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The association between autoimmune diseases and schizophrenia has rarely
been systematically investigated.
To investigate the association between schizophrenia and a variety of
autoimmune diseases and to explore possible gender variation in any such
Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database was used to identify
10 811 hospital in-patients with schizophrenia and 108 110 age-matched
controls. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were
performed, separately, to evaluate the association between autoimmune
diseases and schizophrenia. We applied the false discovery rate to
correct for multiple testing.
When compared with the control group, the in-patients with schizophrenia
had an increased risk of Graves' disease (odds ratio (OR) = 1.32, 95% CI
1.04–1.67), psoriasis (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.07–2.04), pernicious anaemia
(OR = 1.71, 95% CI 1.04–2.80), celiac disease (OR = 2.43, 95% CI
1.12–5.27) and hypersensitivity vasculitis (OR = 5.00, 95% CI
1.64–15.26), whereas a reverse association with rheumatoid arthritis (OR
= 0.52, 95% CI 0.35–0.76) was also observed. Gender-specific variation
was found for Sjögren syndrome, hereditary haemolytic anaemia, myasthenia
gravis, polymyalgia rheumatica and dermatomyositis.
Schizophrenia was associated with a greater variety of autoimmune
diseases than was anticipated. Further investigation is needed to gain a
better understanding of the aetiology of schizophrenia and autoimmune