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This chapter does two things. First, it shows how social identity principles can explain the basic psychological and behavioural effects of crowd membership. Second, it describes some recent research and applied work that shows how these basic effects operate to contribute to harmonious outcomes in potentially dangerous crowd events.
We begin by explaining some of the fundamental psychology of crowd membership in the next section.
Identifying characteristics of individuals at greatest risk for prolonged grief disorder (PGD) can improve its detection and elucidate the etiology of the disorder. The Safe Passage Study, a study of women at high risk for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), prospectively examined the psychosocial functioning of women while monitoring their healthy pregnancies. Mothers whose infants died of SIDS were followed in bereavement.
Pre-loss data were collected from 12 000 pregnant mothers and analyzed for their associations with grief symptoms and PGD in 50 mothers whose infants died from SIDS, from 2 to 48 months after their infant's death, focusing on pre-loss risk factors of anxiety, depression, alcohol use, maternal age, the presence of other living children in the home, and previous child loss.
The presence of any four risk factors significantly predicted PGD for 24 months post-loss (p < 0.003); 2–3 risk factors predicted PGD for 12 months (p = 0.02). PGD rates increased in the second post-loss year, converging in all groups to approximately 40% by 3 years. Pre-loss depressive symptoms were significantly associated with PGD. Higher alcohol intake and older maternal age were consistently positively associated with PGD. Predicted risk scores showed good discrimination between PGD and no PGD 6–24 months after loss (C-statistic = 0.83).
A combination of personal risk factors predicted PGD in 2 years of bereavement. There is a convergence of risk groups to high rates at 2–3 years, marked by increased PGD rates in mothers at low risk. The risk factors showed different effects on PGD.
We previously documented that cigarette smoking is a risk factor for
subsequent alcohol and drug misuse and dependence in adolescent girls
with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
To revisit this hypothesis with a large longitudinal sample of both
genders followed up for 10 years into young adulthood.
We used data from two identically designed, longitudinal, case–control
family studies of boys and girls with and without ADHD ascertained from
psychiatric and paediatric sources. We studied 165 individuals with ADHD
and 374 controls followed up longitudinally and masked for 10 years. We
assessed ADHD, smoking and substance use status using structured
diagnostic interviews. We tested the association between cigarette
smoking and subsequent substance use outcomes using Cox proportional
hazard regression models.
Youth with ADHD who smoked cigarettes (n = 27) were
significantly more likely to subsequently develop drug misuse and
dependence compared with youth with ADHD who did not smoke
(n = 138, P<0.05).
These results confirm that cigarette smoking increases the risk for
subsequent drug and alcohol use disorders among individuals with ADHD.
These findings have important public health implications, and underscore
the already pressing need to prevent smoking in children with ADHD.
The effect of strain on the surface magnetism of the manganite La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 has been studied as a function of temperature, using magnetic force microscopy. The non- uniform strain distribution in the film leads to a two-phase coexistence between ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic phases. This leads to a reduction of the surface curie temperature and the formation of ferromagnetic islands. Methods of controlling this behavior in order to fabricate arrays of magnetic nanodots are discussed.
A well-established provision for mass-casualty decontamination that incorporates the use of mobile showering units has been developed in the UK. The effectiveness of such decontamination procedures will be critical in minimizing or preventing the contamination of emergency responders and hospital infrastructure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three empirical strategies designed to optimize existing decontamination procedures: (1) instructions in the form of a pictorial aid prior to decontamination; (2) provision of a washcloth within the showering facility; and (3) an extended showering period. The study was a three-factor, between-participants (or “independent”) design with 90 volunteers. The three factors each had two levels: use of washcloths (washcloth/no washcloth), washing instructions (instructions/no instructions), and shower cycle duration (three minutes/six minutes). The effectiveness of these strategies was quantified by whole-body fluorescence imaging following application of a red fluorophore to multiple, discrete areas of the skin. All five showering procedures were relatively effective in removing the fluorophore “contaminant”, but the use of a cloth (in the absence of instructions) led to a significant (∼20%) improvement in the effectiveness of decontamination over the standard protocol (p <0.05). Current mass-casualty decontamination effectiveness, especially in children, can be optimized by the provision of a washcloth. This simple but effective approach indicates the value of performing controlled volunteer trials for optimizing existing decontamination procedures.
To report an outbreak of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in our burn unit and the steps we used to eradicate the organism.
Design And Setting:
Outbreak investigation in the burn unit of a 900-bed tertiary-care medical center.
Between March and June 1993, MRSA was isolated from 10 patients in our burn unit. All isolates had identical antibiograms and chromosomal DNA patterns.
Infection control personnel encouraged healthcare workers to wash their hands after each patient contact. The unit cohorted all infected or colonized patients, placed each affected patient in isolation, and, if possible, transferred the patient to another unit. Despite these measures, new cases occurred. Infection control personnel obtained nares cultures from 56 healthcare workers, 3 of whom carried the epidemic MRSA strain. One healthcare worker cared for six affected patients, and one cared for five patients. We treated the three healthcare workers with mupirocin. Subsequently, no additional patients became colonized or infected with the epidemic MRSA strain.
The outbreak ended after we treated healthcare workers who carried the epidemic strain with mupirocin. This approach is not appropriate in all settings. However, we felt it was justified in this case because of a persistent problem after less intrusive measures.