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With the severity and frequency of significant weather events increasing, methods for alleviating unsteady wind loading for high-rise buildings are gaining interest. This study numerically investigates the three-dimensional flow structures around a canonical high-rise building immersed in an atmospheric boundary layer at different oncoming wind angles, using wall-resolved large eddy simulations. A synthetic jet located on the top surface is used as open-loop active actuation with the aim of suppressing the building's side-force fluctuations when exposed to oncoming wind variations. Three different frequencies of jet forcing are considered, all half an order of magnitude larger than the vortex shedding frequency. The behaviour of the synthetic jet and its effect on the building's unsteady side force, time-averaged flow fields and unsteady flow structures are investigated numerically. The synthetic jet actuation is found to reduce the side-force fluctuation of the building, enhance the downwash flow and successfully attenuate the antisymmetric vortex shedding. This was achieved to different extents across the range of oncoming wind angles considered and may motivate future attempts to explore experimental active control strategies for attenuation of unsteady wind loading.
The purpose of this study was to analyse the clinical characteristics of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) PCR re-positivity after recovering from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Patients (n = 1391) from Guangzhou, China, who had recovered from COVID-19 were recruited between 7 September 2021 and 11 March 2022. Data on epidemiology, symptoms, laboratory test results and treatment were analysed. In this study, 42.7% of recovered patients had re-positive result. Most re-positive patients were asymptomatic, did not have severe comorbidities, and were not contagious. The re-positivity rate was 39%, 46%, 11% and 25% in patients who had received inactivated, mRNA, adenovirus vector and recombinant subunit vaccines, respectively. Seven independent risk factors for testing re-positive were identified, and a predictive model was constructed using these variables. The predictors of re-positivity were COVID-19 vaccination status, previous SARs-CoV-12 infection prior to the most recent episode, renal function, SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgM antibody levels and white blood cell count. The predictive model could benefit the control of the spread of COVID-19.
Pie charts are often used to communicate risk, such as the risk of driving. In the foreground-background salience effect (FBSE), foreground (probability of bad event) has greater salience than background (no bad event) in such a chart. Experiment 1 confirmed that the displays format of pie charts showed a typical FBSE. Experiment 2 showed that the FBSE resulted from a difference in cognitive efforts in processing the messages and that a foreground-emphasizing display was easier to process. Experiment 3 manipulated subjects’ information processing mindset and explored the interaction between displays format and information processing mindset. In the default mindset, careless subjects displayed a typical FBSE, while those who were instructed to be careful reported similar risk-avoidant behavior preference reading both charts. Suggestions for improving risk communication are discussed.
This work elucidated the performance and mechanisms of Pb2+ adsorption by kaolinite, montmorillonite, goethite and ferrihydrite using batch experiments. The contributions of various adsorption mechanisms were quantified using a stepwise extraction method. Several characterizations (scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, point of zero charge analysis and X-ray fluorescence) were utilized to analyse the physicochemical properties and the potential adsorption mechanisms. The results indicated that the adsorption processes of montmorillonite and goethite approached equilibrium within 20 min, while 60 min were required for the adsorption processes of kaolinite and ferrihydrite. The adsorption processes of Pb2+ by the four minerals best fit the pseudo-second order model. The adsorption capacities of the four minerals for Pb2+ followed the order: montmorillonite > goethite > ferrihydrite > kaolinite, and the maximum adsorption capacities were 69.20, 46.95, 34.32 and 18.62 mg g–1, respectively. The stepwise extraction test showed that the adsorption mechanism of Pb2+ was dominated by ion exchange for montmorillonite, precipitation and complexation for goethite and complexation for kaolinite and ferrihydrite.
Instrument delivery is critical part in vascular intervention surgery. Due to the soft-body structure of instruments, the relationship between manipulation commands and instrument motion is non-linear, making instrument delivery challenging and time-consuming. Reinforcement learning has the potential to learn manipulation skills and automate instrument delivery with enhanced success rates and reduced workload of physicians. However, due to the sample inefficiency when using high-dimensional images, existing reinforcement learning algorithms are limited on realistic vascular robotic systems. To alleviate this problem, this paper proposes discrete soft actor-critic with auto-encoder (DSAC-AE) that augments SAC-discrete with an auxiliary reconstruction task. The algorithm is applied with distributed sample collection and parameter update in a robot-assisted preclinical environment. Experimental results indicate that guidewire delivery can be automatically implemented after 50k sampling steps in less than 15 h, demonstrating the proposed algorithm has the great potential to learn manipulation skill for vascular robotic systems.
In this work, a confined-doped fiber with the core/inner-cladding diameter of 40/250 μm and a relative doping ratio of 0.75 is fabricated through a modified chemical vapor deposition method combined with the chelate gas deposition technique, and subsequently applied in a tandem-pumped fiber amplifier for high-power operation and transverse mode instability (TMI) mitigation. Notably, the impacts of the seed laser power and mode purity are preliminarily investigated through comparative experiments. It is found that the TMI threshold could be significantly affected by the seed laser mode purity. The possible mechanism behind this phenomenon is proposed and revealed through comprehensive comparative experiments and theoretical analysis. Finally, a maximum output power of 7.49 kW is obtained with the beam quality factor of approximately 1.83, which is the highest output power ever reported in a forward tandem-pumped confined-doped fiber amplifier. This work could provide a good reference and practical solution to improve the TMI threshold and realize high-power high-brightness fiber lasers.
Caregiver-mediated intervention (CMI), based on parent skills training, is a family-mediated intervention model for children with neurodevelopmental disorders, in particular autism spectrum disorder. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CMI.
Thirty-three children (aged 22–69 months from our department) and their caregivers participated in a two-week training course of ten 90-minute lessons. Caregivers were encouraged to try their best to apply intervention skills in both home routines and play routines to encourage the development of cognition, motion, social adaptability, and behavior of children. Demographic information, video-recorded data, and diagnostic scales were collected at two key time points: baseline and post-training (PT – within six months).
Three aspects were assessed – primary variables, secondary variables, and correlation analyses. Results showed an improvement in PT in (1) Adult/Child Interaction Fidelity Rating (P < 0.01) and (2) adaptability of Gesell Developmental Scale and stereotyped behaviors and limited interests of Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Moreover, a negative correlation occurred between caregiver skill improvement and parent education (P < 0.05), but without correlations with other demographics.
As an efficacious family intervention for both children and their caregivers, CMI is worth being generalized widely.
The unsteady wind loading on high-rise buildings has the potential to influence strongly their structural performance in terms of serviceability, habitability and occupant comfort. This paper investigates numerically the flow structures around a canonical high-rise building immersed in an atmospheric boundary layer, using wall-resolved large eddy simulations. The switching between two vortex shedding modes is explored, and the influence of the atmospheric boundary layer on suppressing symmetric vortex shedding is identified. It is shown that the antisymmetric vortex shedding mode is prevalent in the near wake behind the building, with strong coherence between the periodic fluctuations of the building side force and the antisymmetric vortex shedding mode demonstrated. Two feedback control strategies, exploiting this idea, are designed to alleviate the aerodynamic side-force fluctuations, using pressure sensing on just a single building wall. The sensor response to synthetic jet actuation along the two ‘leading edges’ of the building is characterised using system identification. Both the designed linear controller and the least mean square adaptive controller attenuate successfully the side-force fluctuations when implemented in simulations. The linear controller exhibits a better performance, and its effect on the flow field is to delay the formation of dominant vortices and increase the extent of the recirculation region. Feedback control that requires a smaller sensing area is then explored, with a comparable control effect achieved in the attenuation of the unsteady loading. This study could motivate future attempts to understand and control the unsteady loading of a high-rise building exposed to oncoming wind variations.
The migration of polydisperse particles and the formation of self-organized particle chains in a square channel flow of non-Newtonian fluids is studied. The effects of rheological behaviour of the fluid, solution concentration and flow rate are explored experimentally. The direct forcing/fictitious domain method is adopted to qualitatively verify the experiments and further analyse the mechanisms of particle migration and particle chain self-organization. The results show that only particles in viscoelastic fluids with negligible shear-thinning effect will remain at the channel centreline as the flow rate increases. The monodisperse particles reach the same velocity when migrating to the equilibrium position. However, in polydisperse suspensions, the smaller the particle diameter, the greater the velocity when the particle migrates to the equilibrium position. In a viscoelastic fluid, the polydisperse particles are more likely to self-organize into long particle chains along the channel centreline than the monodisperse particles, where the large and small particles are at the front and end of the chain. The dimensionless alignment factor (Af) is adopted to quantify the formation of particle chains, which is the largest in viscoelastic fluids and rapidly increases before decreasing to a stable value as the flow rate increases. For larger particle diameter ratios and stronger shear-thinning effect, the long particle chain self-organization is less obvious. The self-organizing particle chains at the channel centreline are strongly influenced by the fluid elastic properties and weakly by the inertial effect; however, the shear-thinning effect disperses the particles and prevents the formation of long straight particle chains.
To persist (without immigration) in habitats with unpredictable environmental conditions, annuals must produce seeds each year or have a seed bank. Thus, we predicted that compared to perennials, annuals have a wider germination temperature range (GTR, the difference in temperature between the week with the highest and the week with the lowest germination during the natural germination season). We determined the GTR via germination phenology data for 350 herbaceous species in 59 families from the eastern USA: summer annuals (SA), 63; winter annuals (WA), 83; monocarpic perennials (MP), 28; and polycarpic perennials (PP), 176. There was no significant phylogenetic signal for the GTR. The width of the GTR during the first spring germination season was 9.6, 8.7 and 8.8°C for MP, PP and SA, respectively, and during the first autumn germination season 12.8, 11.8 and 12.4°C for MP, PP and WA, respectively. Annuals did not have a wider GTR than perennials in either the spring or the autumn germination season. Our data suggest that selection for early germination in either spring or autumn has resulted in only small differences in the GTR. We predict that global warming will have little or no effect on reshaping the germination phenology of herbaceous species of temperate eastern North America.
Schistosomiasis has been subjected to extensive control efforts in the People's Republic of China (China) which aims to eliminate the disease by 2030. We describe baseline results of a longitudinal cohort study undertaken in the Dongting and Poyang lakes areas of central China designed to determine the prevalence of Schistosoma japonicum in humans, animals (goats and bovines) and Oncomelania snails utilizing molecular diagnostics procedures. Data from the Chinese National Schistosomiasis Control Programme (CNSCP) were compared with the molecular results obtained.
Sixteen villages from Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were surveyed; animals were only found in Hunan. The prevalence of schistosomiasis in humans was 1.8% in Jiangxi and 8.0% in Hunan determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), while 18.3% of animals were positive by digital droplet PCR. The CNSCP data indicated that all villages harboured S. japonicum-infected individuals, detected serologically by indirect haemagglutination assay (IHA), but very few, if any, of these were subsequently positive by Kato-Katz (KK).
Based on the outcome of the IHA and KK results, the CNSCP incorporates targeted human praziquantel chemotherapy but this approach can miss some infections as evidenced by the results reported here. Sensitive molecular diagnostics can play a key role in the elimination of schistosomiasis in China and inform control measures allowing for a more systematic approach to treatment.
Understanding factors associated with post-discharge sleep quality among COVID-19 survivors is important for intervention development.
This study investigated sleep quality and its correlates among COVID-19 patients 6 months after their most recent hospital discharge.
Healthcare providers at hospitals located in five different Chinese cities contacted adult COVID-19 patients discharged between 1 February and 30 March 2020. A total of 199 eligible patients provided verbal informed consent and completed the interview. Using score on the single-item Sleep Quality Scale as the dependent variable, multiple linear regression models were fitted.
Among all participants, 10.1% reported terrible or poor sleep quality, and 26.6% reported fair sleep quality, 26.1% reported worse sleep quality when comparing their current status with the time before COVID-19, and 33.7% were bothered by a sleeping disorder in the past 2 weeks. After adjusting for significant background characteristics, factors associated with sleep quality included witnessing the suffering (adjusted B = −1.15, 95% CI = −1.70, −0.33) or death (adjusted B = −1.55, 95% CI = −2.62, −0.49) of other COVID-19 patients during hospital stay, depressive symptoms (adjusted B = −0.26, 95% CI = −0.31, −0.20), anxiety symptoms (adjusted B = −0.25, 95% CI = −0.33, −0.17), post-traumatic stress disorders (adjusted B = −0.16, 95% CI = −0.22, −0.10) and social support (adjusted B = 0.07, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.10).
COVID-19 survivors reported poor sleep quality. Interventions and support services to improve sleep quality should be provided to COVID-19 survivors during their hospital stay and after hospital discharge.
The superfluorescent fiber source (SFS) with tunable optical spectrum has shown great application potential in the sensing, imaging, and spectral combination. Here, we demonstrate for the first time a 2-kW-level wavelength and linewidth tunable SFS. Based on a flexible filtered SFS seed and three stages of fiber amplifiers, the output power can be scaled from the milliwatt level to about 2 kW, with a wavelength tuning range of 1068–1092 nm and a linewidth tuning range of 2.5–9.7 nm. Moreover, a numerical simulation is conducted based on the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation, and the results reveal that the wavelength tuning range is limited by the decrease of seed power and the growth of amplified spontaneous emission, whereas the linewidth tuning range is determined by the gain competition and nonlinear Kerr effects. The developed wavelength and linewidth tunable SFS may be applied to scientific research and industrial processing.
In this paper, an all-fiberized and narrow-linewidth 5 kW power-level fiber amplifier is presented. The laser is achieved based on the master oscillator power amplification configuration, in which the phase-modulated single-frequency laser is applied as the seed laser and a bidirectional pumping configuration is applied in the power amplifier. The stimulated Brillouin scattering, stimulated Raman scattering, and transverse mode instability effects are all effectively suppressed in the experiment. Consequently, the output power is scaled up to 4.92 kW with a slope efficiency of as high as approximately 80%. The 3-dB spectral width is about 0.59 nm, and the beam quality is measured to be M2∼1.22 at maximum output power. Furthermore, we have also conducted a detailed spectral analysis on the spectral width of the signal laser, which reveals that the spectral wing broadening phenomenon could lead to the obvious decrease of the spectral purity at certain output power. Overall, this work could provide a reference for obtaining and optimizing high-power narrow-linewidth fiber lasers.
A multicenter study of sharps injuries (SIs) and other blood or body fluid (OBBF) exposures was conducted among 33,156 healthcare workers (HCWs) from 175 hospitals in Anhui, China. In total, 12,178 HCWs (36.7%) had experienced at least 1 SI in the previous 12 months and 8,116 HCWs (24.5%) had experienced at least 1 OBBF exposure during the previous 12 months.
Global warming will directly influence agricultural production and present new challenges for food security in semiarid regions of China. A warming experiment was conducted in Guyuan, China using infrared ray radiators to study the impact of warming on crop growth, yield and quality of a potato–broad bean–winter wheat crop rotation system. Warming significantly affected the crop photosynthesis rates of the potato–broad bean–winter wheat rotation system. In the podding stage of broad bean and the heading, blooming and booting stages of winter wheat, the photosynthesis rate was significantly decreased when the temperature increased by 0.5–2.0°C. The growing period of the potato–broad bean–winter wheat rotation system was shortened by 20–40 days per 3-year-period, and the fallow period was prolonged by 4–13 days per 3-year-period. The water use efficiency of the potato–broad bean–winter wheat rotation decreased by 8.6% when the temperature increased by 1.02.0°C. The yield of the potato–broad bean–winter wheat rotation increased by 6.1–7.7% when the temperature increased by 0.5–1.0°C. However, yield decreased 12.9–13.4% when temperature increased by 1.0–2.0°C. Potato protein significantly decreased by 9.3–17.6% and the winter wheat fat significantly decreased by 6.7% when the temperature increased by 0.5–2.0°C. The results indicate that global warming could seriously affect the crop growth, yield and water use of the potato–broad bean–winter wheat rotation in semiarid regions of China.
Continuous hBN films have been grown by means of a radio-frequency-sputtering technology, and their material properties have been investigated. The prepared hBN films can achieve good smoothness in a large area. The surface morphologies and compositions of the hBN films on Si substrate and Al film have been characterized, indicating that there is no difference. The 101-phase peak of hBN film is the strongest, and the optical band gap of the fabricated film is 5.84 eV. An attempt on the fabrication of the hBN based resistive switching (RS) device has been made by using an Ag/hBN/Al structure, leading to the observation of a clear and stable RS behavior. The device exhibits a resistance window (high-resistivity state/low-resistivity state) of around 102, and the RS behaviors of hBN film prepared by sputtering were first observed. It has been found that the opening voltage for the device is changed when a different cycle voltage is applied because of the built-in electric field increasing with the increase of applied cycle voltage. The mechanism of the RS behavior has been analyzed, which lay a foundation for the application of hBN as RS material in resistive random access memory to improve the storage density.
Although the progression of invasive aspergillosis (IA) shares some risk factors in the development of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), however, the prevalence of IA in suspected PTB remains unclear. During a period of 1 year (from January 2016 to December 2016), consecutive patients with suspected PTB were included in a referral TB hospital. Data, including demographic information and underlying diseases, were collected from medical records. PTB were all confirmed by mycobacterial culture (Lowenstein–Jensen medium). IA were diagnosed as proven or probable according to the criteria of the 2008 EORTC/MSG definitions. A descriptive analysis was performed to estimate the corresponding prevalence. During the study year, 1507 patients have a positive mycobacterial culture, with a mean age of 45.6 (s.d. 19.9) years old and a female:male ratio of 1:4. Among the 82 patients with non-tuberculous mycobacterial diseases, two patients (2.44%, 95% CI 0.67–8.46%) were diagnosed as IA (one proven and one probable); two probable IA patients (0.15%, 95% CI 0.04–0.55%) were diagnosed in PTB patients (n = 1315), and all were retreatment cases. In addition, all four IA patients (100%) exhibited cavities in both lobes on radiograph. In China, the prevalence of IA is low in active PTB patients. However, when high-risk factors for IA are encountered in PTB patients, further investigations are required and empirically treatment for IA might be warranted.