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This article is an institutional study on the history of the ill-fated Wusong Railway, China's first operational railway. The nine-mile light railway was built by the British firm Jardine, Matheson & Co. without the Qing government's permission. After negotiations with British diplomats, the Qing government agreed to purchase the line but the reformist governor-general Shen Baozhen later ordered it to be removed to Taiwan. Unfortunately funds were never provided for the rebuilding work. This article argues that it was the Qing government's failure to raise funds for capital-intensive projects that led to the railway's final destruction.
A radio-frequency magnetron sputtering technique and subsequent rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 600, 700, 800, and 900 °C were implemented to grow high-quality Ga-doped MgxZn1-xO (GMZO) epi-layers. The GMZO films were deposited using a radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system and a 4 inch ZnO/MgO/Ga2O3 (75/20/5 wt %) target. The Hall results, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmittance were determined and are reported in this paper. The Hall results indicated that the increase in mobility was likely caused by the improved crystallization in the GMZO films after thermal annealing. The XRD results revealed that MgxZn1-xO (111) and MgO2 (200) peaks were obtained in the GMZO films. The absorption edges of the as-grown and annealed GMZO films shifted toward the short wavelength of 373 nm at a transmittance of 90%. According to these results, GMZO films are feasible for forming transparent contact layers for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes.
In 1868, the prominent British firm, Jardine, Matheson & Co., opened the Niuzhuang Oil Mill, one of China’s earliest mechanized factories, but closed it in 1870. The mill faced no oppositions from local government officials but suffered from some technical defects. It produced better quality products that obtained higher prices. This essay argues that the mill’s failure had to do with high capital costs and low profitability.
A 15–32 GHz miniature single-balanced gate mixer is proposed and analyzed. It achieves a smaller chip area with acceptable conversion gain and port-to-port isolation. In addition, the design procedure is described in detail. This mixer, fabricated in 90 nm digital CMOS technology, demonstrates a measured conversion loss of 1 dB and higher than 30 dB RF-to-LO port isolation from 17 to 32 GHz, at a local oscillator (LO) driver power of −4.3 dBm. The total dc power consumption is only 6 mW from a 1.2 V supply, including output buffer. The low dc power consumption and LO driver power reduce the power budget, and the proposed miniature rat-race hybrid facilitates integration in a receiver.
Biomaterials such as DNA are currently being explored as potential application in nanotechnology. DNA templates were immobilized on crystal-violet-treated mica by spin coating as a grid-like network. The DNA templates were then activated with PdCl2, followed by reduction with dimethylamine borane (DMAB) to form seeding nanoclusters on the DNA chain. Afterward the DNA chain with deposition of zero-valence Pd nanoclusters was grew in a Co electroless plating bath. SEM/EDS analysis revealed that Co nanoparticles could be assembled on the DNA template to form magnetic nanowires with a diameter of 25nm to 250nm by a conventional electroless plating. Vibrating Sample Magnetometer analysis indicated that Co-DNA nanowires showed a paramagnetic characteristic. Grid-like networks of DNA template were effectively preserved after Co electroless plating. These characteristics indicated that DNA is an ideal template for the production of magnetic nanowires, which could be useful in the development of high-density memory storage or magnetic field sensors.
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