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The aim of this study is to characterize the injury profiles and outcomes of victims of a tornado in Jiangsu Province, China.
This study retrospectively investigated the clinical records of 144 patients treated at a teaching hospital due to a tornado. Each patient’s demographic data, diagnosis, injury types, causes of injury, infection status, and outcomes were all reviewed.
Of the 144 patients, 64 (44.4%) were male, and 80 (55.6%) were female. The patients’ ages ranged from 2 months to 94 years; 91 (63.19%) were admitted within the first 12 h after the disaster. The most frequently injured sites were the body surfaces (24.48%), followed by the limbs and pelvis (21.79%) and chest (20.3%). Soft-tissue injuries and fractures were the most frequent injuries. Traumatic brain injuries were the main causes of death. Tornado-related injuries were primarily caused by flying/falling bricks, wood, and glass. Twenty-three (15.9%) patients suffered from infections, which consisted mainly of skin/soft tissue infections and pneumonia.
Destructive tornadoes often cause heavy casualties with little warning. Medical aid agencies must be prepared to accommodate the massive numbers of injured patients after a catastrophe. Proper triage and prompt treatment of injured victims may decrease mortality. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;xx:xxx-xxx).
Whether borderline personality disorder (BPD) and bipolar disorder are the same or different disorders lacks consistency.
To detect whether grey matter volume (GMV) and grey matter density (GMD) alterations show any similarities or differences between BPD and bipolar disorder.
Web-based publication databases were searched to conduct a meta-analysis of all voxel-based studies that compared BPD or bipolar disorder with healthy controls. We included 13 BPD studies (395 patients with BPD and 415 healthy controls) and 47 bipolar disorder studies (2111 patients with bipolar disorder and 3261 healthy controls). Peak coordinates from clusters with significant group differences were extracted. Effect-size signed differential mapping meta-analysis was performed to analyse peak coordinates of clusters and thresholds (P < 0.005, uncorrected). Conjunction analyses identified regions in which disorders showed common patterns of volumetric alteration. Correlation analyses were also performed.
Patients with BPD showed decreased GMV and GMD in the bilateral medial prefrontal cortex network (mPFC), bilateral amygdala and right parahippocampal gyrus; patients with bipolar disorder showed decreased GMV and GMD in the bilateral medial orbital frontal cortex (mOFC), right insula and right thalamus, and increased GMV and GMD in the right putamen. Multi-modal analysis indicated smaller volumes in both disorders in clusters in the right medial orbital frontal cortex. Decreased bilateral mPFC in BPD was partly mediated by patient age. Increased GMV and GMD of the right putamen was positively correlated with Young Mania Rating Scale scores in bipolar disorder.
Our results show different patterns of GMV and GMD alteration and do not support the hypothesis that bipolar disorder and BPD are on the same affective spectrum.
Previous studies have inferred a strong genetic component in schizophrenia. However, the genetic variants involved in the susceptibility to schizophrenia remain unclear.
To detect potential gene pathways and networks associated with schizophrenia, and to explore the relationship between common and rare variants in these pathways and abnormal white matter integrity in schizophrenia.
The analysis included 100 first-episode treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia and 140 healthy controls. A network-based analysis was carried out on the data collected from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Phase I (PGC-I). Based on our genome-wide association study and whole-exome sequencing data-sets, we performed a gene-set analysis to detect associations between the combining effects of common and rare genetic variants and abnormal white matter integrity in schizophrenia.
Patients had significantly reduced functional anisotropy in the left and right anterior cingulate cortex, left and right precuneus and extra-nuclear (t = 4.61–5.10, PFDR < 0.01), compared with controls. Generated from co-expression network analysis of the PGC-1 summary statistics of schizophrenia, a subnetwork of 207 genes associated with schizophrenia was identified (P < 0.01), and 176 genes were co-expressed in four gene modules. Functional enrichment analysis for genes in each module revealed that the yellow module was enriched with highly co-expressed, innate immune response genes. Furthermore, rare variants of enriched genes in the yellow module were associated with reduced functional anisotropy in the left anterior cingulate cortex (P = 0.006; Padjusted = 0.024) in patients only.
The pathogenesis of schizophrenia may be substantially influenced by genes involved in the immune system, via both pathway and network.
Numerical investigations of body-wake interactions were carried out by simulating the flow over a rod–airfoil configuration using high-order implicit large eddy simulation (HILES) for the incoming velocity
and a Reynolds number based on the airfoil chord
. The flow over five different rod–airfoil configurations with different distances of
, 4, 6, 8 and 10, respectively, were calculated for the analysis of body-wake interaction phenomena. Various fundamental mechanisms dictating the intricate flow phenomena including force varying regulation, flow structures and flow patterns in the interaction region, turbulent fluctuations and their suppression, noise radiation and fluid resonant oscillation, have been studied systematically. Due to the airfoil downstream, a relatively higher base pressure is exerted on the surface of the cylinder upstream, and the pressure fluctuation on the surface of the rod–airfoil configuration with
is significantly suppressed, resulting in a reduction of the fluctuating lift. Following the distance between the cylinder and airfoil strongly decreases, Kármán-street shedding is suppressed due to the blocking effect. The flow in this interaction region has two opposite tendencies: the influence of the airfoil on the steady flow is to accelerate it and the counter-rotating vortices connecting with the leading edge of the airfoil tend to slow the flow down. There may be two flow patterns associated with the interference region, i.e. the Kármán-street suppressing mode and the Kármán-street shedding mode. The primary vortex shedding behind the cylinder upstream, and the shedding wake impingement onto the airfoil downstream, play a dominant role in the production of turbulent fluctuations. When primary vortex shedding is suppressed, the intensity of impingement is weakened, resulting in a significant suppression of the turbulent fluctuations. Due to these factors, a special broadband noise without a manifestly distinguishable peak is radiated by the rod–airfoil configuration with
. The fluid resonant oscillation within the flow interaction between the turbulent wake and the bodies was further investigated by adopting a feedback model, which confirmed that the effect of fluid resonant oscillation becomes stronger when
and 10. The results obtained in this study provide physical insight into the understanding of the mechanisms relevant to the body-wake interaction.
The high repetition rate 10 J/10 ns Yb:YAG laser system and its key techniques are reported. The amplifiers in this system have a multi-pass V-shape structure and the heat in the amplifiers is removed by means of laminar water flow. In the main amplifier, the laser is four-pass, and an approximately 8.5 J/1 Hz/10 ns output is achieved in the primary test. The far-field of the output beam is approximately 10 times the diffraction limit. Because of the higher levels of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in the main amplifier, the output energy is lower than expected. At the end we discuss some measures that can improve the properties of the laser system.
Monodominance in the tropics is often seen as an unusual phenomenon due to the normally high diversity in tropical rain forests. Here we studied Parashorea chinensis H. Wang (Dipterocarpaceae) in a seasonal tropical forest in south-west China, to elucidate the mechanisms behind its monodominance. Twenty-eight 20 × 20-m plots were established in monodominant and mixed forest in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan province. All individuals ≥1 cm stem diameter and 16 soil variables were measured. Parashorea chinensis forest had a significantly higher mean tree dbh compared with mixed forest. Diversity did not differ significantly between the two forest types. However, within monodominant patches, all diversity indices decreased with an increase in P. chinensis dominance. Floristic composition of P. chinensis forest did differ significantly from the mixed forest. These differences were associated with more fertile soils (significantly higher pH, Mn, K and lower carbon pools and C:N ratio) in the P. chinensis forest than the mixed forest. In contrast to current paradigms, this monodominant species is not associated with infertile, but with fertile soils. Parashorea chinensis seems to be especially associated with high manganese concentrations which it can tolerate, and with edaphic conditions (water, K) that allow this tall and exposed emergent species to maintain its water balance. This is in contrast with most previous studies on monodominance in the tropics that found either no effect of soil properties, or predict associations with nutrient-poor soils.
Theory suggests that controlling shareholders can influence firm value through both shared benefits creation and private benefits consumption. Using negotiated control-block transfers from 31 countries, we look beyond ownership concentration and investigate how controlling shareholder heterogeneity influences the relative importance of these two effects. We document that a control transfer precipitates positive firm outcomes particularly when the vendor has maintained control over an extended period and the acquirer displays a strong incentive to engage in restructuring. In such cases, we observe a sustained positive price reaction, more focused corporate investments, lower leverage, higher operating efficiency, and superior long-term performance.
We have constructed a Main galaxy subsample of 67777 galaxies with redshifts in the range 0.08 ≤ z ≤ 0.12 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 3. Using cluster analysis, two isolated Main galaxy samples were extracted from this subsample. The two isolated Main galaxy samples identified at different radii have the same properties. Additionally, we find fewer early-type galaxies in isolated Main galaxy samples than in a close double galaxy sample.
West Nile virus (WNV) infection is an emerging zoonosis that threatens global public health. In this study, a total of 95 bird serum samples from 14 species and 341 horse serum samples were collected from 2008 to 2010 in Shanghai, China. All serum samples were screened initially for WNV-reactive antibodies using a competitive ELISA. The positive samples detected by ELISA were further confirmed using a plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) for WNV and its most closely related flaviviruses in the area to avoid false positives due to cross-reactivity. Five (5·3%) of the bird serum samples and none (0·0%) of the horse serum samples tested positive for WNV antibodies. The findings strongly suggest that some of the birds, specifically the resident birds in China, had been exposed to WNV.
Yi Deng, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA,
Hua Lin, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA,
Arun G. Phadke, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA,
Sandeep Shukla, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA,
James S. Thorp, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, USA
A wide-area measurement system (WAMS) consists of advanced measurement technology, the latest communication network infrastructure, and integrated operational framework. The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) infrastructure for energy-management system (EMS) has been widely used in power systems for a long time. Some of the functionalities of an EMS are system state monitoring, tie-line bias control, and economic dispatch . However, in recent years, various deficiencies of the existing SCADA-based EMS (such as quasi-steady-state calculation, non-synchronized data acquisition, and relatively low data transmission rate) have been pointed out. These defects make it impossible to sample the global state of a power system in real time. As more and more wide-area blackouts are reported, it is clear that acquiring real-time or wide-area state information would be needed in the future. The state information in terms of phasors of voltages and currents from a distributed wide area in real time is therefore critical for avoiding large-area disturbances by effecting wide-area control based on wide-area measurements.
The main enabler of WAMS is phasor measurement unit (PMU) technology. With the innovation of PMU, the problem of measuring the phasor quantities simultaneously from a wide area of distributed substations, also called ‘synchrophasor’, has been solved. At present, the PMU technology is one of the essential enablers for WAMS. It utilizes the availability of high-precision synchronized clock sources – extracted from global positioning system (GPS) receivers and samples the instantaneous analogue – quantities of voltage and current magnitudes and phase angles.
Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is implicated in the negative regulation of the insulin signalling pathway by dephosphorylating the insulin receptor (IR) and IR substrates. Ganodermalucidum has traditionally been used for the treatment of diabetes in Chinese medicine; however, its anti-diabetic potency and mechanism in vivo is still unclear. Our previously published study reported a novel proteoglycan PTP1B inhibitor, named Fudan-Yueyang-Ganoderma lucidum (FYGL) from G. lucidum, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 5·12 (sem 0·05) μg/ml, a protein:polyglycan ratio of 17:77 and 78 % glucose in polysaccharide, and dominant amino acid residues of aspartic acid, glycine, glutamic acid, alanine, serine and threonine in protein. FYGL is capable of decreasing plasma glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice with a high safety of median lethal dose (LD50) of 6 g/kg. In the present study, C57BL/6 db/db diabetic mice were trialed further using FYGL as well as metformin for comparison. Oral treatment with FYGL in db/db diabetic mice for 4 weeks significantly (P < 0·01 or 0·05) decreased the fasting plasma glucose level, serum insulin concentration and the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. FYGL also controlled the biochemistry indices relative to type 2 diabetes-accompanied lipidaemic disorders. Pharmacology research suggests that FYGL decreases the plasma glucose level by the mechanism of inhibiting PTP1B expression and activity, consequently, regulating the tyrosine phosphorylation level of the IR β-subunit and the level of hepatic glycogen, thus resulting in the improvement of insulin sensitivity. Therefore, FYGL is promising as an insulin sensitiser for the therapy of type 2 diabetes and accompanied dyslipidaemia.
A bottom-up approach for poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) - graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites using a spraying method is presented. Very simple and versatile, spraying allows to build-up uniform layered composite films with good control on the structure of each layer. 150 bi-layers were deposited to create a transparent film with improved mechanical properties at a loading of 5.4 wt.% GO. The Young’s modulus and strength of these films doubled or nearly doubled which is believed to be due to a synergic effect as a result of the nanoscale organization of the composite by the 2D nanofiller, and hydrogen bonding between the PVA and the GO.
Polymer nanocomposites (PNC) are complex material systems in which the dominant length scales converge. Our approach to understanding nanocomposite tradespace uses Materials Quantitative Structure-Property Relationships (MQSPRs) to relate molecular structures to the polar and dispersive components of corresponding surface tensions. If the polar and dispersive components of surface tensions in the nanofiller and polymer could be determined a priori, then the propensity to aggregate and the change in polymer mobility near the particle could be predicted. Derived energetic parameters such as work of adhesion, work of spreading and the equilibrium wetting angle may then used as input to continuum mechanics approaches that have been shown able to predict the thermomechanical response of nanocomposites and that have been validated by experiment. The informatics approach developed in this work thus enables future in silico nanocomposite design by enabling virtual experiments to be performed on proposed nanocomposite compositions prior to fabrication and testing.
During diabetes, structural and functional changes in the alimentary tract are known to take place resulting in an increased absorption of intestinal glucose and alterations in the activities of brush-border disaccharidases. To elucidate the effect of administrating polysaccharide from Gynura divaricata (PGD) on disaccharidase activities, the specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases, namely sucrase, maltase and lactase, were measured in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Normal control and diabetic rats were treated by oral administration with PGD. Specific activities of intestinal disaccharidases were increased significantly during diabetes, and amelioration of the activities of sucrase and maltase during diabetes was clearly visible by the treatment with PGD. However, the increased activity of lactase during diabetes mellitus was remarkably alleviated by the administration of PGD only in the duodenum. Meanwhile, oral sucrose tolerance tests demonstrated that PGD alleviated the hyperglycaemia during diabetes mellitus, resulting from the amelioration in the activities of intestinal disaccharidases. The present investigation suggests that PGD exerted an anti-diabetic effect partly via inhibiting the increased intestinal disaccharidase activities of diabetic rats. This beneficial influence of administration of PGD on intestinal disaccharidases clearly indicates their helpful role in the management of diabetes.
To improve the cell efficiency of thin film solar cells textured back reflectors (BR) are widely used. This is particularly important in a-Si:H based solar cells due to low absorption coefficient at longer wavelengths. In this work we present a cost effective way to fabricate uniformly textured ZnO by using electrochemical methods. Further it was observed that Quantum Efficiency (QE) of shorter wavelengths also improved for highly textured ZnO BR. Together this resulted in more than 2mA increment in short circuit current density (Jsc) and 19% relative improvement in solar cell efficiency over sputter deposited BR. A possible mechanism responsible for the improved blue QE is also discussed.
Mg2Ni1-xCux (x = 0, 0.2, 0.4) and Mg2Ni1-yCoy (y = 0, 0.2, 0.4) were successfully synthesized via two steps: induction melting and then ball milling. The component and microstructure of the alloys were determined with x-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy/x-ray energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM/XEDS). Mg2Ni phase was observed in all 5 alloys. When the amount of Cu was increased, it led to the formation of phase from Mg2Cu to Cu11Mg10Ni9. Co2Mg was detected in the Co-containing alloys. The hydrogen absorption/desorption properties were tested with p-C-T measurement apparatus, and the results showed that the gaseous storage properties of the alloys were improved by the addition of Cu or Co.
Twins could play a crucial role in our understanding of genetic contributions to numerous etiologically complex disorders. In China, although adult twins are relatively rare, twins will become increasingly available due to increasing twin birth rates. Thus, child twin data will be a valuable resource to contribute to the field of child and adolescent psychopathology. The first twin database of children aged from 6 to 16 was established in Chongqing, R.P., China. In this article, we will discuss our experiences in establishing the twin database, completed in three steps — the first step being to search and identify twins, the second being to keep contact with the twins and the final being to seek cooperation with the twin families, and its future prospects. Our twin database has proven to be an efficient method for the investigation and data collection of twin children in China. The results of our present study suggest that the inclusion of twin information in the residence registration of the public security bureaus in the future may ensure a smooth run of research based on the demographic resources. We propose that school networks may be adopted as the preferred method of collection of twin records for future studies.
The genetic diversity of 43 male sterile and low fertility Citrus accessions, as well as 13 fertile ones, were assessed using simple sequence repeat markers (SSRs). Thirty-five polymorphic alleles were generated from eight primers (on average 4.4 alleles per primer). Cluster analysis was performed via unweighted pair group method analysis (UPGMA) using the NTSYS-pc version 2.10. The results showed that the accessions could be classified into three groups: cultivars of mandarin were classified into group 1; those of sweet orange, grapefruit, ponkan or tangor into group 2; and Microcitrus with male sterile cytoplasm into group 3. Cluster analysis also revealed that Satsuma mandarin was more closely related to Bendiguangju mandarin than to Zaoju, Mankieh or Huangyan Bendizao tangerine. The present study on genetic diversity of male sterile and low fertility Citrus will provide useful information for further collection, preservation and utilization of this plant.
To evaluate the effects of H5 subtype avian influenza DNA vaccine with HA gene and expressive vector optimization, groups of 3-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were inoculated intramuscularly with a single dose of 100 μg or 10 μg of pCIHA5, pCAGGHA5, pCIoptiHA5 or pCAGGoptiHA5 in 200 μl volume. Another group of chickens was injected with 200 μl phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) as controls. Sera were collected every week after vaccination to detect the HI and agar-gel precipitin (AGP) antibodies. Four weeks after the single vaccination, all chickens were challenged with 100LD50 of the highly pathogenic A/Goose/GuangDong/1/96(H5N1) [Gs/GD/1/96(H5N1)]. Oropharyngeal and cloacal swab specimens were collected from all chickens 3, 5 and 7 days after inoculation for titration of virus in eggs. Chickens were observed daily for 2 weeks for signs of disease and death. Results showed that in the groups vaccinated with 100 μg pCAGGoptiHA5 and pCAGGHA5 chickens were completely protected from virus challenge (no disease signs, no virus shedding and no deaths), while only partial protection occurred in chickens vaccinated with 100 μg pCIoptiHA5 (75%) and pCIHA5 (50%). In groups vaccinated with 10 μg pCAGGoptiHA5 and pCAGGHA5 chickens were protected from virus challenge (no disease signs and no deaths). In the group vaccinated with 10 μg pCIoptiHA5 the protection ratio was 75%, while chickens vaccinated with 10 μg pCIHA5 all died after challenge. Results indicated that codon usage optimization of the HA gene and β-actin promoter enhanced the protection efficiency of H5 subtype avian influenza DNA vaccine and the construction pCAGGoptiHA5 could protect chickens from lethal H5N1 virus challenge even at the low dose of 10 μg, implying the possibility for the commercialization of an avian influenza DNA vaccine in the near future.
The present study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of producing pig transgenic blastocysts expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) and to examine the effects of shape and preparation methods of donor cells on in vitro developmental ability of pig nuclear transferred embryos (NTEs). In experiment 1, the effect of GFP transfection on development of pig NTEs was evaluated. The cleavage and blastocyst rates showed no significant difference between NTEs derived from transfected and non-transfected donors. In experiment 2, the effect of different nuclear donor preparation methods on in vitro development of NTEs was examined. The cleavage rate showed no statistically significant differences among three preparation methods. The blastocyst rates of donor cells treated once at −4 °C and those of freshly digested cells were similar to each other (26.3% vs 17.9%). The lowest blastocyst rates (5.88%) were observed when cells cryopreserved at −196 °C were used as donors. In experiment 3, the effect of different cell cycle synchronization methods on the in vitro development potential of pig NTEs was evaluated. The cleavage rate of NTEs derived from cycling cells was much better than that of NTEs derived from serum-starved cells (64.4% vs 50.5%, p < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed between the the blastocyst rates of the two groups. In experiment 4, the effect of different shapes of cultured fibroblast cells on the in vitro development of pig NTEs was examined. The fusion rate for couplets derived from rough cells was poorer than that observed in couplets derived from round smooth cells (47.8% vs 76.8%, p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences observed in the cleavage rate and blastocyst rate. In conclusion, the present study indicated that (i) refrigerated pig GFP-transfected cells could be used as donors in nuclear transfer and these NTEs could be effectively developed to blastocyst stage; (ii) serum starvation of GFP-transfected cells is not required for preimplantation development of pig NTEs; and (iii) a rough surface of GFP-transfected donor cells affects fusion rate negatively but has no influence on the cleavage rate or blastocyst rate of pig NTEs.