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As a source of competitive advantages for firms, innovation has boosted scholars’ interest in the identification of its main determinants from the perspective of organizational culture. However, there is a lack of research on innovation cultures in the context of emerging markets. Based on survey data from 433 manufacturing firms (331 Chinese firms and 102 Vietnamese firms), this study addresses this research gap using a hierarchical regression analysis to explore the impact of organizational innovation culture on firms’ new product performance and to examine the moderating effects of institutional environments and organizational cohesion on this relationship. We find that there are positive relationships between organizational innovation culture and firms’ new product performance. In contrast to recent research on organizational cohesion, we report that organizational cohesion has both a direct, positive effect on new product performance and a positive moderating role in organizational innovation culture and firms’ new product performance. Furthermore, regarding the institutional environment in the context of emerging markets, we find that the effects of organizational innovation culture on firms’ new product performance are stronger in China than in Vietnam. Therefore, this paper enriches organizational culture research by providing a multidimensional theoretical framework and extends institutional theory in the context of emerging markets by examining the moderating effect of institutional environments on the relationship between organizational innovation culture and firms’ new product performance in both China and Vietnam.
Mosses have adapted to the Antarctic environment and are an ideal medium for studying plant resistance to abiotic stress. Chalcone synthase is the first committed enzyme in the flavonoid metabolic pathway, which plays an indispensable role in plant resistance to adversity. In this study, six genes (Pn021, PnCHS088, Pn270, PnCHS444, PnCHS768 and Pn847) were identified in the Antarctic moss Pohlia nutans Lindberg transcriptome by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Sequence alignment and three-dimensional structure analysis revealed the conserved amino acid residues of the enzymes of the chalcone synthase family, including three catalytic residues (Cys164, His303 and Asn336) and two substrate recognition residues (Phe215 and Phe265). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that PnCHS088, PnCHS444 and PnCHS768 might be chalcone synthase but that Pn021 is more like stilbenecarboxylate synthase. These genes were located at the transition between fungi and advanced plants in the phylogenetic tree. In addition, real-time PCR analysis revealed that the expression profiles of the six P. nutans genes were influenced by diverse abiotic stresses as well as by abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate. The results presented here contribute to the study of the CHS gene family in polar mosses and further reveal the mechanisms underlying the adaptation of mosses to extreme environments.
A new plasmonic photocatalyst Ag/Bi7Ta3O18 was fabricated by photodeposition-hydrothermal method. The phase composition, microstructure, surface areas, average pore size, UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra, and photocatalytic activities of composite photocatalysts were investigated in detail. The results of the measurements indicated that the Ag0 nanoparticle successfully loads on the surface of Bi7Ta3O18, and the 0.06 Ag/Bi7Ta3O18 photocatalysts exhibited the best photocatalytic activity for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB). The improved photocatalytic activity could be contributed to the localized surface plasmon resonance caused by the collective oscillation of the surface electrons of Ag nanoparticles. Additionally, the photocatalytic reaction mechanism was studied by photoluminescence photocurrent, and electron spin resonance analysis. As a result, the Ag nanoparticles onto the Bi7Ta3O18 surface enlarged the electron–hole separation, and the (˙OH) was the dominated active species of degradation RhB in the photocatalytic process.
The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP) is characterized by a cold climate and a large number of lakes. The long ice season necessitates study of the widespread ice covers in the region. An unprecedented multidisciplinary field campaign was conducted on lake ice processes in the central QTP during the period 2019–13. The study lake generally froze up in late October or early November, and broke up in mid or late April, with a maximum ice thickness of 50–70 cm. The mass balances at both ice surface and bottom were measured continuously. Significant ice surface sublimation/ablation was detected and accounted for up to 40% of the whole ice thickness over the ice season. A simple heat-transfer model was developed for the surface ice loss. The calculated values were in good agreement with the observations. They also indicated that atmospheric conditions, including low air humidity and prevailing strong winds, are the primary drivers of the ice surface sublimation.
Active-Passive-Jamming (APJ) is formed by a chaff decoy reflecting jamming signals from an aircraft's active-ECM jammer. The effectiveness of APJ depends on many factors, one of which is the jamming signal's frequency feature. In this paper, we discuss and analyse APJ's frequency feature in a typical given offense-defense scenario for the case where the ECM jammer adopted is velocity gate pull off (VGPO), which is a kind of deception jamming technique. Our results show that the APJ's frequency feature depends not only on the jamming techniques of the jammer, but also on the Native Doppler Frequency (NDF), which is related to the relative positions, distances, angles and velocities of the jammer, radar and chaff decoy. We also carried out simulations, and the results show that the APJ mode can be useful for jamming an enemy radar.
To promote understandings about the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke (IS) through mining key genes, functions and pathways with microarray technology.
Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in blood between patients with IS and healthy people were screened out through comparing microarray data obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus. Overrepresented functions in DEGs were revealed by Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis. Interaction network was constructed for the top 24 DEGs with information from Human Protein Reference Database (HPRD). Relevant microRNAs (miRNAs) were retrieved from three databases: TargetScan, miRBase and miRanda.
A total of 503 DEGs were obtained. Functional enrichment analysis showed that immune response, signaling pathways and apoptosis were significantly over-represented. Six key genes with big degree, betweenness and clustering coefficient were then revealed, which might play important roles in the development of IS. In addition, 57 differentially expressed miRNAs targeting the 6 genes were retrieved.
Our study provides insights into the pathogenesis of IS and potential targets to treat the disease.
Uniform ytterbium ion and erbium ion codoped gadolinium oxyfluoride (GdOF: Yb3+, Er3+) hollow nanospheres of 100-nm diameter were synthesized via the nanoscale Kirkendall approach, using colloidal nanospheres of ytterbium ion and erbium ion codoped gadolinium hydroxide [Gd(OH)3: Yb3+, Er3+] as sacrificial templates and titanium tetrafluoride as fluorine source under hydrothermal condition. The shell thickness of the as-synthesized GdOF: Yb3+, Er3+ hollow nanospheres can be facilely tuned from 31 to 13 nm by controlling reaction temperature and reaction time. The upconversion emission color could be adjusted from red to yellow to green when the host lattices variedfrom gadolinium (III) oxide to gadolinium oxyfluoride to gadolinium fluoride. Furthermore, the formation mechanism of the hollow GdOF: Yb3+, Er3+ nanospheres was found to depend on the fluorine source.
We present electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) and fluorescence lifetime mapping of MEH-PPV/PCBM thin films. The ECL results show that the oxidation peak of MEH-PPV near 0.7 V (vs. SCE) and ECL response of films shifted positively towards 1.2 V in the presence of PCBM. At the same time, the oxidation current density of MEH-PPV increases along with the decrease of ECL intensity in the presence of PCBM. The fluorescence lifetime images clearly show that the lifetime spatial heterogeneities are affected by different substrates and MEH-PPV/PCBM ratios. Meanwhile, the lifetime of MEH-PPV decreases with the increasing of film thickness. The lifetimes of MEH-PPV films on TiO2 substrate are lower than films on glass.
Background: There has been an increased effort to understand the nature of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in non-Western cultures. In particular, growing research has examined OCD in China, but there are no comprehensive instruments that measure both OCD severity and heterogeneity for characterizing samples. Aims: A validated, comprehensive measure that could be used in China would provide researchers with a useful instrument for evaluating severity and heterogeneity of OCD in a non-Western culture, allowing researchers to better understand the universal and cultural components that play a role in the nature of OCD. Method: The current investigation presents data on the reliability and validity of a Mandarin translation of the Obsessive-Compulsive Inventory-Revised (CH-OCI) using both a student (n = 1950) and clinical sample (n = 50 patients with OCD; n = 50 patients with anxiety as a comparison group). Results: Results support the factor structure, convergent and discriminant validity, criterion-related validity, test-retest reliability, and internal consistency of the CH-OCI. Conclusions: Validation of the instrument permits researchers and clinicians to measure OCD presentation in Mandarin-speaking samples.
Plasmodium rhoptry neck protein 2 (RON2), which is released from the neck portion of the merozoite rhoptries and interacts with the microneme protein Apical Membrane Antigen 1 (AMA1), plays a crucial role in erythrocyte invasion. In this study, we sequenced the Plasmodium vivax RON2 gene from 19 P. vivax isolates collected in central China in order to establish whether this protein is under positive diversifying selection, which may occur as a result of protective host immune pressure†. In comparison with the P. vivax Sal-1 reference line, we found 10 amino acid substitutions dispersed throughout the open reading frame as well as indels caused by polymorphism in a repeat unit (21–23 repeats of (Q/E/K/N/H)(G/D)G(H/L/Y/P)G) in the second tandem repeat region located at amino acid positions 541–650. A McDonald-Kreitman test with RON2 sequences from the primate malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi, detected significant departure from neutrality in the PvRON2 3′ region (nucleotide positions 2668–6609). These results suggest that the PvRON2 gene has evolved under positive diversifying selection.
Thick (>150 μm) beryllium coatings are studied as an ablator material of interest for fusion fuel capsules for the National Ignition Facility. DC magnetron sputtering is used because of the relative controllability of the processing temperature and energy of the deposits. However, coatings produced by DC magnetron sputtering leak the fuel gas D2. By using ion-assisted DC magnetron, sputtered coatings can be made that are leak-tight. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed microstructural changes that lead to leak-tight coating. Ultrasmall angle x-ray spectroscopy is used to characterize the void distribution and volume along the spherical surface along with a combination of focused ion beam, scanning electron microscope, and TEM. An in situ multibeam optical stress sensor was used to measure the stress behavior of thick beryllium coatings on flat substrates as the material was being deposited.
Compared with traditional GPS signals, modern GNSS signals are much more complex and have various new modulations. This introduces a difficulty in combining multiple signal components into a constant-envelope signal that maximises the power efficiency of High Power Amplifiers (HPA) on satellites. This paper first describes the fundamental Phase-Optimised Constant-Envelope Transmission (POCET) technique that searches the optimum combining solution for multiple binary navigation signals. Then the Compass B1/B3 signals are modelled by POCET. For the B1 band, a binary complex sub-carrier is adopted to implement the centre frequency difference between regional and global Compass navigation systems. Regional B1 Open Service (OS) signals and global TMBOC signals are combined with optimum loss of 1·0 dB. For the B3 band, Interplex modulation is proved to be the optimum method to combine QPSK (10) and BOC (15, 2·5) signals. Signal quality in the presence of finite word-length effects of Digital-Analog (DA) converters is analysed. Simulations for signal model validation are conducted. The result indicates that relative amplitude error less than 0·01 and angle error less than 0·1 degree can be achieved with 10 bit DA converters. The POCET method is demonstrated as an efficient solution for Compass signals.
This paper describes the photolysis of polystyrene with 1.06μm laser. The laser dissociation is measured with mass spectrum method. It gives the mean mass value of particles, quantum value and percentage of m/e=104 vs time.
Diamondlike carbon-nitrogen films on silicon (111) wafer and tungsten carbide plates have been prepared by using dual ion beam sputtering deposition and simultaneous bombardment by N+ with energies of 100-800 eV at room temperature. These films retain their diamondlike characteristics. However, as the nitrogen content increases from 10% at to 20% at., the Auger electron spectroscopy spectra of films change obviously in fine structure and the main Cls peak of carbon atoms in the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy spectra shifts to 285.65 eV. The maximum hardness of these films on tungsten carbide plates is about 5260 kg/mm2. The films have an amorphous structure and smooth surface. The state of nitrogen in films and its influence on the structure and properties of films are discussed.
Using Transmission Electron Microscopy, we studied the misfit and threading dislocations in InAs epilayers. All the samples, with thickness around 0.5μm, were grown on GaAs(001) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy under As-rich or In-rich conditions. The As-rich growth undergoes 2D-3D mode transition process, which was inhibited under In-rich surface. High step formation energy under As-deficient reconstruction inhibits the formation of 3D islands and leads to 2D growth. The mechanism of misfit dislocations formation was different under different growth condition which caused the variation of threading dislocation density in the epilayers.
A novel pulsed rapid thermal processing (PRTP) method has been used for realizing the solid-phase crystallization of amorphous silicon films prepared by PECVD. The microstructure and surface morphology of the crystallized films are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results indicate that this PRTP is a suitable postcrystallization technique for fabricating large-area polycrystalline silicon films with good structural qualities such as large grain size, small lattice microstain and smooth surface morphology on low-cost substrate.
A series of bismuth layer-structured ferroelectrics thin films Srm-3Bi4TimO3m+3(m=3, 4, 5, and 6) were deposited by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on (001) LaAlO3 single crystal substrate. XRD and Raman studies have been performed. The more sensitive Raman spectra lead to a different understanding on the layer structure of Sr3Bi4Ti6O21 from XRD. This can be attributed to the lager c-axis constant of Sr3Bi4Ti6O21 due to more layers. More layers lead to increasing disorder in the local scale of the average grain.
The distribution of alloying elements and the corresponding structural evolution of Mn–Sb alloys in magnetic field gradients were investigated in detail. It was found that a high magnetic field gradient could control the distribution of solute element in the alloys during the solidification process and therefore resulted in the coexistence of both primary MnSb and Sb phases or the aggregation of the primary MnSb with a continuous change in morphology. The positions where these primary phases located depended on the direction of field gradient. The control of the solute element distribution by a high magnetic field gradient was realized through the magnetic buoyancy force that could drive the migration of Mn element in the melt, originating from the difference in the magnetic susceptibility between Mn and Sb. The effectiveness of this control depends on the alloy composition, specimen dimension, cooling rate, and |BdB/dz| value.
The feasibility of increasing proportion of lump ores in blast
furnace was investigated. The lab results showed that self-softening
and melting properties of the lump ores were dramatically
improved by interaction between sinters and lump ores found
in the experiments. Furthermore, the collocation pattern of lump
ores and ratio between lump ores was optimized according to
interaction. When the proportion of lump ores was up to 23% or
27% at the excellent collocation pattern and appropriate ratio,
the burdens still conformed to the requirements of ironmaking.
Fe–N thin films were deposited on glass substrates by dc magnetron sputtering under various Ar∕N2 discharge conditions. Crystal structures and elemental compositions of the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Magnetic properties of the films were measured using a superconducting quantum interference device magnetometer. Films deposited at different N2∕(Ar+N2) flow ratios were found to have different crystal structures and different nitrogen contents. When the flow ratios were 60%, 50%, and 30%, a nonmagnetic single-phase FeN was formed in the films. At the flow ratio of 10%, two crystal phases of γ′-Fe4N and ε-Fe3N were detected. When the flow ratio reduced to 5%, a mixture of α-Fe, ε-Fe3N, FeN0.056, and α″-Fe16N2 phases was obtained. The value of saturation magnetization for the mixture was found to be larger than that of pure Fe.