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The role of neurological proteins in the development of bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) remains elusive now. The current study aims to explore the potential genetic correlations of plasma neurological proteins with BD and SCZ.
By using the latest genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary data of BD and SCZ (including 41,917 BD cases, 11,260 SCZ cases, and 396,091 controls) derived from the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium website (PGC) and a recently released GWAS of neurological proteins (including 750 individuals), we performed a linkage disequilibrium score regression (LDSC) analysis to detect the potential genetic correlations between the two common psychiatric disorders and each of the 92 neurological proteins. Two-sample Mendelian randomisation (MR) analysis was then applied to assess the bidirectional causal relationship between the neurological proteins identified by LDSC, BD and SCZ.
LDSC analysis identified one neurological protein, NEP, which shows suggestive genetic correlation signals for both BD (coefficient = −0.165, p value = 0.035) and SCZ (coefficient = −0.235, p value = 0.020). However, those association did not remain significant after strict Bonferroni correction. Two sample MR analysis found that there was an association between genetically predicted level of NEP protein, BD (odd ratio [OR] = 0.87, p value = 1.61 × 10−6) and SCZ (OR = 0.90, p value = 4.04 × 10−6). However, in the opposite direction, there is no genetically predicted association between BD, SCZ, and NEP protein level.
This study provided novel clues for understanding the genetic effects of neurological proteins on BD and SCZ.
Many studies have demonstrated that vocabulary size plays a key role in learning English as a foreign language (EFL). In recent years, mobile game-based learning (MGBL) has been considered a promising scheme for successful acquisition and retention of knowledge. Thus, this study applies a mixed methodology that combines quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess the effects of PHONE Words, a novel mobile English vocabulary learning app (application) designed with game-related functions (MEVLA-GF) and without game-related functions (MEVLA-NGF), on learners’ perceptions and learning performance. During a four-week experiment, 20 sophomore students were randomly assigned to the experimental group with MEVLA-GF support or the control group with MEVLA-NGF support for English vocabulary learning. Analytical results show that performance in vocabulary acquisition and retention by the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group. Moreover, questionnaire results confirm that MEVLA-GF is more effective and satisfying for English vocabulary learning than MEVLA-NGF. Spearman rank correlation results show that involvement and dependence on gamified functions were positively correlated with vocabulary learning performance.
Metal/high-k dielectric core-shell nanocrystal (NC) memory capacitors were demonstrated by e-beam evaporation process. This kind of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) memory shows good performance in charge storage, programming and erasing speeds. Compared to Co NC memory, Co/Al2O3 core-shell NC memory shows improved retention performance since the additional Al2O3 shell layer acts as a barrier, which prevent the leakage.
Metal/high-k dielectric core shell nanocrystal memory capacitor was demonstrated. This kind of MOS memory shows good performance in charge storage capacity, programming and erasing speed. By using a self-assembled Block Co-Polymer, Co/HfO2 core shell nanocrystals were well arrayed and showed uniform dot size and inter distance between dots. Compared with traditional metal nanocrystal fabrication process with E-Beam Evaporation followed by RTA (Rapid Thermal Annealing), core shell nanocrystal memory prepared by Block Co-Polymer produces a wide memory window of 8.4V at the ±12 V voltage sweep. Co/HfO2 core shell nanocrystals prepared by low-temperature Block Co-polymer process ensure high reliability of the devices.
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