Functional carbonaceous materials, organic electronic materials, and polymer materials which "speak the language" of biomaterials in their propensity for hierarchical structure formation play a central role in current materials science research. In this context, we prepared hierarchically structured conjugated polymers from diacetylene macromonomers based on β-sheet-forming oligopeptide-polymer conjugates as supramolecular building blocks. The monomers gave rise to supramolecular polymers with a finite number of strands, a uniform diameter of a few nanometers, and defined superstructures. These were then converted into conjugated polymers under retention of their hierarchical structures, leading to poly(diacetylene)s with multiple-helical quaternary structures and a rich folding behavior. The diacetylene macromonomers served as a model system to improve our understanding of how to use hydrogen-bonding sites in order to control the placement of reactive molecular precursors for hierarchically structured organic materials.