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The study of the relationship among the manufacturing process, the structure and the property of materials can help to develop the new materials. The material images contain the microstructures of materials, therefore, the quantitative analysis for the material images is the important means to study the characteristics of material structures. Generally, the quantitative analysis for the material microstructures is based on the exact segmentation of the materials images. However, most material microstructures are shown with various shapes and complex textures in images, and they seriously hinder the exact segmentation of the component elements. In this research, machine learning method and complex networks method are adopted to the challenge of automatic material image segmentation. Two segmentation tasks are completed: on the one hand, the images of the titanium alloy are segmented based on the pixel-level classification through feature extraction and machine learning algorithm; on the other hand, the ceramic images are segmented with the complex networks theory. In the first task, texture and shape features near each pixel in titanium alloy image are calculated, such as Gabor filters, Hu moments and GLCM (Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrix) etc.. The feature vector for the pixel can be obtained by arraying these features. Then, classification is performed with the random forest model. Once each pixel is classified, the image segmentation is completed. In the second task, a complex network structure is built for the ceramic image. Then, a clustering algorithm of complex network is used to obtain network connection area. Finally, the clustered network structure is mapped back to the image and getting the contours among the component elements. The experimental results demonstrate that these methods can accurately segment material images.
The length of day (LOD), the atmospheric angular momentum (AAM) and the relative sunspot number (RSN) time series at 5-day intervals, which are spanning 13 years from 1976 through 1990, have been analysed in order to study the 30–70 day fluctuations. The filtered series with the 30–70 day band-pass of the three kinds of data were obtained by the Multi-Stage Filter. The five spectral peaks in both filtered series have been detected by the AR spectrum with the order of AR models as less than 3 percent of the sample number of each series. The amplitude estimates for the five periods in each series appear basically in equal distribution, and there is not a dominant one. The amplitudes of the averaging period for the five periods of LOD and AAM series decrease obviously with the increasing of sample number. The randomness of three series of periodic variations calculated from LOD, AAM and RSN was inspected by using the independence test and the link test of Statistics. Both tests for LOD and AAM are satisfied but RSN is not. From the above mentioned analysis, it is shown that the 30–70 day fluctuations both in LOD and AAM have the features of random walks in time scale and do not have a stable and periodic oscillation.
We characterized evacuations related to Hurricane Sandy, which made landfall in New Jersey on October 29, 2012.
We analyzed data from the 2014 New Jersey Behavioral Risk Factor Survey. The proportion of respondents reporting evacuation was used to estimate the number of New Jersey adults who evacuated. We determined evacuation rates in heavily impacted and less-impacted municipalities, as well as evacuation rates for municipalities under and not under mandatory evacuation orders. We tested associations between demographic and health factors, such as certain chronic health conditions, and evacuation.
Among respondents, 12.7% (95% CI: 11.8%-13.6%) reported evacuating, corresponding to approximately 880,000 adults. In heavily impacted municipalities, 17.0% (95% CI: 15.2%-18.7%) evacuated, compared with 10.1% (95% CI: 9.0%-11.2%) in less-impacted municipalities. In municipalities under mandatory evacuation orders, 42.5% (95% CI: 35.1%-49.8%) evacuated, compared with 11.8% (95% CI: 10.9%-12.9%) in municipalities not under mandatory orders. Female gender (odds ratio [OR]: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.14-1.64), unmarried status (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.02-1.46), shorter length of residence (OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03-1.60), and living in a heavily impacted municipality (OR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.54-2.20) were significantly associated with evacuation. History of stroke (OR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.02-2.53) was the only chronic condition associated with evacuation.
Approximately 880,000 New Jersey adults evacuated because of Hurricane Sandy. Those in heavily impacted municipalities and municipalities under mandatory evacuation orders had higher evacuation rates; however, still fewer than half evacuated. These findings can be used for future disaster planning. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:720–728).
SrTiO3 is an important photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution under solar light, a promising way to solve energy shortage. However, a rapid and efficient method to synthesize high-performance SrTiO3 used for this purpose still remains a challenge. In this work, we successfully prepared SrTiO3 catalyst with narrowed band gap through a rapid laser-melting method of a limited reaction time to seconds. The prepared SrTiO3 catalyst, which has a band gap of 3.05 eV, presents enhanced photocatalytic performance for hydrogen evolution under visible light. The evolution rate of laser-melted SrTiO3 is approximately 3.5 times higher than that of pristine SrTiO3. In addition, the magnetism in laser-melted SrTiO3 is also enhanced, which could not be observed in pristine SrTiO3, confirming the defective structure of the obtained laser-melted SrTiO3. The proposed laser-melting method will be a promising way to rapidly and efficiently synthesize homogeneous, solar-driven SrTiO3 photocatalyst for hydrogen evolution with rich defects and thus high-performance.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) on initiation and duration of infant breast-feeding in a prospective birth cohort study.
Breast-feeding information was collected at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. The association of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with delayed lactogenesis II and termination of exclusive breast-feeding was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The risk of early termination of any breast-feeding during the first year postpartum was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models.
Urban city in China.
Women with infants from the Ma’anshan Birth Cohort Study (n 3196).
The median duration of any breast-feeding in this cohort was 7·0 months. Pre-pregnancy obese women had higher risks of delayed lactogenesis II (risk ratio=1·89; 95 % CI 1·04, 3·43) and early termination of any breast-feeding (hazard ratio=1·38; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·75) adjusted for potential maternal and infant confounders, when compared with normal-weight women. No differences in breast-feeding initiation or duration of exclusive breast-feeding according to pre-pregnancy BMI were found. Moreover, GWG was not associated with any poor breast-feeding outcomes.
The present study indicated that pre-pregnancy obesity increases the risks of delayed lactogenesis II and early termination of any breast-feeding in Chinese women.
The high-energy oscillating electric current pulse (ECP) technology was introduced to relieve the residual stresses in the small AISI 1045 steel specimens treated by the pulsed-laser surface irradiation. The high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief experiments were conducted to study the effectiveness of the high-energy oscillating ECP technology. In addition, the electroplasticity framework was developed based on the thermal activation theory to reveal the mechanism of the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief. The results show that the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief has good effects on eliminating the residual stress. Furthermore, the residual stress relieving mechanism of the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief can be attributed to the electric softening effect and the dynamic stress effect. The findings confirm that the significant effects of high-energy oscillating ECP on metal plasticity and provide a basis to understand the underlying mechanism of the high-energy oscillating ECP stress relief.
The high-frequency vibration technology was introduced to relieve the quenched residual stress in the Cr12MoV steel based on the high-frequency vibration system that mainly consisted of an electromagnetic vibrator and an amplitude boost unit. The high-frequency vibratory stress relief (VSR) experiments were conducted to study the effectiveness of the high-frequency vibration technology. In addition, the high-frequency vibration plasticity model was developed based on the thermal activation theory to reveal the mechanism of the high-frequency VSR. The results show that the high-frequency VSR has good effects on eliminating residual stress, while the surface hardness for the Cr12MoV steel remains almost the same. Moreover, there are no changes in the grain size of the Cr12MoV steel during the high-frequency VSR, while the dislocation density for the Cr12MoV steel during the high-frequency VSR decreases by 27.21%. The decrease of dislocation density in the Cr12MoV steel is the essence of residual stress relaxation. The findings confirm the significant effects of high-frequency vibration on metal plasticity and provide a basis to understand the underlying mechanism of the high-frequency VSR.
Cancer patients with depression or anxiety have poor survival, and the interaction between mental and physical problems in older patients may exacerbate this problem. K-ras oncogene (KRAS) mutation may play a role in the development of psychosocial distress and may be associated with poor survival of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. This study investigated the association between KRAS gene mutations and psychosocial morbidity to explore the possible cancer/psychosis relationship in older mCRC patients.
In this study, 62 newly diagnosed mCRC patients were recruited and completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Demographic data were also collected, and clinicopathological data were retrieved from medical records. KRAS mutations were assessed via PCR analysis of tissue specimens from the patients.
The results showed that 28 of the 62 participants (45.2%) had positive screens for possible depression, and 45 of the 62 participants (72.6%) had positive screens for anxiety. The KRAS mutation rate was 40.3% (25/62), and 19 of the 25 patients with KRAS mutations (76.0%) had probable depression, whereas only 24.3% of the patients with wild-type KRAS were probably depressed (p < 0.05). The KRAS mutation was associated with higher HADS depression scores, independent of gender and performance status (p < 0.05), but not with higher HADS anxiety or total scores.
KRAS mutations were associated with depression severity and higher rates of probable depression in older mCRC patients. Depression should be assessed and treated as early as possible in older mCRC patients with the KRAS mutation. Further studies are needed to verify our current findings using a larger sample size.
Following Hurricane Superstorm Sandy, the New Jersey Department of Health (NJDOH) developed indicators to enhance syndromic surveillance for extreme weather events in EpiCenter, an online system that collects and analyzes real-time chief complaint emergency department (ED) data and classifies each visit by indicator or syndrome.
These severe weather indicators were finalized by using 2 steps: (1) key word inclusion by review of chief complaints from cases where diagnostic codes met selection criteria and (2) key word exclusion by evaluating cases with key words of interest that lacked selected diagnostic codes.
Graphs compared 1-month, 3-month, and 1-year periods of 8 Hurricane Sandy-related severe weather event indicators against the same period in the following year. Spikes in overall ED visits were observed immediately after the hurricane for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, the 3 disrupted outpatient medical care indicators, asthma, and methadone-related substance use. Zip code level scan statistics indicated clusters of CO poisoning and increased medicine refill needs during the 2 weeks after Hurricane Sandy. CO poisoning clusters were identified in areas with power outages of 4 days or longer.
This endeavor gave the NJDOH a clearer picture of the effects of Hurricane Sandy and yielded valuable state preparation information to monitor the effects of future severe weather events. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;10:463–471)
Cytosol Ca2+ overload plays a vital role in ischemic neuronal damage, which is largely contributed by the Ca2+ influx through L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (L-VGCCs) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) type glutamate receptors. In this article, L-VGCCs were activated by depolarization to investigate the cross-talk between NMDA receptors and L-VGCCs.
Depolarization was induced by 20 minutes incubation of 75 mM KCl in cultured rat cortical neuron. Apoptosis-like neuronal death was detected by DAPI staining. Tyrosine phosphorylation of NMDA receptor subunit 2A (NR2A), interactions of Src and NR2A were detected by immunoblot and immunoprecipitation.
Depolarization induced cortical neuron apoptosis-like cell death after 24 hours of restoration. The apoptosis was partially inhibited by 5 mM EGTA, 100 μM Cd2+, 10 μM nimodipine, 100 μM genistein, 20 μM MK-801, 2 μM PP2 and combined treatment of nimodipine and MK-801. NR2A tyrosine phosphorylation increased after depolarization, and the increase was inhibited by the drugs listed above. Moreover, non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src bound with NR2A after depolarization and restoration. The binding was also inhibited by the drugs listed above.
The results indicated that depolarization-induced neuronal death might be due to extracellular Ca2+ influx through L-VGCCs and subsequently Src activationmediated NR2A tyrosine phosphorylation.
In this paper, we first summarise the progress for the famous Chern conjecture, and then we consider n-dimensional closed hypersurfaces with constant mean curvature H in the unit sphere n+1 with n ≤ 8 and generalise the result of Cheng et al. (Q. M. Cheng, Y. J. He and H. Z. Li, Scalar curvature of hypersurfaces with constant mean curvature in a sphere, Glasg. Math. J. 51(2) (2009), 413–423). In order to be precise, we prove that if |H| ≤ ϵ(n), then there exists a constant δ(n, H) > 0, which depends only on n and H, such that if S0 ≤ S ≤ S0 + δ(n, H), then S = S0 and M is isometric to the Clifford hypersurface, where ϵ(n) is a sufficiently small constant depending on n.
We report a novel approach to realize the formation of well-distributed nanodispersions in n-type filled skutterudite through the manipulation of metastable void fillers by a designed sophisticated process of materials synthesis. Metastable Ga filling in CoSb3 is proved to happen at high temperature. The subsequent controlled annealing procedure drives Ga out of the crystal voids and finally leads to the homogeneous dispersion of GaSb nanodots with an average size of 11 nm in CoSb3 matrix. The grain size of nanodispersions can be manipulated by the controlled cooling procedure. The well-distributed nanodispersions are observed to enhance Seebeck coefficients and reduce lattice thermal conductivity at low temperature. Therefore, the thermoelectric performance of nanocomposite is improved in the whole temperature range. The highest figure of merit (ZT) is obtained to be 1.45 at 850 K, and an average ZT of 0.99 in 300−850 K is achieved for Yb0.26Co4Sb12/0.2GaSb nanocomposite.
Internal interfaces, between the same phase (grain boundary) or two different phases, often play an essential role in controlling various properties in ceramic materials. Analysis of such interfaces can achieve various newly available quantitative information on a sub-nanometer scale, as well as bonding picture associated with these interfaces. This analysis combines EELS spectrum profiling and advanced near-edge structure (ELNES) data processing, taking advantage from both the high spatial and energy resolutions provided by a dedicated STEM instrument. Demonstrated by chemical and structural study of gram boundary and inter-phase interfaces in Si3N4 ceramics where ∼1 ran thick amorphous phases cover every crystalline boundaries, it reveals that the amorphous boundary films are substantially different to bulk amorphous phase and to the interface between crystalline and amorphous phases. Moreover, the boundaries between two different crystalline phases were found covered with two thin amorphous layers of different composition and bonding. These observations can shed further light on the influence of interfaces on the macroscopic properties of these ceramic materials. This interfacial analuysis method can be extended to broader research area in solid state physics and chemistry.
Using EELS profiling, CaO planar faults of 1.36 nm spacing in CaTiO3 are resolved. Effective probe size was measured as 1.3 nm by quantitative analysis of EELS profiles, which is remarkably larger than 0.5 nm resolution for Z-contrast in similar conditions. Delocalization in EELS is the origin for this discrepancy, and strong elastic scattering near zone axis plays an important role in the quantification of profiles. Suitable spectrum subtraction successfully separates ELNES signal from the fault in one atomic distance with rock-salt structure. ELNES profiles for different local structures are also achieved. These examples demonstrate that EELS analysis can be performed reliably approaching atomic level, beyond the limit of probe size.
High-purity HIPed Si3N4 ceramics doped systematically with Ca additives are analyzed quantitatively by EELS. Using an ELNES related method to obtain film composition, we found that the composition difference from film to film is less significant than segregation. This is interpreted as a change of film width related to grain surface faceting. The hexagonal structure associated with anisotropie dielectric function can alter van der Waals attraction for different surface structures to produce variations in film thickness with a uniform film composition. These grain boundary films are better described as a high pressure amorphous oxynitride phase that allows higher but still limited solubility of calcium nitrogen.
Using a new EELS analysis method the local chemical and structural changes induced by Fe segregation to two types of grain boundaries in SrTiO3 were studied. At Σ5 boundary in bicrystals Fe segregation lowers O/Ti ratio but increases substantially Ti and O concentrations in boundary region. Sr-O bond has been severely changed by the segregation as revealed by ELNES. Grain boundaries in a polycrystalline sample were covered with titania-based amorphous films where Fe content is higher but Ti and O concentrations are both lower than the bulk levels, which are strikingly different from the bicrtysal. More dopants segregated to glass pockets at triple junctions. SiO2 was detected in one of the large pocket but not at the grain boundary films within the detection limit. These observations suggest the equilibrium defect chemistry and the related space charge theory may not be the only explanation for the grain boundary segregation in SrTiO3 Local structure modification at gram boundaries can trigger dramatical change of the chemistry to a degree higher than the segregation level. The existence of titania-based amorphous films at general grain boundaries makes it better to understand Fe segregation from the two phase (SrTiO3-TiO2) equilibrium.
Using four oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) F1 hybrids (7039, 7040, 282 and 5102) as donor plants for microspore culture, the experiment was conducted to select glyphosate- and haloxyfop-resistant embryos through application of these substances to the cultural media with microspore-derived embryos in vitro. Genotypes 7039 and 7040 were used to select glyphosate-resistant regenerated plants, and genotypes 282 and 5102 to select haloxyfop-resistant plants. The embryos at cotyledonary stage were grown on glyphosate- and haloxyfop-containing MS-2 medium for 2 weeks. The non-resistant embryos collapsed after a short time, while the resistant ones turned green and survived for 2 weeks. Transferred into the normal MS-2 medium for further plant regeneration, the regenerated plants from green embryos showed tolerance to 0.25% sprayed glyphosate, indicating the effectiveness and reliability of this in vitro selection method. When the regenerated plants selected from 0.02% haloxyfop were sprayed with 0.05% haloxyfop, most of them grew well; however, the survival rate of the regenerated plants from 0.01% haloxyfop-containing medium was lower. The present experiment indicates that the use of 0.02% haloxyfop in the selection of haloxyfop-resistant plants was more promising than that of 0.01%. The chromosome doubling efficiency of regenerated plants reached 34% and 52% after being treated with 170 mg/l colchicine for 20 and 30 h, respectively.
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