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Research suggests that cause lawyers are a diverse group. Death penalty lawyers with attachment to political institutions and a strong commitment to procedurals tend to have a unique path to professional identification, participation in the legal process and acquiring the ability to affect case outcomes. Borrowing from Hilbink's typologies and Liu and Halliday's analytical framework, this study examines in detail the practices of proceduralist and progressive elite lawyers. It uses a high-profile capital case, the Nian Bin case, as a case study to analyse the motivation and strategies of the lead defence lawyer in the context of progressive proceduralist cause lawyers. Relevant theoretical and policy implications as well as suggestions for future studies are discussed.
Suicide attempt (SA), which is one of the strongest predictors of completed suicide, is common in major depressive disorder (MDD) but its prevalence across epidemiological studies has been mixed. The aim of this comprehensive meta-analysis was to examine the pooled prevalence of SA in individuals with MDD.
A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, Web of Science and Cochrane Library from their commencement date until 27 December 2017. Original studies containing data on prevalence of SA in individuals with MDD were analyzed.
In all, 65 studies with a total of 27 340 individuals with MDD were included. Using the random effects model, the pooled lifetime prevalence of SA was 31% [95% confidence interval (CI) 27–34%], 1-year prevalence was 8% (95% CI 3–14%) and 1-month prevalence was 24% (95% CI 15–34%). Subgroup analyses revealed that the lifetime prevalence of SA was significantly associated with the patient setting, study region and income level, while the 1-month prevalence of SA was associated with only the patient setting.
This meta-analysis confirmed that SA was common in individuals with MDD across the world. Careful screening and appropriate interventions should be implemented for SA in the MDD population.
Clathrin heavy chain 1 (CLTC) has been considered a “moonlighting protein” which acts in membrane trafficking during interphase and in stabilizing spindle fibers during mitosis. However, its roles in meiosis, especially in mammalian oocyte maturation, remain unclear. This study investigated CLTC expression and function in spindle formation and chromosome congression during mouse oocyte meiotic maturation. Our results showed that the expression level of CLTC increased after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) and peaked in the M phase. Immunostaining results showed CLTC distribution throughout the cytoplasm in a cell cycle-dependent manner. Appearance and disappearance of CLTC along with β-tubulin (TUBB) could be observed during spindle dynamic changes. To explore the relationship between CLTC and microtubule dynamics, oocytes at metaphase were treated with taxol or nocodazole. CLTC colocalized with TUBB at the enlarged spindle and with cytoplasmic asters after taxol treatment; it disassembled and distributed into the cytoplasm along with TUBB after nocodazole treatment. Disruption of CLTC function using stealth siRNA caused a decreased first polar body extrusion rate and extensive spindle formation and chromosome congression defects. Taken together, these results show that CLTC plays an important role in spindle assembly and chromosome congression through a microtubule correlation mechanism during mouse oocyte maturation.
Objective: MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by mitochondrial dysfunction. Multiple systems of the body, including cognitive function and heart conduction, can be affected by this disorder. We report a case with global cognitive impairment.
Method: A single-case report.
Results: The patient got improved cognitive function, especially visuospatial function, under coenzyme Q10 treatment.
Conclusion: First, coenzyme Q10 may give some benefit to control MELAS. Second, cognitive functions and intellectual abilities decline with disease progression. Routine neuropsychological tests should be performed.
Large scale of straight Ga2O3 nanowires is grown on a fused silica substrate by a simple catalyst-free CVD method using Ga metal and N2 / H2O reactants. The Ga2O3 nanowires with diameters ranging from 60 to 150 nm can be as long as several micrometers. XRD and TEM analyses indicate that the Ga2O3 nanowires exhibit a monoclinic structure. PL characteristic of the Ga2O3 nanowires shows a UV emission of 375 nm at room temperature.
Ultrathin (∼10 nm) InN ion selective field effect transistors (ISFETs) show a current variation ratio of 3.5 % per pH decade with a response time of less than 10 s. When the ISFET is employed as an electrolyte FET, the current variation of 18 % was measured as the gate bias changes from zero to 0.3 V given a drain-source voltage of 0.1 V. The high current (resistance) variation ratio is attributed to the ultrathin epilayer and an unusual phenomenon of intrinsic strong electron accumulation on InN surface, which enables a chemical/biological sensor with high sensitivity and resolution and permits detection of a slight concentration variation of the electrolyte. The pH response measurement of 10-nm-thick InN ISFETs investigated was performed in an aqueous solution titrated with diluted NaOH and HCl. The Helmholtz potential built at the electrolyte-InN interface is governed by direct adsorption of H+ ions at the surface metal oxides, modulating the channel current of the InN ISFETs. The channel current monotonically decreases as the pH value of an aqueous solution increases from 2 to 10. The sensitivity and resolution were found to be 58.3 mV per decade and 0.02 pH change, respectively. Besides, the detection of DNA hybridization was further performed after the InN surface was modified with MPTMS and probe DNA. A complementary target DNA solution of 100 nM led to a current decrease of approximate 6 uA, corresponding to the current variation of 0.74 %. The hybridization between negatively charged complementary DNA and the immobilized probe DNA caused the depletion of carriers at the InN surface, suppressing the channel current. The functionalized InN ISFETs are suitable for genetic analysis in clinical diagnostics without any labeling reagent. Such an InN-based sensor is appealing in the regime of chemical and biological sensing applications.
A novel vapor-transport-assisted wet chemistry process was developed to fabricate oxide nanodot arrays from soft polymer templates. The feasibility and wide applicability of the proposed process was demonstrated with creation of high-density oxide nanodot arrays of TiO2, ZnO, and Co3O4. The present process not only avoids the over-growth problem inevitable in wet chemistry processes but also enables formation of oxide nanodots at low temperatures. The process can be readily extended to other compound systems in which the products can be formed through reactions of two reactants, one in liquid phase and the other in vapor phase.
Al2O3 films are grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) using trimethylaluminum and water as precursors on HF-last and NH3 plasma pretreatment Si substrates. The thickness, surface roughness, and density of Al2O3 films as well as the nature of their interlayers with Si substrates are characterized by x-ray reflectivity and spectroscopic ellipsometry techniques. The growth rates of Al2O3 films are 1.1 Å/cycle and 1.3 Å/cycle, respectively, on HF-last and NH3-plasma-nitrided surfaces. Al2O3 layer densities are rather independent of the number of growth cycles in all cases. The interfacial film thickness increases with the number of ALD cycles when deposited on an HF-last Si substrate. However, because SiOxNy inhibits oxygen diffusion, the interfacial film thickness is independent of the number of ALD cycles on the nitrided Si substrate.
The highly conserved DNAs of Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1), Equine arteritis virus (EAV), Equine influenza virus (EIV), Equine infectious anaemia virus (EIAV) and Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) were acquired by molecular cloning, and spotted on the diagnostic gene chip. The cDNAs reverse-transcribed from RNAs of samples were labelled with Cy5-dUTP/Cy3-dUTP as fluorescent probes. Following specific hybridization of the deposited gene chip and labelled probes, fluorescence signals were scanned by laser scanner and the resulting image was analysed by QiamtArray software on a digital computer. The results showed that the prepared gene chip could detect and distinguish the five equine viruses. Its sensitivity was about 25 viral genome copies. The hybridization specificity was confirmed by the presence of red fluorescence signals on the corresponding sites with samples from the five relevant viruses in horses and by the absence of positive signals with the specimens from irrelevant viruses from other animals. Peripheral blood leucocytes (PBL) from some seropositive horses in post-arrival quarantine were negative according to virus isolation, but were positive for EHV-1 and EAV according to the gene chip technique. The overall results suggest that gene chips, which are quick, specific, sensitive and reliable, can provide a practical alternative for screening quarantined animals, and will be able to deal with a large number of animal samples within a very short period of time.
Transient laser-induced anomalous photovoltaic effect has
been studied in La0.8Sr0.2MnO3 films grown on the
SrTiO3 (001) substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy. It is
demonstrated that the signal polarity is reversed when the films are
irradiated through the substrate rather than at the air/film
interface. The microstructures in these films are clarified in terms
of the oriented microdomains with their (101) plane parallel to the
substrate surface, suggesting off-diagonal Seebeck effect plays an
important role for our observation. From the results, we obtain the
anisotropy of the thermoelectric power
V/K, where Sab
and Sc are the ab-plane and c-axis Seebeck coefficients.
We investigated adsorption and dissociation of water and HfCl4 on a Ge/Si(100) −(2 × 1) surface with a density-functional theory. The Si–Ge and Ge–Ge homodimers are used to represent the Si1−xGex surface. (i) Water first adsorbs on the bare Ge/Si(100) − (2 × 1) surface and then dissociates into OH and H. The activation energy for adsorption of water on the Ge–Ge homodimer is much higher than that on the Si–Ge heterodimer. (ii) HfCl4 dissociates upon adsorption on the Ge/Si(100) − (2 × 1) surface into HfCl3 and Cl. No net activation barrier exists during the adsorption of HfCl4 on both SiGe surface dimers. The molecular adsorption state is found to be metastable according to the calculation, which implies that the reaction tends to move toward to the product rather than trapping in HfCl4 adsorbed state. The difference in the potential energy surface between reactions on Si–Ge and Ge–Ge dimers is due to different bond strengths.
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