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The earliest colonisation of oceanic islands by Homo sapiens occurred ~50 000–30 000 years ago in the Western Pacific, yet how this was achieved remains a matter of debate. With a focus on East Asia, the research presented here tests the hypothesis that bamboo rafts were used for these early maritime migrations. The authors review the evidence for Palaeolithic seafaring in East Asia as the context for an experimental archaeology project to build two bamboo watercraft. Sea trials demonstrate the unsuitability of bamboo, at least in East Asia, indicating that more sophisticated and durable vessels would have been required to traverse the Kuroshio Current.
This study provides new insight into the effectiveness of different knowledge acquisition strategies for organizations at different positions in a production network. Component specialists and systems integrators require a different knowledge repertoire in terms of knowledge depth and knowledge breadth. We show that a greater reliance on inter-organizational partnering than on intra-organizational acquiring is effective in the acquisition of knowledge breadth rather than knowledge depth. And the positive effect of a greater reliance on inter-organizational partnering on knowledge breadth is particularly strong for system integrators.
To investigate the reciprocal relationship between unhealthy eating behaviours and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence.
Unhealthy eating behaviours were measured by the frequencies of eating foods with excess salt, sugar or fat in the past week. Depressive symptoms in the past two weeks were measured using a seven-item scale. Hierarchical linear growth models were used to analyse longitudinal associations between unhealthy eating behaviours and depressive symptoms. Time-fixed variables (sex, parents’ education level and household monthly income) and time-varying variables (parents’ marital status, family activities, body weight, vegetable or fruit consumption, exercising and smoking) were controlled for.
The Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-Term Evolution study, which commenced in 2001 and has annual follow-up.
Students (n 2630) followed from 2nd grade (8 years old in 2002) to 11th grade.
The frequency of unhealthy eating behaviours in the previous year and the difference between the frequency in the previous and successive year were positively associated with the initiation and growth rate of depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms in the previous year and the difference in depressive symptoms between the previous and successive year were positively associated with the initial state and growth rate of unhealthy eating behaviours.
Our results suggest a reciprocal relationship between depressive symptoms and unhealthy eating behaviours. This relationship should be considered when developing programmes targeting depressive symptoms and unhealthy diet in children and adolescents.
Impaired regulation of blood glucose levels in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients and the associated elevation of blood glucose levels are known to increase the risk of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). In the present study, a probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus reuteri GMN-32, was evaluated for its potential to reduce blood glucose levels and to provide protection against DC risks in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced DM rats. The blood glucose levels of the STZ-induced DM rats when treated with L. reuteri GMN-32 decreased from 4480 to 3620 mg/l (with 107 colony-forming units (cfu)/d) and 3040 mg/l (with 109 cfu/d). Probiotic treatment also reduced the changes in the heart caused by the effects of DM. Furthermore, the Fas/Fas-associated protein with death domain pathway-induced caspase 8-mediated apoptosis that was observed in the cardiomyocytes of the STZ-induced DM rats was also found to be controlled in the probiotic-treated rats. The results highlight that L. reuteri GMN-32 treatment reduces blood glucose levels, inhibits caspase 8-mediated apoptosis and promotes cardiac function in DM rats as observed from their ejection fraction and fractional shortening values. In conclusion, the administration of L. reuteri GMN-32 probiotics can regulate blood glucose levels, protect cardiomyocytes and prevent DC in DM rats.
Results regarding the effects of methylphenidate and atomoxetine on executive functions were inconsistent and no study has directly compared the efficacy of these two medications in improving executive functions in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We conducted an 8–10 wk, open-label, head-to-head, randomized clinical trial involving adults with a clinical diagnosis of ADHD confirmed by psychiatric interview. The two treatment arms were immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-methylphenidate) (n = 31) and atomoxetine once daily (n = 32). Executive functions were assessed by the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), including spatial working memory, spatial span, intra-extra dimensional set shifts, rapid visual information processing and Stockings of Cambridge (SOC). In addition to the symptom assessments at baseline (week 0), visit 2 (week 4–5) and visit 3 (week 8–10), they received CANTAB assessments at baseline and visit 3 (60.4 ± 6.3 d). Compared to baseline, adults treated with atomoxetine showed significant improvement in spatial working memory, spatial short-term memory, sustained attention and spatial planning at visit 3; adults treated with IR-methylphenidate showed significant improvement in spatial working memory at visit 3. Comparing the magnitude of improvement in executive functions between these two medications, the effect was generally similar for the two groups, although atomoxetine might have significantly greater efficacy than IR-methylphenidate in terms of improving spatial planning (SOC). Our results provide evidence to support that both IR-methylphenidate and atomoxetine improved various executive functions in adults with ADHD with greater improvement in atomoxetine than IR-methylphenidate in spatial planning.
The electrode materials for VRFB should possess higher electric conductivity, corrosion resistance and hydrophilic properties in sulfuric acid. The characteristics of the electrode materials affect the stability and the energy efficiency of VRFB. Carbon materials are the best suited for VRFB applications. In this study, the calcined treatment, acid treatment and ozone treatment were used to modify the surface of carbon papers. The redox reaction of [VO]2+/[VO2]+ on the modified carbon papers was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The surface compositions of carbon materials were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). The experimental results reveal that three oxidative methods enhance the redox reaction of [VO]2+/[VO2]+. The calcined treatments and acid treatments also enhanced hydrolysis reaction. The mole ratio of O/C apparently increased, but the binding energy of C1s and O1s were not chemically shifted in the acid treatment. The intensity of binding energy of O1s, between 532 eV and 534 eV, apparently increased in the ozone and calcined treatments. The Ox treated samples were more hydrophilic than the Oz treated samples. In the Ox treated samples, the decrease of Rct value indicates that was contributed from the redox reaction of [VO]2+/[VO2]+ and hydrolysis reaction. It does not completely benefit the energy efficiency of VRFB. The 5 x 5 cm2 modified carbon papers were used as electrode materials in the VRFB. The voltage efficiency, coulomb efficiency and energy efficiency reached 93 %, 90 % and 83 %, respectively, at a current density of 12 mA．cm-2 at 0.8-1.8 V.
The stability of the negative electrode electrolyte affects the efficiency and capacity of energy storage in the vanadium redox flow battery (VRFB) system. To explore the stability of vanadium electrolytes, the study prepared five types of V(II) electrolytes that were exposed to air in a fixed open area and monitored the charge state of vanadium ions over time by UV/Visible spectrophotometer. This study succeeded in preparing pure V(II) electrolytes. Five characteristics are found in the UV/Visible spectra, respectively, during the oxidation process from V(II) electrolytes to V(III) electrolytes and V(III) electrolytes to V(IV) electrolytes. The experimental results show that the oxidation rate of a solution of 1 M V(II) electrolytes to V(III) electrolytes and 1 M V(III) electrolytes to V(IV) electrolytes under an atmosphere of air is 4.79 and 0.0089 mol/h per square meter. The oxidation rates of 0.05-1 M V(II) electrolytes to V(III) electrolytes are approximately 96-538 times than that of V(III) electrolytes to V(IV) electrolytes.
The effects of prestrain, strain rate, and temperature on the impact properties of 304L stainless steel are investigated using a compressive split-Hopkinson pressure bar. The impact tests are performed at strain rates ranging from 2000 to 6000 s−1 and temperatures of 300, 500, and 800 °C using 304L specimens with prestrains of 0.15 or 0.5. The results show that the flow stress, work-hardening rate, and strain rate sensitivity increase with increasing strain rate or decreasing temperature. As the prestrain increases, the flow stress and strain rate sensitivity increase, but the work-hardening rate decreases. The temperature sensitivity increases with an increasing strain rate, temperature, and prestrain. Overall, the effects of prestrain on the impact properties of the tested specimens dominate those of the strain rate or temperature, respectively. Finally, optical microscopy observations reveal that the specimens fracture primarily as the result of the formation of adiabatic shear bands.
The objective of this research is to obtain uniform vacuum-deposition triclinic phase II crystal of titanyl phthalocyanine (α-TiOPc) films from various TiOPc crystal forms. The crystal structure and morphology of vacuum-deposited TiOPc films can be manipulated by deposition rate and substrate temperature. Crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Thin film morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Highly ordered α-TiOPc film with an edge-on molecular orientation was deposited on octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) treated Si/SiO2 surface. All TiOPc crystal forms, such as amorphous, α and γ phases, provided the triclinic phase II crystal of TiOPc. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the peak at 7.5 degree in XRD spectra was 0.23, 0.27 and 0.29 for γ, α and amorphous powder when substrate temperature maintained at 180°C, respectively. The FWHM of the 7.5 degree peak can be achieved 0.22 deposited from all crystal forms at elevated temperature higher than 220°C. The α-TiOPc deposition film exhibited an excellent p-type semiconducting behavior in air with dense packing structure due to the close π–π molecular packing. The devices, field-effect mobility range from 0.02 to 0.26 cm2/V s depending on various process parameters. The on/off current ratio (Ion/Ioff) is over 105. The TiOPc OTFTs will be applied as multi-parameter gas sensor in the near future.
The migration and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activation of vascular smooth muscle cells may play key roles in the development of atherosclerosis. Carnosic acid (CA) is a phenolic compound found in herbs, including rosemary and sage. Previous studies indicated that CA possesses antioxidant activity in vitro. In this study, we investigated the effects of CA on TNF-α-induced cell migration, the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species, the translocation of NF-κB and the activation and expression of MMP-9 in human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMC). The Matrigel migration assay showed that CA (10 and 20 μmol/l) effectively inhibited TNF-α-induced migration of HASMC as compared with the control group. To explain this inhibitory effect, MMP-9 was assayed by gelatin zymography and Western blot. The results indicated that CA inhibited MMP-9 activity and expression. Furthermore, the production of reactive oxygen species and the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p50 and p65 induced by TNF-α were dose-dependently suppressed by CA pretreament. These results indicate that CA has anti-inflammatory properties and may prevent the migration of HASMC by suppressing MMP-9 expression through down-regulation of NF-κB.
Global localization of mobile robots has been well studied using the extended Kalman filter (EKF) method. This paper presents a fuzzy extended information filtering (FEIF) approach to improving global localization of an indoor autonomous mobile robot with ultrasonic and laser scanning measurements. A real-time FEIF algorithm is proposed to improve accuracy of static global pose estimation via multiple ultrasonic data. By fusing odometric, ultrasonic, and laser scanning data, a real-time FEIF-based pose tracking algorithm is developed to improve accuracy of the robot's continuous poses. Several experimental results are performed to confirm the efficacy of the proposed methods.
In this work, the charge-trapping distributions of polysilicon-oxide-nitride-oxide-silicon (SONOS) structure are studied. The trapping energy level of SiNx films with different composition ratio deposited by low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) were first characterized by photoluminescence (PL) measurement. Moreover, using F-N/CHE program and charge pumping techniques, the vertical location and the lateral distribution of programmed charges are investigated in the nitride films with different composition ratio. The study offers strong evidence that the density of charge-trapping levels in the Si-rich nitride is higher than the standard nitride. A simple qualitative model and calculation explains that the trapping level distributions in the SiNx films are shallower by increasing relative Si-content. Furthermore, we have observed the nitride trap vertical location was changed by adjusted Si/N composition ratio. And the lateral distribution of hot electron programmed charges in the modified nitride is broader than that in the standard nitride because it offered more charge-trapping sites and shallower charge-trapping levels. In summary, the study can help researchers to understand the nitride charge-trapping mechanism and the analysis of optical/electrical characteristics.
Strong influence of the applied or self-induced (i.e. self-biasing) electric field on the alignment, orientation and structures was found in the carbon nano-structure deposition process. This study applied microwave-plasma electron-cyclotron-resonance CVD (ECR-CVD) technique for carbon nano-structure deposition. The deposited structures and properties were characterized with SEM and field emission I–V measurements. The result shows that a negative dc bias applied on the substrate is a necessary condition. In this condition, all carbon nanostructures were well aligned and perpendicular to the substrate surfaces and independent to the plasma/gas flowing directions. Interestingly, when applied an additional electric field near the substrate surface by a guiding metal plate, the CNT growth direction could be manipulated from perpendicular to nearly parallel to the substrate surface. Moreover, a rattan-like CNT would form when prolonging the deposition time or increasing the plasma carbon concentration. These novel nanostructures are expected to have high potential in energy storage, field emission display, nanoelectronics and gas sensing applications accordingly.
After three to four decades of substantial increase, yields per acre of major U.S. crops appear to have tapered off. The average annual rate of growth in crop yields decreased markedly from 2.7 percent for the 1950s to 1.8 percent for the 1960s, and finally fell to 0.1 percent for the first half of the 1970s. Scientists commissioned by the National Academy of Sciences to investigate agriculture production efficiency first discovered the problem . Concern about the situation was expressed in the literature early this year by both a plant physiologist and agricultural economists. If a crop yield series has reached and remains on a plateau, it would conform with what is expected in a stationary or trendless series. Therefore, examination of the leveling of crop yields can be accomplished by testing for the presence or absence of a trend in the series.
A topic of considerable recent discussion is the use of high return per acre crops such as vegetables as a possible means of improving income levels on small, limited-resource farms. Though production economic analyses (those using conventional techniques such as budgeting and linear programming) indicate that farmers with small acreage might increase their income substantially by selecting vegetable enterprises, very few farmers are selecting vegetables over field crops. One possible explanation for their failure to do so is that the income from vegetable crops is more variable than that from field crops, and owners of small farms are more inclined to produce crops that will yield a lower but more stable level of income.