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Black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.) is one of the worst weeds in crop fields, and it spreads mainly by the dispersal of seeds. Temperature is one of the key environmental factors affecting seed germination. We investigated the seed germination response to temperature in six populations of S. nigrum from mid- to northern China and derived mathematical models from germination data. The results showed that S. nigrum seeds exhibit distinct germination responses to temperature within the range of 15 to 35 C. The optimum temperature for populations XJ1600, JL1697, and HLJ2134 was 30 C, and those for populations NMG1704, HN2160, and LN2209 were 25, 20, and 15 C, respectively. Based on the nonlinear fitting and thermal time models, the predicted base temperatures of the six populations ranged from 2.3 to 6.4 C, and the required accumulated growing degree days (GDD) ranged from 50.3 to 106.0 C·d. The base temperatures and the accumulated GDD for germination differed among populations, and there was a significant negative correlation. HLJ2134 population required a high base temperature and accumulated GDD for germination, indicating that it might be highly adapted to a warmer and moister environment. Based on the different germination responses of S. nigrum populations to temperature, the thermal time model reflects an innate relationship between base temperature and accumulated GDD required for initiation of seed germination, which provides a better basis for predicting seedling emergence and the timing for optimal control of S. nigrum under field conditions.
Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.) is a troublesome dicot weed species widely distributed across China. A population of A. retroflexus that survived the recommended label rate of thifensulfuron-methyl was collected from the main soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production area in China. Whole-plant dose–response assays indicated that the resistant (R) population was highly resistant (61.80-fold) to thifensulfuron-methyl compared with the susceptible (S1 and S2) populations. In vitro acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity experiments showed that the thifensulfuron-methyl I50 value for the R population was 40.17 times higher than that for the S1 population. A preliminary malathion treatment study indicated that the R population might have cytochrome P450–mediated metabolic resistance. The R population exhibited a high level of cross-resistance to representative ALS herbicides (imazethapyr, flumetsulam, and bispyribac-sodium) and multiple resistance to the commonly used protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO)-inhibiting herbicides lactofen and fomesafen. Two common mutations, Trp-574-Leu in ALS and Arg-128-Gly in PPO2, were identified within the R population. This study identified possible enhanced metabolism of thifensulfuron-methyl coexisting with target-site mutations in both ALS and PPO2 in a multiple-resistant A. retroflexus population.
Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) is one of the most troublesome weeds in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and corn (Zea mays L.) fields in northeast China. In 2017, a C. album population that survived imazethapyr at the recommended field rate was collected from a soybean field in Heilongjiang Province in China. Experiments were conducted to determine the basis of resistance to imazethapyr and investigate the herbicide-resistance pattern in C. album. Dose–response tests showed that the resistant population (R) displayed high resistance to imazethapyr (20-fold) compared with the susceptible population (S). An in vitro acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity assay indicated that the ALS of the R population was resistant to imazethapyr compared with the ALS of the S population. Sequence analysis of the ALS gene revealed that the GCA was replaced by ACA at amino acid position 122, which resulted in an alanine to threonine substitution (Ala-122-Thr) in the R population. The R population displayed cross-resistance to thifensulfuron-methyl and flumetsulam but susceptibility to bispyribac-sodium, flucarbazone, glyphosate, mesotrione, and fomesafen. These results confirmed that the basis of imazethapyr resistance in C. album was conferred by the Ala-122-Thr substitution in the ALS enzyme. This is the first report of the target-site basis of ALS-inhibiting herbicide resistance in C. album.
The spread of buffalobur in China poses a serious threat to existing ecosystems, and control and eradication of this species have become increasingly important. Studies were carried out to ascertain the seed production, morphological characterization, dormancy behavior, and methods for breaking dormancy of buffalobur. The results showed that a single buffalobur plant could produce 1,600 to 43,800 seeds with an average weight of 3.0 mg. Average seed length, width, and thickness were 2.5, 2.0, and 1.0 mm, respectively. Newly ripened buffalobur seeds were innately dormant and exhibited combinational dormancy, which involves a hard seed coat (physical dormancy, PY), a partial dormant embryo (physiological dormancy, PD), and a dark requirement to germinate. PY of buffalobur seeds could be broken by dehusking or acid scarification by 14 M H2SO4 for 15 min, with germination rates of 55 or 50%, respectively. PD was effectively broken by KNO3 or gibberellic acid (GA3). The optimum concentration for KNO3 was between 20 and 40 mM, which resulted in over 70% seed germination. When presoaked with GA3 at 30 C in dark for 24 h, maximum germination (> 98%) was obtained at 2.4 mM, the corresponding germination speed (85%) and germination index (16) were also highest at this concentration. Synergistic effects were observed in seed germination when H2SO4 and GA3 were combined. The most rapid and effective combination in breaking dormancy was when the seeds were immersed in H2SO4 (14 M) for 20 min and presoaked with 2.4 mM GA3 for 24 h. Germination index for this combination was over 35, and 95% of the seeds germinated within 7 d. Knowledge gained in this study will be useful in increasing germination of buffalobur and facilitating further laboratory studies.
Buffalobur is a noxious and invasive weed species native to North America. The influence of environmental factors on seed germination and seedling emergence of buffalobur were evaluated in laboratory and greenhouse experiments. The germination of buffalobur seeds occurred at temperatures ranging from 12.5 to 45 C, with optimum germination attained between 25 and 35 C. Buffalobur seeds germinated equally well under both a 14-h photoperiod and continuous darkness; however, prolonged light exposure (≥ 16 h) significantly inhibited the seed germination. Buffalobur seed is rather tolerant to low water potential and high salt stress, as germination was 28 and 52% at osmotic potentials of −1.1 MPa and salinity level of 160 mM, respectively. Medium pH has no significant effect on seed germination; germination was greater than 95% over a broad pH range from 3 to 10. Seedling emergence was higher (85%) for seeds buried at a soil depth of 2 cm than for those placed on the soil surface (32%), but no seedlings emerged when burial depth reached 8 cm. Knowledge of germination biology of buffalobur obtained in this study will be useful in predicting the potential distribution area and developing effective management strategies for this species.
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