anticholinergics (adjusted OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.03–1.50) and antihypertensives (adjusted OR 1.91; 95% CI 1.64–2.23) were independent risk factors for periodontal disease. Hyposalivation – an adverse effect of first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) (adjusted OR 2.00; 95% CI 1.63–2.45), anticholinergics (adjusted OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.05–1.53) and antihypertensives (adjusted OR 1.90; 95% CI 1.63–2.22) – was associated with increased risk of periodontal disease. Therefore, hypersalivation due to FGA use (adjusted OR 0.72; 95% CI 0.59–0.88) was considered a protective factor.
The current study highlights that early prevention of periodontal disease in individuals with schizophrenia is crucial. Along with paying more attention to the development of periodontal disease, assessing oral health regularly, helping with oral hygiene, and lowering consumption of sugary drinks and tobacco, emphasis should also be given by physicians to reduce the prescription of antipsychotics to the extent possible under efficacious pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia.
In this study, silver nanowires (Ag NWs) were synthesized in a one-pot method from silver nitrate and poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), and reduced by ethylene glycol without the presence of chloride ion. The addition of silver nitrate and PVP was controlled by syringes. The syringe rate, and the concentrations of silver nitrate, and PVP, were manipulated to obtain Ag NWs with different widths and lengths. We have observed the phenomena of coarsening and combination of silver nanorods during the growth of the Ag NWs. With these phenomena, we have developed a growth model of Ag NWs, and successfully synthesized Ag NWs with high aspect ratios via the developed model.
The crystallinity of the hydrogenated microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H) film was known to influence the solar cell efficiency greatly. Also hydrogen was found to play a critical role in controlling the crystallinity. Instead of employing conventional plasma deposition techniques, this work focused on using catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD) to study the effect of hydrogen dilution and the filament-to-substrate distance on the crystallinity, deposition rate, microstructure factor and electrical property of the μc-Si:H film. We found that the substrate material and structure can affect the crystallinity of the μc-Si:H film and the incubation effect. Comparing bare glass, TCO-coated glass, a-Si:H-coated glass and μc-Si:H-coated glass, the microcrystalline phase grows the fastest onto μc-Si:H surface, but the slowest onto a-Si:H surface. Surprisingly, the template effect lasted for more than a thousand atomic layers of silicon.
Genistein and daidzein are known to have both beneficial and adverse effects on human health due to their many biological actions at the cellular level. Both isoflavones have been shown to inhibit GLUT-mediated glucose transport across the plasma membrane of mammalian cells. Since lysosomal membrane transport is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis, the present study examined the effects of genistein and daidzein on glucose and sulphate transport in isolated rat liver lysosomes. Both genistein and daidzein significantly inhibited lysosomal glucose uptake. Genistein was a more potent glucose transport inhibitor than daidzein, with a half-maximum inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 45 μmol/l compared with 71 μmol/l for daidzein. Uptake kinetics of d-glucose showed a significant decrease in Vmax (control:genistein treat = 1489 (sem 91):507 (sem 76) pmol/unit of β-hexosaminidase per 15 s) without a change in Km. The presence of 50 μm-genistein in the medium also reduced glucose efflux from lysosomes preloaded with 100 mm-d-glucose. Genistein also inhibited lysosomal sulphate transport. Similar to its effects on glucose uptake kinetics, genistein treatment caused a significant decrease in sulphate uptake Vmax (control:genistein treat = 87 (sem 4):59 (sem 5) pmol/unit of β-hexosaminidase per 30 s), while the Km was not affected. The evidence provided by the present study suggests that the most likely mechanism of lysosomal glucose transport inhibition by genistein is via direct interaction between genistein and the transporter, rather than mediation by tyrosine kinase inactivation. Genistein likely has a similar mechanism of directly inhibiting sulphate transporter.
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