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Northeastern China is a region of high tick abundance, multiple tick-borne pathogens and likely human infections. The spectrum of diseases caused by tick-borne pathogens has not been objectively evaluated in this region for clinical management and for comparison with other regions globally where tick-transmitted diseases are common. Based on clinical symptoms, PCR, indirect immunofluorescent assay and (or) blood smear, we identified and described tick-borne diseases from patients with recent tick bite seen at Mudanjiang Forestry Central Hospital. From May 2010 to September 2011, 42% (75/180) of patients were diagnosed with a specific tick-borne disease, including Lyme borreliosis, tick-borne encephalitis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, human babesiosis and spotted fever group rickettsiosis. When we compared clinical and laboratory features to identify factors that might discriminate tick-transmitted infections from those lacking that evidence, we revealed that erythema migrans and neurological manifestations were statistically significantly differently presented between those with and without documented aetiologies (P < 0.001, P = 0.003). Twelve patients (6.7%, 12/180) were co-infected with two tick-borne pathogens. We demonstrated the poor ability of clinicians to identify the specific tick-borne disease. In addition, it is necessary to develop specific laboratory assays for optimal diagnosis of tick-borne diseases.
Previous studies in China showed large sex differences in childhood overweight and obesity (OW/OB) rates. However, limited research has examined the cause of these sex differences. The present study aimed to examine individual and parental/familial factors associated with sex differences in childhood OW/OB rates in China.
Variables associated with child weight status, beliefs and behaviours, and obesity-related parenting practices were selected to examine their sex differences and association with a sex difference in child OW/OB outcomes using logistic regression analysis.
Cross-sectional data analysis using the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey.
Children aged 6–17 years (n 1544) and their parents.
Overall child OW/OB prevalence was 16·8 %. Adolescent boys (AB; 12–17 years) were about twice as likely to be overweight/obese as adolescent girls (AG; 15·5 v. 8·4 %, P<0·05). AB more likely had energy intake exceeding recommendations, self-perceived underweight, underestimated their body weight and were satisfied with their physical activity level than AG. AG more likely practised weight-loss management through diet and self-perceived overweight than AB. Mothers more likely identified AG’s weight accurately but underestimated AB’s weight. Stronger associations with risk of childhood OW/OB were found in boys than girls in dieting to lose weight (OR=6·7 in boys v. 2·6 in girls) and combined maternal and child perception of the child’s overweight (OR=35·4 in boys v. 14·2 in girls).
Large sex differences in childhood obesity may be related to the sex disparities in weight-related beliefs and behaviours among children and their parents in China.
Dietary energy density (ED) might have influences on body composition. We therefore examined whether ED is associated with body composition among Chinese adults.
We collected dietary data through validated two-day 24 h recalls. ED, defined as the amount of energy per unit weight of food consumed, was calculated based on five methods. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore the associations between ED and body composition parameters, including BMI, fat mass index (FMI), fat-free mass index (FFMI), percentage body fat (%BF) and waist circumference (WC).
Chinese adults (n 1933) in 2013.
After adjusting the covariates, all ED definitions were positively associated with BMI, FMI, FFMI, %BF and WC among women (P<0·01). In men, however, ED with foods only was positively associated with BMI, FMI, FFMI and %BF (P<0·05), but not with WC (P=0·07); we also found null associations between ED with foods and all beverages and body composition among men. Additionally, ED contributed to higher increases of body composition in women than in men (P<0·01).
The present study supports the positive association between ED and body composition among adults in Southwest China, in which beverages may play an important role.
Kawasaki disease, which is characterised by systemic vasculitides accompanied by acute fever, is regularly treated by intravenous immunoglobulin to avoid lesion formation in the coronary artery; however, the mechanism of intravenous immunoglobulin therapy is unclear. Hence, we aimed to analyse the global expression profile of serum exosomal proteins before and after administering intravenous immunoglobulin.
Two-dimensional electrophoresis coupled with mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the differentially expressed proteome of serum exosomes in patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.
Our analysis revealed 69 differential protein spots in the Kawasaki disease group with changes larger than 1.5-fold and 59 differential ones in patients after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy compared with the control group. Gene ontology analysis revealed that the acute-phase response disappeared, the functions of the complement system and innate immune response were enhanced, and the antibacterial humoral response pathway of corticosteroids and cardioprotection emerged after administration of intravenous immunoglobulin. Further, we showed that complement C3 and apolipoprotein A-IV levels increased before and decreased after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and that the insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit displayed reverse alteration before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. These observations might be potential indicators of intravenous immunoglobulin function.
Our results show the differential proteomic profile of serum exosomes of patients with Kawasaki disease before and after intravenous immunoglobulin therapy, such as complement C3, apolipoprotein A-IV, and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein complex acid labile subunit. These results may be useful in the identification of markers for monitoring intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with Kawasaki disease.
Childhood obesity has increased rapidly in China, but understanding is limited on how parents perceive their child’s weight status and how this perception affects weight-related parenting practices. We examined maternal perception of her child’s weight status and its association with demographics, subsequent weight-related parenting practices, the child’s health behaviours and weight change.
Maternal perception of child’s weight status and health behaviours from the China Health and Nutrition Surveys were assessed at baseline and in follow-up surveys for 816 children aged 6–18 years during 2004–2011. Associations were tested using mixed models.
Overall, maternal and child perceptions of the child’s weight status were fairly consistent (κw=0·56), 63·8 % of mothers had correct perception. While 9·6 % of mothers perceived their child as overweight, 10·9 % of children did so, and 13·6 % of children were indeed overweight. Compared with mothers who viewed their children as normal weight, mothers who thought their children were overweight were more likely to encourage their children to increase their physical activity (OR; 95 % CI: 1·8; 1·0, 3·3) and to diet (4·3; 2·3, 7·8). Children perceived as overweight by their mothers were more likely to have insufficient physical activity (2·8; 1·6, 4·7) and gain more weight during follow-up (BMI Z-score, β (se): 1·0 (0·1); P<0·01) than children perceived by their mothers as normal weight.
In China, mothers who perceive their child as overweight are more likely to encourage their child to exercise and modify their diet for weight management, but this encouragement does not seem to improve the child’s health behaviours and weight status.
Preconditioned modified Hermitian and skew-Hermitian splitting method (PMHSS) is an unconditionally convergent iteration method for solving large sparse complex symmetric systems of linear equations, and uses one parameter α. Adding another parameter β, the generalized PMHSS method (GPMHSS) is essentially a twoparameter iteration method. In order to accelerate the GPMHSS method, using an unexpected way, we propose an accelerated GPMHSS method (AGPMHSS) for large complex symmetric linear systems. Numerical experiments show the numerical behavior of our new method.
By combining the techniques of directional solidification and coating Y2O3, a Cr–20Nb–40Ti alloy was manufactured successfully with various growth rates. The revolution of microstructures and corresponding mechanical properties was discussed to develop the Cr2Nb based alloys with good combination of mechanical properties. The results show that the favorable growth dynamics of plane (220) of Laves phase Cr2Nb was observed with the increase of growth rate. Phase selection took place in microstructures evolved from the primary Cr2Nb, via the dendrite-like eutectic Cr2Nb/β-Ti, and finally to the primary β-Ti, with increasing the growth rate from 5 to 200 μm/s. Based on the coupled zone of eutectic, the competitive growth of solidified phases in the directionally solidified Cr–20Nb–40Ti alloy was elucidated. In addition, the mechanical properties of alloy depended on the growth rate, and the fracture toughness of the alloy reached 16.50 MPa m1/2 at 200 μm/s, much larger than 1.40 MPa m1/2 for single-phase Cr2Nb.
Dietary patterns represent the combined effects of foods, and illustrate efficaciously the impact of diet on health outcomes. Some findings of previous studies have limited applicability to Chinese children due to cultural factors. The presnt study was designed to identify dietary patterns and determine their relationships with obesity among Chinese children and adolescents. Data collected from 1282 children and adolescents aged 7–17 years from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) were used. Dietary patterns were identified using factor analysis of data from three consecutive 24-h dietary recalls. Weight and height were measured following standard methods, and BMI was calculated. Three dietary patterns were identified: modern (high intakes of milk, fast foods and eggs), traditional north (high intakes of wheat, tubers and other cereals) and traditional south (high intakes of vegetables, rice and pork). After adjusting for some confounders and total energy intake, subjects in the highest quartiles of the modern and traditional north patterns were found to have significantly greater risk of obesity (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·52, 6·32, and OR 2·42, 95 % CI 1·34, 4·39, respectively). In conclusion, the modern dietary pattern and the traditional north dietary pattern were associated with higher risk of obesity. Promoting healthier eating patterns could help prevent obesity in Chinese children.
The effect of tea intake on blood pressure (BP) is controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials to determine the changes in systolic and diastolic BP due to the intake of black and green tea. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register up to May 2014. The weighted mean difference was calculated for net changes in systolic and diastolic BP using fixed-effects or random-effects models. Previously defined subgroup analyses were performed to explore the influence of study characteristics. A total of twenty-five eligible studies with 1476 subjects were selected. The acute intake of tea had no effects on systolic and diastolic BP. However, after long-term tea intake, the pooled mean systolic and diastolic BP were lower by − 1·8 (95 % CI − 2·4, − 1·1) and − 1·4 (95 % CI − 2·2, − 0·6) mmHg, respectively. When stratified by type of tea, green tea significantly reduced systolic BP by 2·1 (95 % CI − 2·9, − 1·2) mmHg and decreased diastolic BP by 1·7 (95 % CI − 2·9, − 0·5) mmHg, and black tea showed a reduction in systolic BP of 1·4 (95 % CI − 2·4, − 0·4) mmHg and a decrease in diastolic BP of 1·1 (95 % CI − 1·9, − 0·2) mmHg. The subgroup analyses showed that the BP-lowering effect was apparent in subjects who consumed tea more than 12 weeks (systolic BP − 2·6 (95 % CI − 3·5, − 1·7) mmHg and diastolic BP − 2·2 (95 % CI − 3·0, − 1·3) mmHg, both P< 0·001). The present findings suggest that long-term ( ≥ 12 weeks) ingestion of tea could result in a significant reduction in systolic and diastolic BP.
Traditional morphology-based taxonomy of eriophyoid mites (Acari: Eriophyoidea) has been challenged by molecular-based technologies in the detection of cryptic species. However, the implications of such cryptic diversity appear to differ when methods based on different types of data are used. Here, samples of a host-associated eriophyoid mite species, Tetra pinnatifidae, collected from different host plants and localities are evaluated. The congruence of results based on morphometric (32 characters), mitochondrial (16S), and nuclear (28S) data were evaluated and showed a host-associated cryptic diversity dividing this morphospecies into several groups/clades that were morphometrically indistinguishable. In comparison, the 16S data confirmed cryptic speciation and intra-clade host-associated diversity, while 28S did not. In contrast, 28S data revealed potential gene flow between host-associated populations. High mitochondrial divergence, as well as low nuclear and morphological divergence indicated very recent stage of cryptic diversity of this eriophyoid mite.
Numerical and theoretical investigations are carried out for the stability of the dust acoustic waves (DAWs) under the transverse perturbation in a two-ion temperature magnetized and collisionless dusty plasma. The Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation, modified ZK equation, and Extended ZK (EZK) equation of the DAWs are given by using the reductive perturbation technique. The cut-off frequency is obtained by applying higher-order transverse perturbations to the soliton solution of the EZK equation. The propagation velocity of solitary waves, the real cut-off frequency, as well as the growth rate of the higher-order perturbation to the solitary wave are obtained.
Pearlitic transformation in an ultrafine-grained (UFG) hypereutectoid steel was investigated. The steel was a plain carbon steel containing 1.0 wt% C and very few other elements. The UFG samples were prepared by thermomechanical treatment, and an average grain size of approximately 1 μm was achieved. The pearlitic transformation was conducted by heating the UFG samples at 1023 K for different times and then cooling in air. A new pearlitic transformation phenomenon was observed: traditional lamellar pearlite can be observed only when the grain size increases to a dimension larger than approximately 4 μm, which is a critical value. When grain size is smaller than this value, the pearlitic transformation occurs in the form of divorced eutectoid, and the microstructure is the ferrite matrix with granular cementite. This research indicates that grain size has a great influence on pearlitic transformation by shortening the diffusion distance and increasing the diffusion rate of carbon atoms in the UFG steel.
We describe a theory of coulomb blockade of tunneling through molecular-assembled metallic nanoparticles based on the Non-equilibrium Green's function method. We apply the theory to study current transport through a single metallic nanoparticle connected to the leads through two molecular bridges with arbitrary metal-molecule coupling and electron-molecular vibration coupling. We present model calculations of the current-voltage characteristics.
Partially Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) samples were prepared by modification of corresponding poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) with concentrated sulfuric acid. Poly(ether sulfone)(PES) was blended into SPEEK to prepare PES/SPEEK blend membranes by solution casting. The glass transition temperature of blend membranes indicated the molecular miscibility between PES and SPEEK. Characteristics of the blend membranes, including water uptake, thermal stability, methanol permeability, swelling degree, proton conductivity, etc, were investigated. PES played an important role in the blend membranes. Though the proton conductivity of PES/SPEEK blend membranes decreased to some extent, their performance for barrier methanol and swelling had remarkably enhanced, showing the feasibility for direct methanol fuel cell.
In this research, interband and intersubband optical properties of heavily doped n-type CdSe quantum dots were investigated by temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, picosecond time-resolved PL spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Two doped and one undoped CdSe quantum dot samples with multiple QD layers were grown over ZnCdMgSe barrier layers on InP (001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. Heavy doping leads to decreasing of activation energy of nonradiative recombination centers, however, does not affect the luminescence efficiency of doped quantum wells. Time resolved PL experiments show that the PL decay times of the doped samples have weak dependence on well width and are much longer than that of the undoped sample. The two doped CdSe QD samples show strong Intersubband IR absorption that peaked at 2.54 μm, 2.69 μm and 3.51 μm. The ISB absorption is found to be strongly polarization dependent due to the large size of the QDs.
Ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) is believed to be the most promising candidate for the next generation non-volatile memory due to its fast access time and low power consumption. Fabrication technologies of FeRAM can be divided into two parts: CMOS technologies for circuits which are standard and can be shared with traditional IC process line, and process relating to ferroelectric which is separated with CMOS process and defined as backend module. This paper described technologies for integrating ferroelectric capacitors into standard CMOS, mainly about modeling of ferroelectric capacitors and backend fabrication technologies. Hysteresis loop of the ferroelectric capacitor is the basis for FeRAM to store data. Models to describe this characteristic are the key for the design of FeRAM. A transient behavioral ferroelectric capacitor model based on C-V relation for circuit simulation is developed. The arc tangent function is used to describe the hysteresis loop. “Negative capacitance” phenomenon at reversing points of applied voltage is analyzed and introduced to the model to describe transient behaviors of the capacitor. Compact equivalent circuits are introduced to integrate this model into HSPICE for circuit simulation. Ferroelectric materials fabrication, electrodes integration and etching are the main technologies of FeRAM fabrication process. An metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process is developed to fabricate high quality Pb(Zr1-xTix)O3 (PZT) films. Pt is known to cause the fatigue problems when used as electrodes with PZT. Ir is used as electrodes to improve the fatigue property of PZT based capacitors, and mechanism of the fatigue is analyzed. Hard mask is used to reduce the size of the capacitors and damage caused in etching process. In our process, Al2O3 is developed as hard mask, which simplifies the FeRAM backend integration process.
Praziquantel is widely used for the treatment of human schistosomiasis. However, in recent years, there has been increasing concern about the resistance of Schistosoma species to praziquantel. The study described here was designed to evaluate the current susceptibility to praziquantel in S. japonicum in China. During the non-transmission period of schistosomiasis, a random sample of 4760 subjects from the main endemic foci of China were examined using parasitological stool examination. In total, 584 subjects were identified as being infected with S. japonicum, with a prevalence rate of 12 27%. Among them, 565 stool-egg-positive subjects were treated with praziquantel in a single oral dose of 40 mg/kg. Six weeks post-treatment, among the 505 villagers re-examined, 480 (95 05%) had no detectable S. japonicum eggs. Twenty-one subjects still excreting eggs after the first treatment were treated with praziquantel for the second time. All stool samples, including those from those participants with second treatment were re-examined 6 weeks after the second treatment, and no stool-egg-positives were found. The results indicate that the current efficacy of praziquantel against S. japonicum is still high and has not changed after more than 2 decades of repeated, expanded chemotherapy in the main endemic areas of China. It is suggested that no evidence of tolerance or resistance to praziquantel in S. japonicum was detected in China.
5-AZA-2′-deoxycytidine (5-AZA-CdR) is a demethylating, teratogenic agent and a mutagen, which causes defects in the developing mouse and rat after implantation. Our previous data indicated that 5-AZA-CdR (0.2 and 1.0 μM) inhibited the development of mouse preimplantation embryos. Pronuclear embryos exposed to 5-AZA-CdR at the pronuclear stage were unable to form 8-cell embryos, while 2-cell-stage embryos exposed to 5-AZA-CdR only developed into uncompacted 8-cell-stage embryos. And there was no formation of blastocysts when 4-cell embryos cultured in 5-AZA-CdR. In our present study, we detected Dnmt1o protein and some developmental gene expression in order to find the reasons for the developmental arrest. Dnmt1o could not traffic to 8-cell nuclei as control when embryos were exposed to 5-AZA-CdR. Dnmt1o was in cytoplasm at 2-cell and 4-cell stages before and after treated with 5-AZA-CdR. Gene expression changes were also detected in this research. Our data indicated that connexin 31 (Cx31), connexin 43 (Cx43), connexin 45 (Cx45), E-cadherin (Cdh1) and β-catenin (Ctnnb1) were all downregulated by 5-AZA-CdR. Cx31, Cx43 and Cx45 are members of connexins family, which have a central role in gap junctions. Cdh1 and Ctnnb1 are necessary for the foundation of tight junctions. Therefore, developmental arrest induced by 5-AZA-CdR may be caused by the failure of Dnmt1o cytoplasmic–nuclear traffic and the down-regulation of developmental gene expression. Normal compaction and blastocoel cavitation need Dnmt1o traffic to 8-cell nuclei and the right gene expression, especially the correlative genes in gap junctions and tight junctions.
The clay mineralogy and chemical composition of the white veins, red matrix and both Fe- and Mn-bearing nodules occurring in a laterite profile in Hubei, south China were investigated using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the mineral components of the red matrix are mainly quartz, kaolinite, halloysite, goethite and minor illite, whereas the white net-like veins contain mostly quartz, kaolinite, halloysite, and illite. In the net-like horizon, the chemical index of alteration (CIA, the ratio of Al2O3/(Al2O3+CaO+K2O+Na2O)) and the TiO2/Al2O3 ratio are 89.8% and 0.021 for the white vein and 90.7% and 0.025 for the red matrix, respectively. Both white-vein and red-matrix components have similar TiO2/Al2O3 ratios, and are similar to the ratio 0.027 of the unaltered bedrock. The similarity in TiO2/Al2O3 values indicates that all three portions of the laterite soil share the same origin. Also, although the white-vein and red-matrix components differ in Fe2O3 abundance, the similar CIA values do imply similar degrees of alteration. The Fe-bearing and Mn-bearing nodules were produced by the local accumulation of Fe2O3 and MnO, respectively. Halloysite in the weathering profile occurs in two different morphologies, tubular and platy crystals. Tubular halloysite occurs both in the red matrix and the Fe-bearing nodule whereas platy halloysite occurs only in the white vein and Mn-bearing nodule assemblages. Crystallization of small tubular halloysite from Si and Al concretions in the red matrix is observed, indicating that the morphology of these crystals in the weathering environment is mainly controlled by Fe3+ cations, whereas platy halloysite may be derived from the hydration of kaolinite.