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The ALMA twenty-six arcmin2 survey of GOODS-S at one millimeter (ASAGAO) is a deep (1σ ∼ 61μJy/beam) and wide area (26 arcmin2) survey on a contiguous field at 1.2 mm. By combining with archival data, we obtained a deeper map in the same region (1σ ∼ 30μJy/beam−1, synthesized beam size 0.59″ × 0.53″), providing the largest sample of sources (25 sources at 5σ, 45 sources at 4.5σ) among ALMA blank-field surveys. The median redshift of the 4.5σ sources is 2.4. The number counts shows that 52% of the extragalactic background light at 1.2 mm is resolved into discrete sources. We create IR luminosity functions (LFs) at z = 1–3, and constrain the faintest luminosity of the LF at 2 < z < 3. The LFs are consistent with previous results based on other ALMA and SCUBA-2 observations, which suggests a positive luminosity evolution and negative density evolution.
Declining mortality following invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) has been observed concurrent with a reduced incidence due to effective pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. However, with IPD now increasing due to serotype replacement, we undertook a statistical analysis to estimate the trend in all-cause 30-day case fatality rate (CFR) in the North East of England (NEE) following IPD. Clinical, microbiological and demographic data were obtained for all laboratory-confirmed IPD cases (April 2006–March 2016) and the adjusted association between CFR and epidemiological year estimated using logistic regression. Of the 2510 episodes of IPD included in the analysis, 486 died within 30 days of IPD (CFR 19%). Increasing age, male sex, a diagnosis of septicaemia, being in ⩾1 clinical risk groups, alcohol abuse and individual serotypes were independently associated with increased CFR. A significant decline in CFR over time was observed following adjustment for these significant predictors (adjusted odds ratio 0.93, 95% confidence interval 0.89–0.98; P = 0.003). A small but significant decline in 30-day all-cause CFR following IPD has been observed in the NEE. Nonetheless, certain population groups remain at increased risk of dying following IPD. Despite the introduction of effective vaccines, further strategies to reduce the ongoing burden of mortality from IPD are needed.
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), caused by infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, has a substantial global burden. There are over 90 known serotypes of S. pneumoniae with a considerable body of evidence supporting serotype-specific mortality rates immediately following IPD. This is the first study to consider the association between serotype and longer-term mortality following IPD. Using enhanced surveillance data from the North East of England we assessed both the short-term (30-day) and longer-term (⩽7 years) independent adjusted associations between individual serotypes and mortality following IPD diagnosis using logistic regression and extended Cox proportional hazards models. Of the 1316 cases included in the analysis, 243 [18·5%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 16·4–20·7] died within 30 days of diagnosis. Four serotypes (3, 6A, 9N, 19 F) were significantly associated with overall increased 30-day mortality. Effects were observable only for older adults (⩾60 years). After extension of the window to 12 months and 36 months, one serotype was associated with significantly increased mortality at 12 months (19 F), but no individual serotypes were associated with increased mortality at 36 months. Two serotypes had statistically significant hazard ratios (HR) for longer-term mortality: serotype 1 for reduced mortality (HR 0·51, 95% CI 0·30–0·86) and serotype 9N for increased mortality (HR 2·30, 95% CI 1·29–4·37). The association with serotype 9N was no longer observed after limiting survival analysis to an observation period starting 30 days after diagnosis. This study supports the evidence for associations between serotype and short-term (30-day) mortality following IPD and provides the first evidence for the existence of statistically significant associations between individual serotypes and longer-term variation in mortality following IPD.
We have assembled a new sample of some of the most FIR-luminous galaxies in the Universe and have imaged them in 1.1 mm dust emission and measured their redshifts 1 < z < 4 via CO emission lines using the 32-m Large Millimeter Telescope / Gran Telescopio Milimétrico (LMT/GTM). Our sample of 31 submm galaxies (SMGs), culled from the Planck and Herschel all-sky surveys, includes 14 of the 21 most luminous galaxies known, with LFIR > 1014L⊙ and SFR > 104M⊙/yr. These extreme inferred luminosities – and multiple / extended 1.1 mm images – imply that most or all are strongly gravitationally lensed, with typical magnification μ ~ 10 × . The gravitational lensing provides two significant benefits: (1) it boosts the S/N, and (2) it allows investigation of star formation and gas processes on sub-kpc scales.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
We present new, wide, and deep images in the AzTEC/ASTE 1.1 mm continuum and the 12 CO (J = 1–0) emission toward the northern part of the Orion-A GMC. We have found evidence for interactions between molecular clouds and the external forces that may trigger star formation. Two types of possible triggers were revealed: (1) Collisions of the diffuse gas on the cloud surface, particularly at the eastern side of the OMC-2/3 region, and (2) Irradiation of UV on the pre-existing filaments and dense molecular cloud cores. Our wide-field and high-sensitivity imaging has provided the first comprehensive view of the potential sites of triggered star formation in the Orion-A GMC.
Drugs of dependence cause dopamine release in the rat striatum. Human neuroimaging studies have shown an increase in dopamine in the equivalent region in response to stimulants and other drugs
We tested whether opioids provoke dopamine release and its relationship to the subjective experience
In two combined studies 14 heroin addicts on methadone maintenance treatment underwent two positron emission tomography brain scans of the dopamine system using [11C]-raclopride following an injection of placebo and either 50 mg intravenous diamorphine or 10 mg subcutaneous hydromorphone in a double-blind, random order design
Both opioids produced marked subjective and physiological effects, but no measurable change in [11C]-raclopride binding
The absence of a dopamine response to opioid agonists contrasts with that found with stimulant drugs and suggests dopamine may not play the same role in addiction to opioids. This questions the role of dopamine in the subjective experience of heroin in opioid addicts
We report our recent progress on extragalactic spectroscopic and continuum observations,
including HCN(J=1–0), HCO+(J=1–0), and CN(N=1–0) imaging surveys
of local Seyfert and starburst galaxies
using the Nobeyama Millimeter Array,
high-J CO observations (J=3–2 observations
using the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE)
and J=2–1 observations with the Submillimeter Array) of galaxies,
and λ 1.1 mm continuum observations of high-z violent starburst galaxies
using the bolometer camera AzTEC mounted on ASTE.
The ability to controllably position individual phosphorus dopant atoms in silicon sur-faces is a critical first step in creating nanoscale electronic devices in silicon, for example a phosphorus in silicon quantum computer. While individual P atom placement in Si(001) has been achieved, the ability to routinely position P atoms in Si for large-scale device fabrication requires a more detailed understanding of the physical and chemical processes leading to P atom incorporation. Here we present an atomic-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy study of the interaction of the P precursor molecule phosphine (PH3) with the Si(001) surface. In particular, we present the direct observation of PH3 dissociation and diffusion on Si(001) at room temperature and show that this dissociation is occasionally complete, leaving a P monomer bound to the surface. Such surface bound P monomers are important because they are the most likely entry point for P atoms to incorporate into the substrate surface at elevated temperature.
Although the clinical benefits of dietary supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been recognised for a number of years, the molecular mechanisms by which particular PUFA affect metabolism of cells within the synovial joint tissues are not understood. This study set out to investigate how n-3 PUFA and other classes of fatty acids affect both degradative and inflammatory aspects of metabolism of articular cartilage chondrocytes using an in vitro model of cartilage degradation. Using well-established culture models, cartilage explants from normal bovine and human osteoarthritic cartilage were supplemented with either n-3 or n-6 PUFA, and cultures were subsequently treated with interleukin 1 to initiate catabolic processes that mimic cartilage degradation in arthritis. Results show that supplementation specifically with n-3 PUFA, but not n-6 PUFA, causes a decrease in both degradative and inflammatory aspects of chondrocyte metabolism, whilst having no effect on the normal tissue homeostasis. Collectively, our data provide evidence supporting dietary supplementation of n-3 PUFA, which in turn may have a beneficial effect of slowing and reducing inflammation in the pathogenesis of degenerative joint diseases in man.
Successful gene therapy is dependent upon well regulated, long-term expression of transgenes in the target tissue. The development and production of very high quality vectors are one of the most important steps leading to delivery of the desired genes. Although several types of vectors have been used for the delivery of transgene to the target cells of the host, our institute routinely uses recombinant viral vectors including adenovirus and adeno-associated virus (rAAV) for gene therapy studies. To assure high quality of the viral vectors being used for animal experiment as well as clinical trials, a number of quality control protocols, including electron microscopy, was developed and implemented to monitor the overall purity, and density of the vectors.
Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), combined with optimized procedure of negative staining for virus, offers a unique means to generate visual data of the vector preparation; and it has gained increasing application to help assess the quality of vectors.
Psychophysical research has documented the existence of three processes in light adaptation: a fast subtractive process, a divisive process that is fast at light onset and slower at light offset, and a very slow subtractive process (Hayhoe et al., 1987). In the neural model developed here, the fast subtractive process is identified with horizontal cell feedback onto cones and the divisive process with amacrine cell feedback onto bipolar cells. The very slow subtractive process is identified with the modulatory feedback circuit from amacrines via interplexiform cells to horizontal cells. A nonlinear dynamical model is developed incorporating these aspects of retinal circuitry along with both ON- and OFF-center M and P pathways. This model is shown to account for many aspects of foveal light adaptation, including negative afterimage formation, and to explain a number of the physiological differences between M and P ganglion cells, including their differing contrast-response functions.
A recent model for two-dimensional motion processing in MT has demonstrated that perceived direction can be accurately predicted by combining Fourier and non-Fourier component motion signals using a vector sum computation. The vector sum direction is computed by a neural network that weights Fourier and non-Fourier components by the cosine of the component direction relative to that of each pattern unit, after which competitive inhibition extracts the signals of the most active units. It is shown here that a minor modification of the connectivity in this network suffices to predict transitions from motion coherence to transparency under a wide range of circumstances. It is only necessary that the cosine weighting function and competitive inhibition be limited to directions within ± 120 deg of each pattern unit's preferred direction. This network responds by signaling one pattern direction for coherent motion but two distinct directions for transparent motion. Based on this, neural networks with properties of MT and MST neurons can automatically signal motion coherence or transparency. In addition, the model accurately predicts motion repulsion under transparency conditions.
The Garbage Project has excavated eight sanitary landfulls from California to Florida and analyzed 6.71 metric tons of refuse deposited between 1952 and 1988. While the ultimate goal of this continuing endeavor is to collect archaeological data on contemporary discards using a methodology that will link our society to the past, this initial report relates Garbage Project data to three issues of current public concern. This first applied archaeology of landfills has identified: (1) the contents of specific landfills and possible refinements for "national" estimates of U.S. landfill contents; (2) a link between moisture level and rate of refuse decomposition; and (3) part of the pathway of migration for heavy metals.