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The present study focuses on two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of shallow-water breaking waves, specifically those generated by a wave plate at constant water depths. The primary objective is to quantitatively analyse the dynamics, kinematics and energy dissipation associated with wave breaking. The numerical results exhibit good agreement with experimental data in terms of free-surface profiles during wave breaking. A parametric study was conducted to examine the influence of various wave properties and initial conditions on breaking characteristics. According to research on the Bond number ($Bo$, the ratio of gravitational to surface tension forces), an increased surface tension leads to the formation of more prominent parasitic capillaries at the forwards face of the wave profile and a thicker plunging jet, which causes a delayed breaking time and is tightly correlated with the main cavity size. A close relationship between wave statistics and the initial conditions of the wave plate is discovered, allowing for the classification of breaker types based on the ratio of wave height to water depth, $H/d$. Moreover, an analysis based on inertial scaling arguments reveals that the energy dissipation rate due to breaking can be linked to the local geometry of the breaking crest $H_b/d$, and exhibits a threshold behaviour, where the energy dissipation approaches zero at a critical value of $H_b/d$. An empirical scaling of the breaking parameter is proposed as $b = a(H_b/d - \chi _0)^n$, where $\chi _0 = 0.65$ represents the breaking threshold and $n = 1.5$ is a power law determined through the best fit to the numerical results.
Chronic total coronary occlusion is among the most complex coronary artery diseases. Elevated homocysteine is a risk factor for coronary artery diseases. However, few studies have assessed the relationship between homocysteine and chronic total coronary occlusion.
1295 individuals from Southwest China were enrolled in the study. Chronic total coronary occlusion was defined as complete occlusion of coronary artery for more than three months. Homocysteine was divided into quartiles according to its level. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models, receiver operating characteristic curves, and subgroup analysis were applied to assess the relationship between homocysteine and chronic total coronary occlusion.
Subjects in the higher homocysteine quartile had a higher rate of chronic total coronary occlusion (P < 0.001). After adjustment, the odds ratio for chronic total coronary occlusion in the highest quartile of homocysteine compared with the lowest was 1.918 (95% confidence interval 1.237–2.972). Homocysteine ≥ 15.2 μmol/L was considered an independent indicator of chronic total coronary occlusion (odds ratio 1.53, 95% confidence interval 1.05–2.23; P = 0.0265). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.659 (95% confidence interval, 0.618–0.701; P < 0.001). Stronger associations were observed in elderly and in those with hypertension and diabetes.
Elevated homocysteine is significantly associated with chronic total coronary occlusion, particularly in elderly and those with hypertension and diabetes.
The present work is devoted to the analysis of drop impact on a deep liquid pool, focusing on the high-energy splashing regimes caused by large raindrops at high velocities. Such cases are characterized by short time scales and complex mechanisms, thus they have received very little attention until now. The BASILISK open-source solver is used to perform three-dimensional direct numerical simulations. The capabilities of octree adaptive mesh refinement techniques enable capturing of the small-scale features of the flow, while the volume of fluid approach combined with a balanced-force surface-tension calculation is applied to advect the volume fraction of the liquids and reconstruct the interfaces. The numerical results compare well with experimental visualizations: both the evolution of crown and cavity, the emanation of ligaments, the formation of bubble canopy and the growth of a downward-moving spiral jet that pierces through the cavity bottom, are correctly reproduced. Reliable quantitative agreements are also obtained regarding the time evolution of rim positions, cavity dimensions and droplet distributions through an observation window. Furthermore, simulation gives access to various aspects of the internal flows, which allows us to better explain the observed physical phenomena. Details of the early-time dynamics of bubble ring entrapment and splashing performance, the formation/collapse of bubble canopy and the spreading of drop liquid are discussed. The statistics of droplet size show the bimodal distribution in time, corroborating distinct primary mechanisms of droplet production at different stages.
Straightplasma channels are widely used to guide relativistic intense laser pulses over several Rayleigh lengths for laser wakefield acceleration. Recently, a curved plasma channel with gradually varied curvature was suggested to guide a fresh intense laser pulse and merge it into a straight channel for staged wakefield acceleration [Phys. Rev. Lett. 120, 154801 (2018)]. In this work, we report the generation of such a curved plasma channel from a discharged capillary. Both longitudinal and transverse density distributions of the plasma inside the channel were diagnosed by analyzing the discharging spectroscopy. Effects of the gas-filling mode, back pressure and discharging voltage on the plasma density distribution inside the specially designed capillary are studied. Experiments show that a longitudinally uniform and transversely parabolic plasma channel with a maximum channel depth of 47.5 μm and length of 3 cm can be produced, which is temporally stable enough for laser guiding. Using such a plasma channel, a laser pulse with duration of 30 fs has been successfully guided along the channel with the propagation direction bent by 10.4°.
To contribute to the treatment decision and optimize coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS) control programs, we conducted a meta-analysis to investigate the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance rates of coagulase-negative staphylococcus associated with bovine mastitis in China. Three databases (PubMed, Google scholar and China National Knowledge Infrastructure database) were utilized to obtain relevant publications. A total of 18 publications were included in our research, and 3 of them included antimicrobial resistant (AMR) test. The pooled prevalence of coagulase-negative staphylococcus was 17.28%. Subgroup analysis revealed that the prevalence was higher in South China than in North China, was higher in 2011–2020 than in 2000–2010 and was higher in clinical bovine mastitis cases than in subclinical cases. The pooled AMR were most resistant to β-lactams, followed by tetracyclines, quinolones, nitrofurans, lincosamides, sulfonamides, amphenicol and aminoglycosides. The pooled AMR rate of coagulase-negative staphylococcus was lower in 2011–2020 than in 2000–2010. Although the prevalence of CNS showed an increasing trend over 20 years, the AMR rate showed a decreasing trend, and the clinical type of mastitis was the most frequent and the prevalence was highest in South China. Finally, CNS was most resistant to β-lactams amongst the eight groups of antimicrobial agents.
Trematodes of the genus Ogmocotyle are intestinal flukes that can infect a variety of definitive hosts, resulting in significant economic losses worldwide. However, there are few studies on molecular data of these trematodes. In this study, the mitochondrial (mt) genome of Ogmocotyle ailuri isolated from red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was determined and compared with those from Pronocephalata to investigate the mt genome content, genetic distance, gene rearrangements and phylogeny. The complete mt genome of O. ailuri is a typical closed circular molecule of 14 642 base pairs, comprising 12 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 2 non-coding regions. All genes are transcribed in the same direction. In addition, 23 intergenic spacers and 2 locations with gene overlaps were determined. Sequence identities and sliding window analysis indicated that cox1 is the most conserved gene among 12 PCGs in O. ailuri mt genome. The sequenced mt genomes of the 48 Plagiorchiida trematodes showed 5 types of gene arrangement based on all mt genome genes, with the gene arrangement of O. ailuri being type I. Phylogenetic analysis using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 PCGs revealed that O. ailuri was closer to Ogmocotyle sikae than to Notocotylus intestinalis. These data enhance the Ogmocotyle mt genome database and provide molecular resources for further studies of Pronocephalata taxonomy, population genetics and systematics.
Subscription-video-on-demand (SVOD) services are available on many online video streaming platforms (VSPs) in China, such as iQiyi, Youku, and Tencent Video, backed by Baidu, Alibaba, and Tencent groups (BAT), respectively. The video content on these platforms can be the same shows as those broadcasted on national or provincial television stations, or originally produced and exclusively streamed on the VSP. Meanwhile, VSPs purchase the distribution rights of foreign films and television series to enrich the content pool. This book aims to provide an account of Chinese television, particularly online drama series, or webisodes, with an awareness of the existence and competition of Netflix, covering topics on business strategies of VSPs, original content production trends, trans-media stories telling cases, practitioner insights, and audiences behavior.
Set up in 2010, iQIYI was famous for its technical innovation and creative video content and was merged with Baidu Company in 2013. Listed on NASDAQ in 2018, iQIYI leads the market and has claimed to be China's Netflix (Pham 2018).
Webisodes, with a few new features in content, platforms and technology, shape a new ecology of online distribution. Initially, the content of videostreaming platforms (VSPs) came from purchased copyright, which became increasingly expensive, so VSPs turned to produce originals to attract subscribers.
With its large popularity, China is a potential VSP(s) market. However, due to state censorship, Netflix has not made its way into the Chinese mainland, so the Chinese market is shared by local VSPs, including iQIYI, Tencent Video and Youku.
Among these online video platforms, iQIYI leads the group by originals and also reflects how innovative strategies have shaped the ecology of Chinese VSP(s).
The popularity of iQIYI started with originals, which were similar to Netflix's House of Cards (2010). The 12-episode drama Time Raiders(2015), coproduced by iQIYI and Huanrui Century Union (with 5 million CNY for each episode), was launched, and members could get a sneak peek of the webisode (iQIYI Inc 2020). This resulted in a craze for viewing and explosive growth in paid users. By the end of 2015, iQIYI's paid members had hit 10 million for the first time (Frater 2020).
Therefore, focusing on iQIYI, we discuss the features of original creations and how they constructed basic laws for the creation of the VSP(s). In this way, we provide an indication of the innovation of VSP(s) in China, which greatly influenced the TV industry.
Besides, iQIYI has applied many audience strategies to improve the audience's loyalty. With combined membership interest, iQIYI is trying to improve audience interest in renewing their subscription. Cooperating with TV terminals, iQIYI has extended its platform to access more audiences. By technology application, iQIYI, powered by Baidu, analyzes user information, bringing interesting content to satisfy the viewing experience.
So, it is worthwhile to discuss what are the audience strategies of iQIYI so that we can know how VSP(s) thoroughly attract their audience.
In addition, VSPs have been seeking outward expansion in their development. iQIYI prefers creations with Chinese characteristics in the global market. For example, iQIYI internationalized its content and entered the Asia market in cooperation with Netflix and Sony.
To explore the effect of yield stress on the secondary breakup of gel drops, experimental and theoretical investigations are carried out by employing a high-speed camera. A unique hemline-type breakup, as a modified behaviour of sheet-thinning breakup, occurs when the air velocity increases to a high region. The edges of the drops constantly deform into thin membranes when the high-velocity air skims over the gel drops. These membranes vibrate vertically, and breaking points occur at high amplitudes, causing the formation of reticular fragments. The results of linear stability analysis indicated that the yield stress of the gel drops has an influence on the formation and breakup of the gel membranes. The breakup regime map and breakup times are also studied.
Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder with a chronic course. The atypical antipsychotics represented by lurasidone are commonly used in chronic schizophrenia, and its mechanism of action determines the superiority of efficacy and safety. However so far, there are still some adverse reactions, of which the more significant are lethargy, nausea, and sedentary inability. In view of these situations, we will combine nutrition intervention with the use of lurasidone to eliminate adverse reactions and provide help for the formulation of treatment plans.
Subjects and Methods
The study will be based on whether to add nutrition intervention as a difference set up control experiment, the experimental group using lurasidone combined nutrition intervention, the control group using lurasidone single factor intervention. The patients who received treatment in the psychiatric department of our hospital from March 2021 to March 2022 were selected as the research objects, and the efficacy and adverse reactions of the patients were monitored during the treatment. The efficacy will be judged by the medical scale of symptom severity of patients with schizophrenia (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, PANSS) and the monitoring data will be statistically analyzed by SPSS.
With the treatment, the results of the Experimental group and the control group are shown in Table 1. The PANSS scores of the two groups finally reached a range of 30-40, with a difference of 4. The incidence of nausea, lethargy and sedentary disorder in adverse symptoms was higher in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). It shows that nutritional intervention cannot affect the efficacy of psychosis itself, yet can alleviate the adverse symptoms after medication.Table 1.
Efficacy and adverse reactions of the two groups
Experimental group (n=46)
Control group (n=41)
The group of schizophrenics is not limited to a certain age. Therefore, adverse symptoms caused by psychotropic drugs need to be considered in the practice. Symptoms in the course of the patient’s disease can be used as a treatment optimization path. Although the nutrition intervention strategy has no direct impact on the indicators of mental illness, the prevention of adverse symptoms during treatment can improve the actual experience of patients. In the future, the nutrition strategy will be adaptively optimized to improve the rehabilitation effect of chronic schizophrenia.
The research is supported by: Key Discipline of Nutrition and Food Hygiene of Changsha Medical university Quality Engineering Construction Project+2016; Study on Intervention Effect of Mindfulness Acceptance Stress Project on Nurses Aid to COVID-19+Outstanding Youth Project of Scientific Research of Hunan Education Department +2020(264)20B070.
One of the most common harmful mites in edible fungi is Histiostoma feroniarum Dufour (Acaridida: Histiostomatidae), a fungivorous astigmatid mite that feeds on hyphae and fruiting bodies, thereby transmitting pathogens. This study examined the effects of seven constant temperatures and 10 types of mushrooms on the growth and development of H. feroniarum, as well as its host preference. Developmental time for the total immature stages was significantly affected by the type of mushroom species, ranging from 4.3 ± 0.4 days (reared on Pleurotus eryngii var. tuoliensis Mou at 28°C) to 17.1 ± 2.3 days (reared on Auricularia polytricha Sacc. at 19°C). The temperature was a major factor in the formation of facultative heteromorphic deutonymphs (hypopi). The mite entered the hypopus stage when the temperature dropped to 16°C or rose above 31°C. The growth and development of this mite were significantly influenced by the type of species and variety of mushrooms. Moreover, the fungivorous astigmatid mite preferred to feed on the ‘Wuxiang No. 1’ strain of Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler and the ‘Gaowenxiu’ strain of P. pulmonarius (Fr.) Quél., with a shorter development period compared with that of feeding on other strains. These results therefore quantify the effect of host type and temperature on fungivorous astigmatid mite growth and development rates, and provide a reference for applying mushroom cultivar resistance to biological pest control.
We conduct a laboratory experiment to investigate whether the rebate and matching subsidy schemes cause crowding-out or crowding-in effects (reductions or increases in amount donated) on individual net donations. We find that when the rebate subsidy scheme is implemented, it does not result in crowding-out or crowding-in effects on individual net donations. However, when the matching subsidy scheme is implemented, it encourages individuals to donate more and generates crowding-in effects on individual net donations.
With the disease spectrum changing in China, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has become the main chronic disease which affects people’s health severely, bring patients serious economic burden of disease. For T2DM patients, reliable quality of evidence in decision-making are significant, improving the efficiency of the adjustment of the National Reimbursement Drug List (NRDL). Based on the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS), we aimed to evaluate the quality of all published pharmacoeconomic evaluations on T2DM drugs in 2020 NRDL.
Because the 2020 NRDL came into effect on 1 March 2021, we searched all published pharmacoeconomic evaluations about T2DM drugs in 2020 NRDL before March 2021 in China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wan fang Data, China Science and Technology Journal Database (VIP), PubMed, and Web of Science. According to the criterion of inclusion and exclusion, all documents were screened and then relevant basic information of targeted documents was extracted. The quality was evaluated by calculating the final scores based on CHEERS. Two reviewers assessed each publication’s quality using the CHEERS instrument and summarized study quality.
A total of 910 papers were searched, and 24 papers were included. These involved six T2DM drugs, specifically IDegAsp, exenatide, liraglutide, lixisenatide, dapagliflozin and empagliflozin. The average score was 18.31, the standard deviation was 3.67, and the average scoring rate was 77.41 percent. Among all items, “characterizing heterogeneity” scored 0.04, least satisfied with requirements. “Setting and location”, “choice of health outcomes” and “assumptions” scored one, most satisfied with requirements. Among the average scores of all parts, “results” scored lowest at 0.55, and “methods” scored highest at 0.85. The Wilcoxon sum-rank tests showed that score rate which represented reporting quality of economic evaluation (EE) was significantly related to “journal type”, “EEs type”, “model choice” and “study perspective”.
The methodological quality of pharmacoeconomic evaluations about T2DM drugs in 2020 NRDL needs to be improved. Improving the quality of literature is the basic guarantee of scientific decision-making in national medical insurance negotiation.
Increased access to defensible material wealth is hypothesised to escalate inequality. Market integration, which creates novel opportunities in cash economies, provides a means of testing this hypothesis. Using demographic data collected from 505 households among the matrilineal and patrilineal Mosuo in 2017, we test whether market integration is associated with increased material wealth, whether increased material wealth is associated with wealth inequality, and whether being in a matrilineal vs. patrilineal kinship system alters the relationship between wealth and inequality. We find evidence that market integration, measured as distance to the nearest source of tourism and primary source of household income, is associated with increased household income and ‘modern’ asset value. Both village-level market integration and mean asset value were associated negatively, rather than positively, with inequality, contrary to predictions. Finally, income, modern wealth and inequality were higher in matrilineal communities that were located closer to the centre of tourism and where tourism has long provided a relatively stable source of income. However, we also observed exacerbated inequality with increasing farm animal value in patriliny. We conclude that the forces affecting wealth and inequality depend on local context and that the importance of local institutions is obscured by aggregate statistics drawn from modern nation states.
In the treatment of infertile patients with non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) caused by the deletion of the azoospermia factor c region (AZFc) on the Y chromosome, synchronous and asynchronous surgical strategies are discussed. Clinical data from NOA patients with the AZFc deletion who underwent micro-TESE were analyzed retrospectively. The sperm retrieval rate (SRR) and sperm utilization rate of synchronous and asynchronous operation groups were followed up and compared. The fertilization rate, high-quality embryo rate, clinical pregnancy rate, abortion rate, and cumulative live birth rate of ICSI in patients with successful sperm retrieval were compared between the two groups. The two groups had sperm utilization rates of 98.9% (93/94) and 50.0% (14/28), respectively. The asynchronous group’s sperm consumption rates were much lower than those of the synchronous operation group. Fertilization rate, high-quality embryo rate, clinical pregnancy rate of fresh transfer cycle, abortion rate, and cumulative live birth rate of patients in the synchronous operation group with fresh sperm, and the asynchronous operation group with thawed sperm, respectively, were 30.6% vs 33.8%, 33.8% vs 40.7%, 40.0% vs 12.5%, 30.4% vs 7.1%. Between the two groups, there was no significant difference. This suggests that individuals with NOA caused by the AZFc deletion have a high possibility of successfully acquiring sperm using micro-TESE and ICSI to conceive their own offspring. Synchronous micro-TESE is recommended to improve sperm utilization rate and the cumulative live birth rate.
The relationship of a diet low in fibre with mortality has not been evaluated. This study aims to assess the burden of non-communicable chronic diseases (NCD) attributable to a diet low in fibre globally from 1990 to 2019.
All data were from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019, in which the mortality, disability-adjusted life-years (DALY) and years lived with disability (YLD) were estimated with Bayesian geospatial regression using data at global, regional and country level acquired from an extensively systematic review.
All data sourced from the GBD Study 2019.
All age groups for both sexes.
The age-standardised mortality rates (ASMR) declined in most GBD regions; however, in Southern sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 4·07 (95 % uncertainty interval (UI) (2·08, 6·34)) to 4·60 (95 % UI (2·59, 6·90)), and in Central sub-Saharan Africa, the ASMR increased from 7·46 (95 % UI (3·64, 11·90)) to 9·34 (95 % UI (4·69, 15·25)). Uptrends were observed in the age-standardised YLD rates attributable to a diet low in fibre in a number of GBD regions. The burden caused by diabetes mellitus increased in Central Asia, Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Eastern Europe.
The burdens of disease attributable to a diet low in fibre in Southern sub-Saharan Africa and Central sub-Saharan Africa and the age-standardised YLD rates in a number of GBD regions increased from 1990 to 2019. Therefore, greater efforts are needed to reduce the disease burden caused by a diet low in fibre.