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In recent years cosmologists have advanced from largely qualitative models of the Universe to precision modelling using Bayesian methods, in order to determine the properties of the Universe to high accuracy. This timely book is the only comprehensive introduction to the use of Bayesian methods in cosmological studies, and is an essential reference for graduate students and researchers in cosmology, astrophysics and applied statistics. The first part of the book focuses on methodology, setting the basic foundations and giving a detailed description of techniques. It covers topics including the estimation of parameters, Bayesian model comparison, and separation of signals. The second part explores a diverse range of applications, from the detection of astronomical sources (including through gravitational waves), to cosmic microwave background analysis and the quantification and classification of galaxy properties. Contributions from 24 highly regarded cosmologists and statisticians make this an authoritative guide to the subject.
A revolution is underway in cosmology, with largely qualitative models of the Universe being replaced with precision modelling and the determination of Universe's properties to high accuracy. The revolution is driven by three distinct elements – the development of sophisticated cosmological models and the ability to extract accurate predictions from them, the acquisition of large and precise observational datasets constraining those models, and the deployment of advanced statistical techniques to extract the best possible constraints from those data.
This book focuses on the last of these. In their approach to analyzing datasets, cosmologists for the most part lie resolutely within the Bayesian methodology for scientific inference. This approach is characterized by the assignment of probabilities to all quantities of interest, which are then manipulated by a set of rules, amongst which Bayes' theorem plays a central role. Those probabilities are constantly updated in response to new observational data, and at any given instant provide a snapshot of the best current understanding. Full deployment of Bayesian inference has only recently come within the abilities of high-performance computing.
Despite the prevalence of Bayesian methods in the cosmology literature, there is no single source which collects together both a description of the main Bayesian methods and a range of illustrative applications to cosmological problems. That, of course, is the aim of this volume. Its seeds grew from a small conference ‘Bayesian Methods in Cosmology’, held at the University of Sussex in June 2006 and attended by around 60 people, at which many cosmological applications of Bayesian methods were discussed.
Bone-anchored hearing aid implantations have been performed in Manchester for over 20 years. This study examined a range of variables that can occur during the implantation process, and the effect they may have on successful outcome.
Retrospective study and literature review.
Tertiary referral centre in central Manchester.
Details of 602 bone-anchored hearing aid implantation procedures were retrieved from the departmental database. The overall complication rate was 23.9 per cent. The rate of revision surgery was 12.1 per cent.
This study involved a significantly larger number of patients than any previously reported, similar study. Possible reasons for differences in outcomes, and recommendations for best practice, are discussed.
Women with borderline personality disorder have conflictual interpersonal relations that may extend to disrupted patterns of interaction with their infants.
To assess how women with borderline personality disorder engage with their 12 to 18-month-old infants in separation–reunion episodes.
We videotaped mother–infant interactions in separation–reunion episodes of the Strange Situation test. The mothers were women with borderline personality disorder, with depression, or without psychopathological disorder. Masked ratings of maternal behaviour were made with the Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification.
As predicted, a higher proportion (85%) of women with borderline personality disorder than women in the comparison groups showed disrupted affective communication with their infants. They were also distinguished by the prevalence of frightened/disoriented behaviour.
Maternal borderline personality disorder is associated with dysregulated mother–infant communication.
A PCR-based method of detecting Haemophilus influenzae in cultures inoculated from throat swabs was evaluated using samples from groups of laboratory staff and medical students and then applied to samples originating from the closed human community of an Antarctic research station. Suitable PCR primers to an H. influenzae gene (ompP2) were used to amplify the gene from DNA preparations made from mixed growth on chocolate agar with added vancomycin. PCR product was reamplified and subjected to restriction endonuclease digestion to allow temporal and spatial mapping of strains over an 8-month period. Eleven different strains of H. influenzae were detected. One particular strain was detected in a third of the base members.
The intranasal inoculation of volunteers with living partially attenuated strains of influenza A and B viruses offers a new opportunity to determine the protective effect of serum haemagglutin-inhibiting antibody against a strictly homologous virus, under conditions where the time and dosage of the infective challenge can be controlled, the scoring of proven infections can be more precise and higher rates of infection can be achieved than in most natural epidemics.
In 1032 adult volunteers, whose serum HI antibody titre was determined immediately before virus challenge, there was a consistent inverse quantitative relationship between the HI titre and the likelihood of infection. The PD50 (50 % protective dose) of HI antibody was 1/18–1/36, but an unusual finding was that volunteers with no detectable pre-challenge antibody often seem to be less susceptible to infection than those with pre-challenge antibody in low titre.
In one group of volunteers challenged with an influenza B strain there was no evidence that pre-challenge antibody titres against viral neuraminidase had any significant protective effect against challenge infection.
Intranasal vaccines of inactivated or living attentuated A2/Hong Kong influenza viruses were compared for clinical acceptability, serological effects and protective efficiency against natural epidemic influenza in a large industrial and clerical population.
Neuraminidase (N) can be extracted from virus particles of influenza B strains by treatment with trypsin, in a form which is free from the viral HA and has specific immunological activity. The N antigen of B/LEE/40 behaves differently from that of 1965–6 strains in gel diffusion and enzyme inhibition tests with animal antisera raised by infection or by artificial immunization with the homologous or heterologous strains. The frequency and titres of NI antibody detected in human sera by B/LEE antigen are different from those found with antigen from B/Eng/ 13/65. The latter antibody appears to contribute to the effect of serum HI antibody in protecting volunteers exposed to a deliberate intranasal challenge infection of the B/Eng/13/65 strain.
In this paper we outline our hypothesis that human intersubjective
engagement entails identifying with other people. We tested a prediction
derived from this hypothesis that concerned the relation between a
component of joint attention and a specific form of imitation. The
empirical investigation involved “blind” ratings of videotapes
from a recent study in which we tested matched children with and without
autism for their propensity to imitate the self-/other-orientated
aspects of another person's actions. The results were in keeping with
three a priori predictions, as follows: (a) children with autism
contrasted with control participants in spending more time looking at the
objects acted upon and less time looking at the tester; (b) participants
with autism showed fewer “sharing” looks toward the tester,
and although they also showed fewer “checking” and
“orientating” looks, they were specifically less likely to
show any sharing looks; and, critically, (c) within each group,
individual differences in sharing looks (only) were associated with
imitation of self–other orientation. We suggest that the propensity
to adopt the bodily anchored psychological stance of another person is
essential to certain forms of joint attention and imitation, and that a
weak tendency to identify with others is pivotal for the developmental
psychopathology of autism.This research was
supported by the Economic and Social Research Council (award reference
R000239355), the Baily Thomas Charitable Foundation, and the Tavistock
Clinic, London (with NHS R&D funding). The manuscript was completed
while the authors were at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral
Sciences, Stanford. We are grateful to the staff, students, and parents at
Edith Borthwick School, Helen Allison School, Springhallow School, and
Swiss Cottage School for their generous involvement in this project; Dave
Williams, Valentina Levi, and Susana Caló for their assistance with
ratings of joint attention; and Tony Lee and Rosa García
Pérez for their many contributions to the research.
Extreme silver enrichment at the surface of the complex sulphide, tennantite (ideal formula: Cu12As4S13), occurs following exposure to alkaline solutions, and involves the development of an Ag-rich sulphide surface species. The tennantite has a low bulk Ag content of 0.3 at.%, and a percentage surface enrichment of Ag is thirty-six times that of the bulk. The techniques of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and reflection extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy show the new phase to be a Ag sulphide species compositionally similar to cupriferous proustite ((Cu,Ag)3AsS3). Solution experiments and XPS depth profiling show that the surface is most depleted in Cu and Zn, and enriched in Ag compared to the bulk tennantite. Selective dissolution and reprecipitation at the tennantite surface cannot explain the enrichment of Ag relative to the bulk. Migration must have occurred and could have been driven by the leaching out of Cu which produces a metal-depleted surface, coupled to the relative incompatibility of Ag in the tennantite lattice. To account for the extreme enrichment at the surface, Ag must have diffused from depths of up to 9 nm, probably via structural weaknesses and vacancies in the tennantite lattice.