To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Major depressive disorder and neuroticism (Neu) share a large genetic basis. We sought to determine whether this shared basis could be decomposed to identify genetic factors that are specific to depression.
We analysed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of depression (from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, 23andMe and UK Biobank) and compared them with GWAS of Neu (from UK Biobank). First, we used a pairwise GWAS analysis to classify variants as associated with only depression, with only Neu or with both. Second, we estimated partial genetic correlations to test whether the depression's genetic link with other phenotypes was explained by shared overlap with Neu.
We found evidence that most genomic regions (25/37) associated with depression are likely to be shared with Neu. The overlapping common genetic variance of depression and Neu was genetically correlated primarily with psychiatric disorders. We found that the genetic contributions to depression, that were not shared with Neu, were positively correlated with metabolic phenotypes and cardiovascular disease, and negatively correlated with the personality trait conscientiousness. After removing shared genetic overlap with Neu, depression still had a specific association with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, coronary artery disease and age of first birth. Independent of depression, Neu had specific genetic correlates in ulcerative colitis, pubertal growth, anorexia and education.
Our findings demonstrate that, while genetic risk factors for depression are largely shared with Neu, there are also non-Neu-related features of depression that may be useful for further patient or phenotypic stratification.
The Comprehensive Assessment of Neurodegeneration and Dementia (COMPASS-ND) cohort study of the Canadian Consortium on Neurodegeneration in Aging (CCNA) is a national initiative to catalyze research on dementia, set up to support the research agendas of CCNA teams. This cross-country longitudinal cohort of 2310 deeply phenotyped subjects with various forms of dementia and mild memory loss or concerns, along with cognitively intact elderly subjects, will test hypotheses generated by these teams.
The COMPASS-ND protocol, initial grant proposal for funding, fifth semi-annual CCNA Progress Report submitted to the Canadian Institutes of Health Research December 2017, and other documents supplemented by modifications made and lessons learned after implementation were used by the authors to create the description of the study provided here.
The CCNA COMPASS-ND cohort includes participants from across Canada with various cognitive conditions associated with or at risk of neurodegenerative diseases. They will undergo a wide range of experimental, clinical, imaging, and genetic investigation to specifically address the causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of these conditions in the aging population. Data derived from clinical and cognitive assessments, biospecimens, brain imaging, genetics, and brain donations will be used to test hypotheses generated by CCNA research teams and other Canadian researchers. The study is the most comprehensive and ambitious Canadian study of dementia. Initial data posting occurred in 2018, with the full cohort to be accrued by 2020.
Availability of data from the COMPASS-ND study will provide a major stimulus for dementia research in Canada in the coming years.
Breakthrough Listen is a 10-yr initiative to search for signatures of technologies created by extraterrestrial civilisations at radio and optical wavelengths. Here, we detail the digital data recording system deployed for Breakthrough Listen observations at the 64-m aperture CSIRO Parkes Telescope in New South Wales, Australia. The recording system currently implements two modes: a dual-polarisation, 1.125-GHz bandwidth mode for single-beam observations, and a 26-input, 308-MHz bandwidth mode for the 21-cm multibeam receiver. The system is also designed to support a 3-GHz single-beam mode for the forthcoming Parkes ultra-wideband feed. In this paper, we present details of the system architecture, provide an overview of hardware and software, and present initial performance results.
UK Biobank is a well-characterised cohort of over 500 000 participants that offers unique opportunities to investigate multiple diseases and risk factors.
An online mental health questionnaire completed by UK Biobank participants was expected to expand the potential for research into mental disorders.
An expert working group designed the questionnaire, using established measures where possible, and consulting with a patient group regarding acceptability. Case definitions were defined using operational criteria for lifetime depression, mania, anxiety disorder, psychotic-like experiences and self-harm, as well as current post-traumatic stress and alcohol use disorders.
157 366 completed online questionnaires were available by August 2017. Comparison of self-reported diagnosed mental disorder with a contemporary study shows a similar prevalence, despite respondents being of higher average socioeconomic status than the general population across a range of indicators. Thirty-five per cent (55 750) of participants had at least one defined syndrome, of which lifetime depression was the most common at 24% (37 434). There was extensive comorbidity among the syndromes. Mental disorders were associated with high neuroticism score, adverse life events and long-term illness; addiction and bipolar affective disorder in particular were associated with measures of deprivation.
The questionnaire represents a very large mental health survey in itself, and the results presented here show high face validity, although caution is needed owing to selection bias. Built into UK Biobank, these data intersect with other health data to offer unparalleled potential for crosscutting biomedical research involving mental health.
Declaration of interest
G.B. received grants from the National Institute for Health Research during the study; and support from Illumina Ltd. and the European Commission outside the submitted work. B.C. received grants from the Scottish Executive Chief Scientist Office and from The Dr Mortimer and Theresa Sackler Foundation during the study. C.S. received grants from the Medical Research Council and Wellcome Trust during the study, and is the Chief Scientist for UK Biobank. M.H. received grants from the Innovative Medicines Initiative via the RADAR-CNS programme and personal fees as an expert witness outside the submitted work.
Knowledge of the spatial distribution of bed lubrication regimes, i.e. frozen vs wet conditions, is crucial for understanding ice-sheet flow. Radar sounding can probe differing reflectivities between wet and frozen beds, but is limited by uncertainty in attenuation within the ice of bed echoes. Here we present two methods to estimate attenuation: (1) wide-angle radar sounding, in which source and receiver locations are varied so as to vary propagation path length, and thus echo amplitude; and (2) profiling, inwhich similar variations are obtained by sounding through varying ice thicknesses (assuming constant bed reflectivity). Siple Dome, West Antarctica, provides unusually favorable circumstances for application of these methods: the bed beneath Siple Dome is flat and uniform in its radar reflectivity, while ice thickness varies by several hundred meters. Wide-angle data 4 km from the summit yield an estimate for characteristic attenuation length of 124 m (35 dB km–1 loss), whereas profiling yields an estimate of 168 m.The difference between estimates is modest compared to the range of attenuation lengths reported in the literature. It may nonetheless prove informative by bounding effects of two ice properties to which the methods respond differently: (1) wide-angle sounding sampled relatively warm (lossy) ice beneath the summit, whereas the profiling method sampled relatively cold ice beneath the flanks as well; and (2) strain-induced crystal orientation fabrics and resulting dielectric anisotropy in the ice would vary from summit to flank, and may influence wide-angle sounding more strongly than profiling.
Ice-thickness measurements are needed to calculate fluxes through fast-flowing outlet glaciers in Greenland, Alaska, Patagonia and Antarctica. However, relatively high attenuation of radio waves by dielectric absorption and volume scattering from englacial water hampers detection of the bed through warm deep ice. In the past we have had success measuring ice thickness of temperate glaciers using a ground-based monopulse radar system operating at low frequencies (2 MHz). Here we adapt the same system to operate from an airplane. Test flights over Bering Glacier, Alaska, USA, detected the bed through ice up to 1250m thick. Flights across the Seward–Malaspina Glacier system, Alaska, resolved the ice thickness of Malaspina Glacier, but strong hyperbolic-shaped returns obscured the bed echo through the Seward throat. It is likely that this clutter in the signal was caused by off-nadir returns from chaotic surface crevasses that are ubiquitous in the throat region.
Most of our understanding of BPF's is based on observations of the neutral and ionized gas in bright, high luminosity sources. Data on low luminosity (L ≲ 30 L⊙) objects has now become more available (e.g. Frerking and Langer, Astrophys. J. 256, 523, 1982) permitting a test of models at this end of the luminosity range. We have performed a series of multi-wavelength observations, emphasizing low luminosity objects.
Infrared coronal emission lines are providing a new window for observation and analysis of highly ionized gas in Galactic and extragalactic sources such as Seyfert nuclei and classical novae shells. These lines are expected to be primary coolants in colliding galaxies, galaxy cluster cooling flows, cometary-compact HII regions, and supernova remnants. In this poster, we summarize results discussed in detail by Greenhouse et al. 1993, ApJS, 88, 23. We discuss approximately 74 infrared (1 < λ μm < 280) transitions within the ground configurations 2s22pk and 3s23pk (k = 1 to 5) or the first excited configurations 2s2p and 3s3p of highly ionized (χ ≥ 100 eV) O, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ar, Ca, Fe, and Ni. We present results from detailed balance calculations, critical densities for collisional de-excitation, intrinsic photon rates, branching ratios, and excitation temperatures for the transitions. The temperature and density parameter space for dominant cooling via infrared coronal lines is presented, and the relationship of infrared and optical coronal lines is discussed.
We present a snapshot of our ongoing investigation of molecular clouds in Clump 2 located in the Galactic Bar region at a projected distance of ~400pc from the Galactic Center. We show that the analysis of the Clump 2 molecular clouds is complicated because of many fore- and background clouds in the line of sight. Of all clouds, IGGC 22 is the most interesting one, showing very high dust column densities, significant high-J CO emission, and, potentially harbors star formations as eluded to by the detection of [OIII] emission.
Insulating silicon dioxide (SiO2) films can be produced by hydrolysis of metal alkoxide tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) in the presence of an acid catalyst in supercritical fluid CO2 (sc-CO2). In this study, SiO2 films are formed on different substrates using TEOS as a source of silicon, and acetic acid (HAc) as a catalyst. Water required for the hydrolysis reaction is from in situ generation of esterification and condensation reactions involving HAc and the alcohol produced. The acid catalyzed deposition reaction actually starts at room temperature but produces decent films in sc-CO2 at moderately high temperatures (e.g. 50 °C). Supercritical fluid CO2 is known to have near zero surface tension and provides an ideal medium for fabrication of SiO2 films. Formation of SiO2 films via hydrolysis reaction in sc-CO2 is more rapid compared to the traditional hydrolysis reaction at room temperature. In general, metal alkoxide hydrolysis reactions carried out in a closed sc-CO2 system is not affected by moisture in air compared with traditional open-air hydrolysis systems. Using sc-CO2 as a reaction medium can eliminate undesirable organic solvents utilized in traditional alkoxide hydrolysis reactions.
X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electron diffraction (ED) measurements demonstrated that the SiO2 films produced are amorphous. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy show elemental compositions of the films formed on the substrate surfaces to be SiO2. Film thickness formation by controlling the amount of the catalyst is discussed.
In this paper we describe a new observing system which is currently nearing completation at the Mount Wilson Observatory. This system has been designed to obtain daily measurements of solar photospheric and subphotospheric rotational velocities from the frequency splitting of non-radial solar p-mode oscillations of moderate to high degree (i.e. l > 150). The completed system will combine a 244 x 248 pixel CID camera with a high-speed floating point array processor, a 32-bit minicomputer, and a large-capacity disc storage system. We are integrating these components into the spectrograph of the 60-foot solar tower telescope at Mount Wilson in order to provide a facility which will be dedicated to the acquisition of oscillation data.
Disorders of intellectual development: comorbidity and complications
Marc Woodbury-Smith, Associate Professor and CIHR Clinician- Scientist, Departments of Psychiatry & Behavioural Neurosciences,
Howard Ring, University Lecturer, Department of Psychiatry, University of Cambridge, UK
Epilepsy is a common, often chronic neuropsychiatric disorder that sits firmly between the disciplines of neurology and psychiatry. A detailed lexicon has evolved to capture the phenomenology of seizures, and there is increasing understanding of the complex relationship between seizures and associated psychological and behavioural manifestations, as well as frank psychiatric comorbidity. This has facilitated their earlier management. Moreover, research has continued to make significant progress in identifying genetic and metabolic factors that contribute to the aetiology of epilepsy.
Epilepsy is notably more prevalent among individuals with disorders of intellectual development (DID). Disproportionate severity in all the neuropsychiatric characteristics of epilepsy, compounded by unique challenges in diagnosis and management, occur in this population. In this chapter, those aspects of epilepsy that are most relevant to this population will be discussed.
Epilepsy is a common neuropsychiatric disorder characterised by episodic disturbances of consciousness, sensorimotor function, behaviour and emotion resulting from paroxysmal abnormalities of the electrical activity of the brain. While the seizure itself is described by the symptomatic disturbance, the term ‘epilepsy’ is used when seizures become recurrent, more specifically when there are two unprovoked seizures more than 24 hours apart. The prevalence of epilepsy in the general population is 0.5–1.0% (Banerjee et al, 2009), and the lifetime prevalence is 1.5–5.0%. Among those with DID, however, this prevalence is increased severalfold. For example, among those with severe DID (IQ<50), a prevalence of 30% has been reported, and even among those with milder DID (IQ≥50), the prevalence is still relatively high, at 15% or more (Hannah & Brodie, 1998; Lhatoo & Sander, 2001; McGrother et al, 2006). The risk appears to be higher among those with additional neurological diagnoses, such as cerebral palsy (Singhi et al, 2003), and among those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Spence & Schneider, 2009). As will be discussed below, the prevalence is also higher in association with particular genetic intellectual disability syndromes. Also of note is that the prevalence of the psychological, behavioural and psychiatric manifestations associated with epilepsy are more frequent among those with DID.
All the active regions observed on the Sun with the Mount-Wilson magnetograph between August 1959 and December 1962 have been given magnetic classifications in a system similar to the Mount-Wilson sunspot-classification scheme. The flare productivity of regions classified as unipolar, bipolar, and complex bipolar, as well as regions composed of multiple bipolar components has been studied. It has not been necessary to provide a classification corresponding to the γ class of sunspots. Although the relatively poor angular resolution employed in the magnetograms limits somewhat the accuracy of the data, it is clear that both complex bipolar regions and regions with multiple bipolar components produce more than three times the number of flares than the simple bipolar regions produce. The most flare-productive class of regions is the reversed polarity complex classification.
The statistical relation of the spot magnetic-field classification to the classification of the corresponding plage fields has been studied and found to be poor for these data.
The distribution of the magnetic regions in latitude shows that many of the regions with polarities reversed from the usual orientation are confined to the equatorial zone.
Gaia's Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) has been operating in routine phase for over one year since initial commissioning. RVS continues to work well but the higher than expected levels of straylight reduce the limiting magnitude. The end-of-mission radial-velocity (RV) performance requirement for G2V stars was 15 km s−1 at V = 16.5 mag. Instead, 15 km s−1 precision is achieved at 15 < V < 16 mag, consistent with simulations that predict a loss of 1.4 mag. Simulations also suggest that changes to Gaia's onboard software could recover ~0.14 mag of this loss. Consequently Gaia's onboard software was upgraded in April 2015. The status of this new commissioning period is presented, as well as the latest scientific performance of the on-ground processing of RVS spectra. We illustrate the implications of the RVS limiting magnitude on Gaia's view of the Milky Way's halo in 6D using the Gaia Universe Model Snapshot (GUMS).