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This article considers the evolving relationship between Protestant children, pedagogy and the missionary movement across the British world. From the 1840s, children were a central focus of missionary society philanthropy. By the time of the 1910 World Missionary Conference, missionary and denominational thinkers were consistently highlighting their strategic importance and the need for clear policy that was focused on children's education. This article traces the ways in which this emphasis developed, and the impact that it had among the children involved. It argues that the children's missionary movement was educational at heart, wherein philanthropy and pedagogy went hand in hand. In particular, over the long nineteenth century all the players consistently emphasized the importance of nurturing a ‘missionary spirit’, a notion that was primarily religious in intent but which in practice moved from pragmatic philanthropy to a more formalized emphasis on education and identity formation. The article introduces representative ways by which this was articulated, drawing on examples from a range of British world contexts in which different communities of Protestant children were engaged educationally and philanthropically in very similar ways.
We investigated the potential for human-mediated range expansion of an exotic beech leaf-mining weevil, Orchestes fagi (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Curculioninae: Rhamphini) (formerly known as Rhynchaenus fagi) on timber or firewood, which for eight to nine months of the year may harbour adults in diapause. In both relatively low-density and high-density populations, adults were found on the base, middle, and upper boles of the primary host, American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart; Fagaceae), as well as red maple (Acer rubrum Linnaeus; Sapindaceae) and red spruce (Picea rubens Sargent; Pinaceae) in the vicinity. Comparatively few individuals were found on tree branches, or in the moss, duff, or soil collected beneath beech trees. Overwintering adults appeared to favour parts of trees with relatively high bark roughness. Our study suggests that, between the months of July through May, any woody stems near areas having O. fagi outbreaks are likely to harbour adults. Moreover, as all of the trees studied are common sources of timber or firewood, the harvest and transport of wood from these areas may facilitate outbreak spread; this may explain the multiple, distantly distributed populations of O. fagi that have been reported in eastern Nova Scotia, Canada in recent years.
This article places missionary education squarely at the centre of any consideration of European expansion in the modern era. It focuses more specifically on the place of local teachers in Bolivia and their relationship with one evangelical Protestant mission, the Bolivian Indian Mission, which originated in New Zealand in the early 1900s. It takes a non-metropole and a “multi-sited” approach to missions and education. It argues that what we know about Bolivian teachers was mediated through the missionary voice and that these teachers negotiated their lives within a particular missionary space, in which there operated a number of intersecting influences from other sites within the wider imperial or Western network. It aims to both reclaim the identities of Bolivian teachers (focusing on teachers’ identity and function) and to reflect critically on intrinsic methodological and conceptual issues (emphasizing the nature of sources, missionary discourse, the resulting status of Bolivian teachers, and Bolivian agency).
Web-based interventions for depression have burgeoned over the past 10 years as researchers and health professionals aim to harness the reach and cost-effectiveness that the internet promises. Despite strong clinical evidence of their effectiveness and policy support, web-based interventions have not become widely used in practice. We explored this translation gap by conducting an implementation pilot of MindBalance, a web-based intervention for depression built on the SilverCloud platform, in three IAPT services. We posed three questions: (1) Who chooses to use MindBalance? (2) Is MindBalance effective for these clients? (3) How do clients use MindBalance? Our results for questions (1) and (2) are commensurate with the positive findings in the literature on patient acceptability and clinical effectiveness for such interventions. Client usage, captured in adherence data as well as usage case-studies, was diverse and differed markedly from face-to-face sessions. The most surprising result, however, concerned the small number of people who were offered the intervention. We reflect upon why this was and discuss implementation issues that primary mental health services should consider when adding a web-based intervention to their services.
Despite extensive engagement, children were invisible in the programs of the nineteenth-century Protestant missionary conferences. By the early 1900s this had noticeably changed as denominations and missionary organizations sought to maximize and enhance juvenile missionary interest. Childhood was the key stage in which to establish habits; the future depended upon “the education of the childhood of the race, in missionary matters as in all others.” Literature was pivotal and periodicals were deemed to be the most effective literary form. They provided the young with “impressions which will never be lost . . . nothing will appeal to the young more strongly than stories from beyond the seas, of strange people who know not of Christ, but who need His gospel.” Juvenile missionary periodicals were ubiquitous in Britain, Europe, and America, but they are still only partially understood. Adult and juvenile literature was qualitatively different so that “any adequate analysis . . . requires to be grounded in an understanding of the construction of childhood in the Victorian and Edwardian eras.” This task remains very much a work in progress. Most recent scholarship tends to discursively situate children's periodicals with respect to religion, culture, and politics. All agree on at least a broad two-fold function: the spiritual and the philanthropic. Periodicals per se were an integral part of a large and pervasive Victorian corpus of juvenile religious and moral literature. At the same time missionary periodicals were different. They emphasized child agency by encouraging a “participatory relationship” between readers and their subject. Children became active agents “in a diaologic relationship with [their] world.”
We have fabricated micro-probes consisting of gold microelectrode sites (500 μm long and 12 μm wide) modified with conductive polymers and carbon nanotubes to achieve intimate contact with the nervous system. The fabrication process includes photolithography, electroplating and micromachining techniques. In order to obtain a high quality neural contact, we have investigated the preparation and characterization of neural interface materials. Electrochemical polymerization using potentiostatic and galvanostatic methods was used to optimize the surface of the metal electrode sites. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), cyclic voltammetry (CV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to study the surface morphology, electrochemical properties, and stability of electrodeposited polymers. Cytotoxicity tests using fibroblasts and Schwann cells were performed to evaluate the biocompatibility of the micro-probes and neural interface materials. Dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in vitro preparation was used to evaluate neuronal cell cell adhesion to the electrode. Polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene) (EDOT) with various thicknesses and dopants were deposited onto microelectrode sites from aqueous solution. Our results demonstrate that we can control the morphology, size and electrical properties of PPy and PEDOT by changing the polymerization conditions and adding dopant structures, such as chloride and carbon nanotubes (CNT). It was observed that the addition of carbon nanotubes favors the formation of nodules and increases the surface roughness. Also, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that conductive polymer composites lower the impedance of gold microelectrodes by three orders of magnitude. We found that PPy and PEDOT carbon nanotubes composite coated electrodes maintain intimate contact with axons. Using these conductive polymer composites, high quality nerve spike signals can be detected and electrical stimulation of axons can be achieved.
To compare trends in the consumption of key foods over 10 years in the most deprived and least deprived quarters in north Glasgow, Scotland as defined by the Carstairs deprivation index for their postcode of domicile.
Four random, cross-sectional, age- and gender-stratified population surveys carried out in 1986, 1989, 1992 and 1995. After assigning a deprivation score, food-frequency questionnaires from 2883 men and 3127 women were examined for compliance with dietary targets, examining trends by gender and within the most and least deprived quarters of the population.
North Glasgow, Scotland.
Over 600 men and 600 women (aged 25–64 years) in each of the four survey years who completed a lifestyle questionnaire including a food frequency section.
Increasing trends in the reported consumption of fruit and vegetables and oil-rich fish were observed over the 10-year period. However, the trend to increased fruit and vegetable consumption in the most deprived groups was not significant, and in 1995 only 8% of men and 12% of women in this group claimed consumption of these foods 4 or more times a day. In general, a higher percentage of those in the least deprived group met the targets for the key foods.
Trends to increasing consumption of fruit and vegetables and fish were in the right direction, but the targets for consumption of certain key foods were met by a minority of the population. The progress towards the target for fruit and vegetables showed widening social gradients with time.
The response of susceptible (S) and resistant (R) green foxtail biotypes to increasing dosages of trifluralin, applied PPI in rapeseed and preemergence incorporated (PEI) in wheat, was investigated in field experiments in 1989 and 1990. Differences in response between the biotypes to PPI- and PEI-trifluralin were 7- and 12-fold, respectively, based on density and shoot biomass determinations 4 wk after emergence. Nine- and 14-times higher dosages of PPI- and PEI-trifluralin, respectively, were required to reduce R-seed production by 50% than to reduce S-seed production by the same amount. At the recommended trifluralin dosage in rapeseed (1.4 kg ha−1), the density of S-plants 4 wk after emergence was reduced by 84% compared with untreated plots, whereas the density of R-plants was reduced by only 4%. The effective kill (seed yield reduction) was 99% and 42%, respectively. At the recommended dosage in wheat (0.9 kg ha−1), the density of S-plants 4 wk after emergence was reduced by over 99% compared with less than 36% for R-plants. The effective kill was 97% and 14%, respectively. Based on determination of effective kill, the selection pressure of trifluralin on green foxtail is greater when the chemical is applied PPI in rapeseed than when applied PEI in wheat, even though initial density reductions are less in the former than the latter.
The response of trifluralin-susceptible (S) and -resistant (R) green foxtail biotypes to herbicides belonging to several chemical groups was compared to determine the cross-resistance pattern of the R-biotype. Dose-response experiments conducted in the growth chamber indicated that R-green foxtail was resistant to other dinitroanilines and a chemically unrelated mitotic disrupter herbicide, but not to nine other herbicides belonging to seven chemical families. The response of S- and R-green foxtail to increasing dosages of ethalfluralin, applied PPI in rapeseed, was investigated in a field experiment in 1989 and 1990. The R-biotype was 7 times more resistant to ethalfluralin than the S-biotype based on density determinations 4 wk after emergence. Seven times higher dosage was required to reduce R-seed production by 50% than to reduce S-seed production by the same amount. The initial reductions in density of R- and S-plants at the recommended dosage of ethalfluralin in rapeseed (1.4 kg ha−1) was 35% and 95%, respectively. The effective kill (seed yield reduction) of R- and S-biotypes was 55% and 99%, respectively. The results indicate that ethalfluralin will not effectively control R-green foxtail. However, several other herbicides with different mechanisms of action can be used to effectively control R-foxtail, thereby reducing any adverse effects of their interference on crop production.
In a petri dish assay, radicle growth of trifluralin-resistant (R) green foxtail exposed to trifluralin concentrations of up to 0.4 ppm (w/v) was not inhibited. Radicle growth of trifluralinsusceptible (S) biotypes was completely inhibited. Shoots were more sensitive to trifluralin than roots, with shoot growth being inhibited for both R and S biotypes at trifluralin concentrations of 0.2 ppm or more. Best discrimination between R and S green foxtail biotypes was achieved by measuring radicle length after incubation of pregerminated caryopses at 0.3 ppm trifluralin in the dark for 5 d at 22 C.
The president thanks those members contributing material to this report. The volume of the material necessitated some editing, but no substantive omissions occurred. Whenever available, AAA numbers are used in lieu of complete titles of publications to help conserve space.
IAU Symposium No. 109 Astrometric Techniques, was held in Gainesville, Florida in January 1984. Although the Proceedings of that meeting are not now available (January 1935), ccmnission members and other interested parties are urged to secure access to that voline when it appears since so many facets of the commission’s work are addressed therein.
This paper discusses the construction of a formal model of national political development derived from theories of political integration and instability, and reports the results of tests of the model based on data descriptive of contemporary black African nations. Political integration is conceptually elaborated in terms of processes of horizontal, vertical, and value integration, and political centralization. Political instability is conceptualized in terms of elite, communal, and mass instability. These dimensions of integration and instability are operationalized, and the analysis evaluates the hypothesis that integration decreases the likelihood of political instability in African nations, and that political centralization, in particular, decreases the likelihood of political instability by modifying, or reinforcing, the effects of other processes of integration. Methodologically, the analysis is based on the assessment of convergent validation for hypotheses tested with multiple indicators, regression, and path-analytic techniques.