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Individuals with bipolar disorder respond to affective symptoms with a range of coping behaviours, which may further maintain the symptoms.
To examine moment-to-moment dynamics between affective states and coping behaviours, and to evaluate the role of cognitive appraisals of internal states as moderators.
Forty-six individuals with bipolar disorder completed a clinical interview and an experience sampling assessment over 6 days. Time-lagged analyses were conducted by multilevel regression modelling.
A total of 1807 momentary entries were analysed. Negative affect predicted an increase in rumination at the subsequent time point (β = 0.21, s.e. = 0.08, P = 0.009, 95% CI 0.05–0.36), and vice versa (β = 0.03, s.e. = 0.01, P = 0.009, 95% CI 0.01–0.05). Positive affect predicted an increase in adaptive coping (β = 0.26, s.e. = 0.11, P = 0.018, 95% CI 0.04–0.47), and vice versa (β = 0.02, s.e. = 0.01, P = 0.019, 95% CI 0.00–0.03). Positive affect also predicted a decrease in rumination (β = −0.15, s.e. = 0.06, P = 0.014, 95% CI −0.26 to −0.03), and vice versa (β = −0.03, s.e. = 0.01, P = 0.016, 95% CI −0.06 to −0.01). Extreme cognitive appraisals predicted stronger associations between affective states and coping behaviours.
Feedback loops between affective states and coping behaviours were revealed in the daily life of individuals with bipolar disorder, which were moderated by extreme cognitive appraisals.
The roles of hydrogen plasma radicals on passivation of several kinds of crystallized poly-Si thin films were investigated using optical emission spectroscopy (OES) combined with Hall mobility, Raman spectra, and absorption coefficient spectra. It was found that different kinds of hydrogen plasma radicals are responsible for passivation of dissimilar poly-Si crystallized by different method. Radicals Hα with lower energy are mainly responsible for passivating the poly-Si crystallized by solid phase crystallization (SPC) whose crystallization precursor was made by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Higher energy radicals H* are more effective in passivating defects left over by Ni in poly-Si crystallized by Metal Induced Crystallization (MIC). The highest energy radicals Hβ and Hγ are needed to passivate the defects in poly-Si crystallized by SPC but whose precursor was made by low pressure CVD (LPCVD).
A technique to improve and accelerate aluminum induced crystallization (AIC) by hydrogen plasma is proposed in this paper. Raman spectroscopy and Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry of crystallized poly-Si thin films show that hydrogen plasma radicals reduce the crystallization time of AIC. This technique shortens the annealing time from 10 hours to 4 hours and increases the Hall mobility from 22.1 cm2/V·s to 42.5 cm2/V·s. The possible mechanism of AIC assisted by hydrogen radicals will also be discussed.
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