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This study seeks to resolve a puzzle of the coexistence of follower cooperative voice and cooperative silence (expressing/withholding work-related ideas, information, and opinions based on collective, cooperative motives) in the presence of transformational leadership. A sample of 193 bank employees under 52 managers revealed that in the presence of group-focused transformational leadership, both voice and silence based on cooperative motives increased through the mediation of value congruence between leaders and followers. However, cooperative voice was more likely to be the main response to a high level of value congruence when followers under the same leader perceived individual-focused transformational leadership uniformly. Under a high level of differentiated individual-focused transformational leadership, value congruence was likely to result in more cooperative silence. We discuss implications for future research on both leadership and employee voice.
To evaluate the effect on decrease in blood pressure of modifying risk factors for stroke, such as blood lipid profiles, diet habits and indices of body weight, through a family-based nutrition health education programme among hypertensive patients and pre-hypertensive subjects without taking any antihypertensive drugs.
Design and setting
This was a community-based prospective study. The study population was randomly selected from communities in Taipei; potential subjects were invited by telephone to participate.
After excluding subjects whose blood pressure was normal and those using antihypertensive drugs, there were 390 participants included in the study. Subjects in the intervention group (n 293) received nutrition health education on blood pressure control and stroke-related risk factor modification at each visit. Non-intervention subjects (n 97) only acquired a general education sheet available in clinics. The blood pressure of study subjects was measured at baseline and 6-month follow-up to evaluate the intervention’s effect on decrease in blood pressure.
Significant decreases of 2·0 mmHg and 5·9 mmHg in systolic blood pressure were observed both in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive subjects in the intervention group. Additionally, intervention subjects with improvement of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, decrease in indices of body weight and increase in consumption of fruit and vegetables also had significant lowering of blood pressure.
The present study provided evidence that the blood pressure of pre-hypertensive and hypertensive subjects could decrease significantly, without taking antihypertensive drugs, after modifying blood lipid profiles and waist by dietary habits changed through a family-based nutrition heath education programme, resulting in a significant effect on stroke risk reduction.
Nanocomposite films containing ZnO quantum dots (QDs) and SiOxNy matrix were prepared by target-attached radio frequency sputtering. Photoluminescence (PL) dominated by violet and blue emissions was observed from all ZnO QD–SiOxNy nanocomposite films with dot diameters ranging from 2.77 to 6.65 nm. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) revealed the formation of nitrogen-correlated bonding configurations in both the SiOxNy matrix and the dot/matrix interfaces. The nitrogen-correlated configuration at the interface produced a substantial polarization effect at dot surface. The suppression of green-yellow emission observed in photoluminescence spectra of all samples was ascribed to the hole-trapping process promoted by the enhancement of the surface polarization.
ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite thin films were prepared using RF sputtering method without substrate heating. The photoluminance (PL) measurements showed that the ZnO-SiO2 nanocomposite thin films are able to emit white light consisting of violet, blue, and green-yellow band emissions. The blue emission was attributed to the large amount of ZnO/SiO2 interfaces, which enlarges the depletion layer width and then enhances the related transition. Further analyses indicated that the defect structure of samples could be manipulated by the amount and distribution of ZnO nanoparticles in SiO2 matrix to yield distinct luminescence property.
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