Direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed to investigate the fully developed turbulence in a straight square annular duct. The mean flow field and the turbulent statistics are compared with existing experiments and numerical results. The comparisons and the analysis of the DNS data led to the discovery of the turbulent boundary layers of concave and convex 90° corners, a corner flow similarity and the scaling characteristics of corner turbulence. Analysis of the mean streamwise velocity near the concave and convex 90° corners resulted in establishing the ‘law-of-the-corner’ formulations. Comparing these formulations with the ‘law-of-the-wall’ relation, both damping and enhancing mechanisms analytically represented by the van Driest damping function, and the enhancement function were revealed for the concave and convex corner turbulence. The investigation captures the distinctive turbulence-driven secondary flows for both convex and concave 90° corners, and a corner flow similarity rule is discovered, which is associated with the pattern of these secondary flows. A turbulence energy spectrum analysis provides the distinctive features of the fully developed turbulence in the wall and corner regions. The validity of the turbulence eddy viscosity concept is evaluated based on these turbulence energy spectra. The turbulence-driven secondary-flow generation mechanisms are investigated by analysing the anisotropy of the Reynolds stresses.