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Individual with internet gaming disorder (IGD) often experience a high level of loneliness, and neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that amygdala function is associated with both IGD and loneliness. However, the neurobiological basis underlying these relationships remains unclear.
In the current study, Granger causal analysis was performed to investigate amygdalar subdivision-based resting-state effective connectivity differences between 111 IGD subjects and 120 matched participants with recreational game use (RGUs). We further correlated neuroimaging findings with clinical measures. Mediation analysis was conducted to explore whether amygdalar subdivision-based effective connectivity mediated the relationship between IGD severity and loneliness.
Compared with RGUs, IGD subjects showed inhibitory effective connections from the left pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC) to the left laterobasal amygdala (LBA) and from the right medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to the left LBA, as well as an excitatory effective connection from the left middle prefrontal gyrus (MFG) to the right superficial amygdala. Further analyses demonstrated that the left pACC-left LBA effective connection was negatively correlated with both Internet Addiction Test and UCLA Loneliness scores, and it mediated the relationship between the two.
IGD subjects and RGUs showed different connectivity patterns involving amygdalar subdivisions. These findings support a neurobiological mechanism for the relationship between IGD and loneliness, and suggest targets for therapeutic approaches that could be used to treat IGD.
To assess the prevalence and to identify the associated factors of malnutrition among elderly Chinese with physical functional dependency.
Face-to-face interviews using standardised questionnaires were conducted to collect demographic information, health-related issues and psychosocial status. Physical function was measured by the Barthel Index (BI), and nutrition status was assessed by the Mini Nutritional Assessment–Short Form. Multivariate binary logistic regression was used to assess associated factors of malnutrition.
A total of 2323 participants (aged ≥ 60 years) with physical functional dependency in five provinces in China were enrolled using a multistage cluster sampling scheme.
The prevalence of malnutrition was 17·9 % (95 % CI 16·3, 19·4). Multivariable binary logistic regression revealed the independent risk factors of poor nutrition status were being female, older age, lower educational status, poor hearing, poor physical functional status, lack of hobbies, low religious participation, poor social support, lack of social participation and changes in social participation. The study found that the most significant independent risk factor for malnutrition was complete physical functional dependence (OR 4·46, 95 % CI 2·92, 6·82).
The findings of the study confirm that malnutrition and the risk of malnutrition are prevalent in Chinese older adults with physical functional dependency. In addition to demographic and physical health-related factors, psychosocial factors, which are often overlooked, are independently associated with nutrition status in Chinese older adults with physical functional dependency. A holistic approach should be adopted to screen for malnutrition and develop health promotion interventions in this vulnerable population.
Studies of Internet gaming disorder (IGD) suggest an imbalanced relationship between cognitive control and reward processing in people with IGD. However, it remains unclear how these two systems interact with each other, and whether they could serve as neurobiological markers for IGD.
Fifty IGD subjects and matched individuals with recreational game use (RGU) were selected and compared when they were performing a cue-craving task. Regions of interests [anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), lentiform nucleus] were selected based on the comparison between brain responses to gaming-related cues and neutral cues. Directional connectivities among these brain regions were determined using Bayesian estimation. We additionally examined the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) in a separate analysis based on data implicating the PCC in craving in addiction.
During fixed-connectivity analyses, IGD subjects showed blunted ACC-to-lentiform and lentiform-to-ACC connectivity relative to RGU subjects, especially in the left hemisphere. When facing gaming cues, IGD subjects trended toward lower left-hemispheric modulatory effects in ACC-to-lentiform connectivity than RGU subjects. Self-reported cue-related craving prior to scanning correlated inversely with left-hemispheric modulatory effects in ACC-to-lentiform connectivity.
The results suggesting that prefrontal-to-lentiform connectivity is impaired in IGD provides a possible neurobiological mechanism for difficulties in controlling gaming-cue-elicited cravings. Reduced connectivity ACC-lentiform connectivity may be a useful neurobiological marker for IGD.
Maternal one-carbon metabolism during pregnancy is crucial for fetal development and programming by DNA methylation. However, evidence on one-carbon biomarkers other than folate is lacking. We, therefore, investigated whether maternal plasma methyl donors, that is, choline, betaine and methionine, are associated with birth outcomes. Blood samples were obtained from 115 women during gestation (median 26·3 weeks, 90 % range 22·7–33·0 weeks). Plasma choline, betaine, methionine and dimethylglycine were measured using HPLC-tandem MS. Multivariate linear and logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between plasma biomarkers and birth weight, birth length, the risk of small-for-gestational-age and large-for-gestational-age (LGA). Higher level of maternal betaine was associated with lower birth weight (–130·3 (95 % CI –244·8, –15·9) per 1 sd increment for log-transformed betaine). Higher maternal methionine was associated with lower risk of LGA, and adjusted OR, with 95 % CI for 1 sd increase in methionine concentration was 0·44 (95 % CI 0·21, 0·89). Stratified analyses according to infant sex or maternal plasma homocysteine status showed that reduction in birth weight in relation to maternal betaine was only limited to male infants or to who had higher maternal homocysteine status (≥5·1 µmol/l). Higher maternal betaine status was associated with reduced birth weight. Maternal methionine was inversely associated with LGA risk. These findings are needed to be replicated in future larger studies.
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is becoming a matter of concern around the world. However, the neural mechanism underlying IGD remains unclear. The purpose of this paper is to explore the differences between the neuronal network of IGD participants and that of recreational Internet game users (RGU).
Imaging and behavioral data were collected from 18 IGD participants and 20 RGU under a probability discounting task. The independent component analysis (ICA) and graph theoretical analysis (GTA) were used to analyze the data.
Behavioral results showed the IGD participants, compared to RGU, prefer risky options to the fixed ones and spent less time in making risky decisions. In imaging results, the ICA analysis revealed that the IGD participants showed stronger functional connectivity (FC) in reward circuits and executive control network, as well as lower FC in anterior salience network (ASN) than RGU; for the GTA results, the IGD participants showed impaired FC in reward circuits and ASN when compared with RGU.
These results suggest that IGD participants were more sensitive to rewards, and they were more impulsive in decision-making as they could not control their impulsivity effectively. This might explain why IGD participants cannot stop their gaming behaviors even when facing severe negative consequences.
The Ordos Basin is the largest and most important intracontinental sedimentary depression in China, and a significant amount of crude oil resources has developed within this Mesozoic formation. High-grade organic-rich shale is prevalent in the large-scale areas of the Chang 7 sedimentary stage and provides essential hydrocarbon resources for abundant oil enrichment in the Mesozoic. This research investigated the geochemical characteristics of Chang 7 shale using core samples and well logs and via laboratory tests. In addition, the microscopic components of the shale organic matter (OM), biological marker compounds, carbon isotopes, enrichment grade of trace elements, and elemental ratio were analysed systematically. Moreover, the aspects related to the shale OM source, sedimentary environment and resource potential were evaluated. Our results revealed that spherical alginate and calcium spherical alginate were predominant in the micropetrological components of the shale. Many biomarkers, including n-alkanes, steranes and terpanes, were detected in the gas chromatography – mass spectrometry spectra. An analysis of n-alkanes, regular sterane shapes (C21−/C22− and C26+C27/C28+C29), odd–even predominance index (OEP) and carbon preference index (CPI) values and carbon isotope distributions showed that OM was produced from aquatic organisms. The indicators of trace elements, such as Sr/Ba and V/V+Ni, combined with the biomarker compound in Pr/Ph and the gammacerane index showed the presence of a semi-deep – deep lake environment containing fresh–brackish water. In addition, the hydrocarbon conversion rate index and shale rock pyrolysis parameters revealed that Chang 7 has a high hydrocarbon generation ability and hydrocarbon expulsion efficiency.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters and space group for azilsartan, C25H20N4O5, are reported [a = 9.641(3) Å, b = 11.301(9) Å, c = 20.010(8) Å, α = 90°, β = 90.351(5)°, γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 2196.735(4) Å3, Z = 4, ρcal = 1.379 g·cm−3, and space group P21/c]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21/c space group. No detectable impurities were observed.
High-quality carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have unique one- and two-dimensional structures made up of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms and excellent physical and chemical properties. They have shown potential for use in electronics, optoelectronics, energy-storage devices, composites, and sensors. In this article, we review important milestones in these uses of CNTs and graphene produced by CVD, with special emphasis on the latest advances and remaining challenges. The key characteristics and advantages of CNTs and graphene synthesized by CVD for different applications are compared, and future trends in the use of these nanocarbons are discussed.
It is well known that the energy for solar eruptions comes from magnetic fields in solar active regions. Magnetic energy storage and dissipation are regarded as important physical processes in the solar corona. With incomplete theoretical modeling for eruptions in the solar atmosphere, activity forecasting is mainly supported with statistical models. Solar observations with high temporal and spatial resolution continuously from space well describe the evolution of activities in the solar atmosphere, and combined with three dimensional reconstruction of solar magnetic fields, makes numerical short-term (within hours to days) solar activity forecasting possible. In the current report, we propose the erupting frequency and main attack direction of solar eruptions as new forecasts and present the prospects for numerical short-term solar activity forecasting based on the magnetic topological framework in solar active regions.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for ertapenem side chain, C20H19N3O7S, are reported [a = 4.907(6) Å, b = 18.686(3) Å, c = 22.071(1) Å, α = γ = 90°, β = 90.759(5)°, unit-cell volume V = 2023.82 Å3, Z = 4, ρcal = 1.462 g cm−3, and space group P21/c]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21/c space group. No detectable impurity was observed.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for alogliptin benzoate, C18H21N5O2·C7H6O2, are reported [a = 28.8260(8) Å, b = 9.9654(4) Å, c = 8.1477(8) Å, α = 90, β = 90, γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 2340.57 Å3, Z = 4, ρcal = 1.3097 g cm−3, and space group P212121]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P212121 space group, No detectable impurities were observed.
X-ray powder diffraction data, unit-cell parameters, and space group for deferasirox, C21H15N3O4, are reported [a = 8.821(7) Å, b = 26.798(2) Å, c = 7.540(4) Å, α = 90°, β = 94.655(2)°, γ = 90°, unit-cell volume V = 1776.7(3) Å3, Z = 4, ρcal = 1.396 g cm−3, and space group P21/c]. All measured lines were indexed and are consistent with the P21/c space group. No detectable impurity was observed.
The present study aimed to explore the associations between food away-from-home (FAFH) consumption and body weight outcomes among Chinese adults.
FAFH was defined as food prepared at restaurants and the percentage of energy from FAFH was calculated. Measured BMI and waist circumference (WC) were used as body weight outcomes. Quantile regression models for BMI and WC were performed separately by gender.
Information on demographic, socio-economic, diet and health parameters at individual, household and community levels was collected in twelve provinces of China.
A cross-sectional sample of 7738 non-pregnant individuals aged 18–60 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey 2011 was analysed.
For males, quantile regression models showed that percentage of energy from FAFH was associated with an increase in BMI of 0·01, 0·01, 0·01, 0·02, 0·02 and 0·03 kg/m2 at the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th quantile, and an increase in WC of 0·04, 0·06, 0·06, 0·04, 0·06, 0·05 and 0·07 cm at the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th and 95th quantile. For females, percentage of energy from FAFH was associated with 0·01, 0·01, 0·01 and 0·02 kg/m2 increase in BMI at the 10th, 25th, 90th and 95th quantile, and with 0·05, 0·04, 0·03 and 0·03 cm increase in WC at the 5th, 10th, 25th and 75th quantile.
Our findings suggest that FAFH consumption is relatively more important for BMI and WC among males rather than females in China. Public health initiatives are needed to encourage Chinese adults to make healthy food choices when eating out.
The six-legged robot Octopus is designed for nuclear disaster relief missions. When the robot suffers from failures, its performance can be significantly affected. Thus, fault tolerance is essential for walking and operating in environments inaccessible to humans. The current fault-tolerant gaits for legged robots usually either initially lock the entire broken leg or just abandon the broken leg, but then fail to take full advantage of the normal actuators on the broken leg and add extra constraints. As the number of broken legs increases, the robot will no longer be able to walk using the existing fault-tolerant gaits. To solve this problem, screw theory is used for analyzing the remaining mobility after failure. Based on the analysis, a method of motion planning through fault-tolerant Jacobian matrices, which are linear, is presented. This method can enable the robot to accomplish desired movement using broken legs along with other certain concomitant motions as compensation. Finally, experiments and simulations of multiple faults demonstrate the real effects on the Octopus robot.
This study draws on the resource dependence theory and institution-based view to examine political connections in the home market and home formal institutions for their impact on the internationalization of emerging market firms in the context of China. The results suggest that political connections at home may prevent emerging market firms from implementing internationalization strategies by reducing the dependence constraints imposed by local governments and foreign firms, whereas home formal institutional development may promote the strategy transition of emerging market firms from building political connections to international expansion and also reduce the negative impact of political connections. Overall, our findings indicate that political connections and formal institutions at home play an important role in shaping emerging market firms’ strategies of outward internationalization.
College English refers to a type of English course offered to non-English majors at tertiary level in mainland China. In recent years, however, College English has been criticised as ‘deaf and dumb English’ (Wu, 2004; Zhang, 2002) because of Chinese students’ perceived weaknesses in listening and speaking. As Zhang (2002), Director of the Department of Higher Education in the Chinese Ministry of Education (MOE), explains, ‘Chinese university students can neither speak English nor understand it when they hear the language spoken’ (p. 4). To improve the situation, Zhang urges that ‘[w]hile reading has to be reduced properly, listening and speaking should be increased in College English textbooks’ (ibid.: 5). In other words, it is listening and speaking rather than reading that should be emphasised.
Fault tolerance is a very important issue for legged robots, especially in some harsh environments. One of the most fragile parts is the actuation system. There are two common faults of robot actuators: (1) the motor is locked and could not move anymore; (2) the motor is uncontrollable and can be treated as a passive joint. In this paper, we first discuss all fault combinations of a single leg of a hexapod walking robot with parallel-parallel mechanism topology. Then, the leg tolerable criterion is brought out, which defines whether a leg is fault tolerant. After that, the fault tolerance of the whole robot is researched, and we found that the robot can walk with one tolerable leg or two opposite tolerable legs. Finally, relative simulation results are given, which show the robot walk with one or two broken legs.
Ultrashort electron bunch trains can be used for plasma wake field acceleration (PWFA) to overcome the limit of transformer ratio of a single electron bunch, or high-power terahertz (Thz) radiation production by various radiation mechanisms. Basic facility for high-power THz radiation development based on ultrashort electron beam has been set up at accelerator lab of TUB. Using birefringent crystal serials, ultraviolet (UV) pulse shaping for photocathode radio frequency gun to produce THz-repetition-rate pulse train was realized. Driven by such pulses, ultrashort electron bunch train with picosecond (ps) spacing was obtained for THz production. Measurement of the stacked UV pulse trains was done by difference frequency generation (DFG), and the measured group velocity mismatch of α-BBO crystal at 266.7-nm wavelength was 0.8 ps/mm. This method may also be applied to form ramped electron bunch trains for PWFA.
Chalcopyrite solar cells based on CuInSe2 and associated alloys have demonstrated high efficiencies, with current annual shipments in the hundreds of megawatts (MW) range and increasing. Largely due to concern over possible indium (In) scarcity, a related set of materials, the kesterites, which comprise Cu2ZnSnS4 and associated alloys, has received increasing attention. Similarities and differences between kesterites and chalcopyrites are discussed as drawn from theory, depositions, and materials characterization. In particular, we discuss predictions from density functional theory, results from vacuum co-evaporation, and characterization via x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, electron beam-induced current, quantum efficiency, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, and luminescence.