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To examine urban–rural disparity in childhood stunting, wasting and malnutrition at national and subnational levels in Chinese primary-school children in 2010 and 2014.
Data were obtained from two nationwide cross-sectional surveys conducted in 2010 and 2014. Malnutrition was classified using the Chinese national ‘Screening Standard for Malnutrition of Children’.
All twenty-seven mainland provinces and four municipalities of mainland China.
Children aged 7–12 years (n 215 214; 107 741 in 2010 and 107 473 in 2014) from thirty-one provinces.
Stunting, wasting and malnutrition prevalence were 1·9, 12·3 and 13·7 % in 2010, but decreased to 1·0, 9·4 and 10·2 % in 2014, respectively. The prevalence of stunting, wasting and malnutrition in both urban and rural children was higher in western provinces, while lower in eastern provinces. Although the prevalence of wasting and malnutrition was higher in rural children than their urban counterparts, the urban–rural disparity in both wasting and malnutrition decreased from 2010 to 2014 (prevalence OR: wasting, 1·35 to 1·16; malnutrition, 1·50 to 1·27). A reversal occurred in 2014 in several eastern provinces where the prevalence of wasting and malnutrition in urban children surpassed their rural peers. The urban–rural disparity was larger in western provinces than eastern provinces.
The shrinking urban–rural disparity and the reversal in wasting and malnutrition suggest that the malnutrition situation has improved during the post-crisis period, especially in the western provinces. Region-specific policies and interventions can be useful to sustainably mitigate malnutrition in Chinese children, especially in rural areas and the western provinces.
Disclosing the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to a patient is controversial. There is significant stigma associated with a diagnosis of AD or dementia in China, but the attitude of the society toward disclosure of such a diagnosis had not been formally evaluated prior to our study. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the attitude toward disclosing an AD diagnosis to patients in China with cognitive impairment from their caregivers, and the factors that may affect their attitude.
We designed a 17-item questionnaire and administered this questionnaire to caregivers, who accompanied patients with cognitive impairment or dementia in three major hospitals in Shanghai, China. The caregiver's attitude toward disclosing the diagnosis of AD as evaluated by the questionnaire was compared to that of disclosing the diagnosis of terminal cancer.
A majority (95.7%) of the 175 interviewed participants (mean 14.2 years of education received) wished to know their own diagnosis if they were diagnosed with AD, and 97.6% preferred the doctor to tell their family members if they were diagnosed with AD. If a family member of the participants suffered from AD, 82.9% preferred to have the diagnosis disclosed to the patient. “Cognitive impairment” was the most accepted term by caregivers to disclose AD diagnosis in Chinese.
This study suggests most of the well-educated individuals in a Chinese urban area favored disclosing the diagnosis when they or their family members were diagnosed with AD.
In 2008 January the 24th Chinese expedition team successfully deployed the Chinese Small Telescope ARray (CSTAR) to Dome A, the highest point on the Antarctic plateau. CSTAR consists of four 14.5cm optical telescopes, each with a different filter (g, r, i and open) and has a 4.5°×4.5° field of view (FOV). Based on the CSTAR data, initial statistics of astronomical observational site quality and light curves of variable objects were obtained. To reach higher photometric quality, we are continuing to work to overcome the effects of uneven cirrus cloud cirrus, optical “ghosts” and intra-pixel sensitivity. The snow surface stability is also tested for further astronomical observational instrument and for glaciology studies.
In this paper, we have carried out the positron annihilation measurement on high-rate and low-rate a-Si:H thin films deposited by PECVD. By means of the slow positron beam Doppler-broadening technique, the depth profiles of microvoids in a-Si:H have been determined. We have also studied the vacancy-type defect in the surface region in high-rate grown a-Si:H, making comparison between high-rate and low-rate a-Si:H. By plotting S and W parameters in the (S, W) plane, we have shown that the vacancies in all of the high-rate and low-rate deposited intrinsic samples, and in differently doped low-rate samples are of the same nature.
We show how positron annihilation can distinguish vacancies in undoped hydrogenated amorphous silicon by performing Variable Energy Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy experiments before and after light soaking. We find that vacancy clusters, di-vacancies and a new type of single vacancies are created in undoped as-grown a-Si:H thin film by light illumination. The fact that the vacancy clusters are eliminated by the thermal annealing suggests that the Staebler-Wronski effect is closely related to vacancy clusters in a-Si:H material. The creation of vacancy clusters and redistribution of di-vacancies and even single vacancies probably result in photo-induced structural changes in this material.
By means of the slow positron beam Doppler-broadening technique, the depth profile of microvoids across a p-i-n double junction solar cell has been resolved. VEPFIT fitting results indicate an approximately uniform density of the defects throughout the solar cell, but with an enhanced concentration at all of the interfaces possibly due to network mismatch. In order to evaluate the internal electric field, Variable Energy Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy (VEPAS) measurements have been performed on a single junction pin solar cell at different biases. The internal electric field effect on positrons has also been examined in terms of the bias dependence of positron drift in a-Si:H single junction pin solar cell.
Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is an endemic and deformable osteoarthrosis. Epidemiological study has revealed that lower Se level is the principal environmental factor in the pathogenesis of KBD. Selenoprotein P (SEPP1) is a special selenoprotein, which is the primary form of Se in vivo. Our aim was to investigate the putative association of SEPP1 r25191g/a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with KBD risk and the SEPP1 transcriptional levels in whole blood and articular cartilage tissue of KBD cases and controls, respectively. One hundred and sixty-seven cases with KBD and 166 control subjects from Shaanxi province of China were included in the present study. The detection of SNP r25191g/a in the 3′ untranslated region was performed using an efficient technique, tetra-primer amplification refractory mutation system PCR. A quantitative analysis of SEPP1 mRNA in KBD and control groups by real-time PCR was also performed. The present results show no significant difference in genotype and allele distribution of SNP r25191g/a between individuals with KBD and controls (P = 0·279 and 0·428, respectively). There was also no association between SNP r25191g/a and risk of KBD (OR 1·153; 95 % CI 0·533, 2·496). However, the frequency of the rare genotype AG of SNP r25191g/a was significantly lower in Chinese population than in the Caucasians. It was shown that the SEPP1 mRNA expression in whole blood was lower in KBD patients than in the control group (0·149-fold, P < 0·001), but that it was much higher in articular cartilage tissue (4·53-fold, P = 0·012). Our aim was to lay a foundation for us to further study the association between the pathogenesis of KBD and SEPP1.
RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for rapidly analyzing gene functions. However, little is known about the possible use of dsRNA/siRNA as a pest control method. Here, we demonstrate that dsRNA/siRNA can induce the silence of chitin synthase gene A (CHSA), which is an important gene for the growth and development of cuticles and trachea in beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. Based on the in vitro RNAi experiments in an insect cell line (Trichoplusia ni High 5), in vivo RNAi was performed by injecting synthesized dsRNA/siRNA into the 4th instar larvae of S. exigua. Significantly lower levels of CHSA transcripts were detected. In addition, the cuticle of these insects was disordered and the epithelial walls of larval trachea did not expand uniformly in injected individuals. Moreover, Injections significantly increased abnormalities relative to control larvae. These results highlighted the possibility of dsRNA/siRNA for gene function studies in lepidopteran insects and future pest control.
Geochemical and Sr–Nd–Pb isotopic data are presented for volcanic rocks from Zougouyouchaco (30.5 Ma) and Dogai Coring (39.7 Ma) of the southern and middle Qiangtang block in northern Tibet. The volcanic rocks are high-K calc-alkaline trachyandesites and dacites, with SiO2 contents ranging from 58.5 to 67.1 wt % The rocks are enriched in light REE (LREE) and contain high Sr (649 to 986 ppm) and relatively low Yb (0.8 to 1.2 ppm) and Y (9.5 to 16.6 ppm) contents, resulting in high La/Yb (29–58) and Sr/Y (43–92) ratios, as well as relatively high MgO contents and Mg no., similar to the compositions of adakites formed by slab melting in subduction zones. However, the adakitic rocks in the Qiangtang block are characterized by relatively low εNd(t) values (−3.8 to −5.0) and highly radiogenic Sr ((87Sr/86Sr)i=0.706–0.708), which are inconsistent with an origin by slab melting. The geochemistry and tectonics indicate that the adakitic volcanic rocks were most likely derived from partial melting of delaminated lower continental crust. As the pristine adakitic melts rose, they interacted with the surrounding mantle peridotite, elevating their MgO values and Mg numbers.
The aim of this study was to explore multitasking skills in a Chinese
sample of 22 children with attention deficit–hyperactivity disorder
(ADHD) compared with 22 healthy controls matched by gender, age, and IQ.
All of the participants completed the children's version of the Six
Elements Test (C-SET) and neuropsychological tests that captured specific
domains of attention, memory, and executive function. Children with ADHD
performed significantly worse than the healthy controls in all domains
except the number of rules broken in the C-SET. The majority of the C-SET
domain scores correlated significantly with measures of executive
function. The ADHD group also demonstrated deficits in various
neurocognitive test performances compared with the healthy group. This
preliminary study suggests that the C-SET is sensitive to multitasking
behavior in Chinese children with ADHD. The main impairments of
multitasking behavior in this clinical group involve the inhibition of
goal-directed planning, flexible strategy generation, and self-monitoring.
(JINS, 2006, 12, 575–579.)
In this paper, positron annihilation measurements have been carried out on a-Si: H thin films deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) at high and low rates by means of the variable energy positron beam Doppler-broadening technique. The depth profiles of microvoids in the films grown under different conditions have been determined. We found a smaller void fraction in the surface region of all films compared to the bulk, and a smaller void fraction in low rate than in high growth rate films. By plotting S and W parameters in the (S, W) plane, we have shown that the vacancies in all of the high-rate and low-rate deposited intrinsic samples, and in differently doped low-rate samples are of the same nature, although there appears to be a higher density of defects in the boron than phosphorus doped films. The depth profiles of the microvoid-like defects in the a-Si: H films are extracted by use of the vepfit program.
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